Medical Laboratory Sciences

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    Assessment of Hepatitis B Sero Prevalence , and Associated Factors Among Adult Outpatients Visiting Selected Health Facilities in Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-12) Abdurrahman Shewmolo; Kassu Desta
    Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus and is the most serious type of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a widespread infectious disease throughout the world. Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus that causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. HBsAg is the main clinical marker indicating acute or chronic infection. Objective: To assess the sero prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, and associated factors among adult outpatients visiting selected Health facilities in Ethiopia. Methods: Health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2021 to October 2021 among Anitinatal care, Anti retrovirus therapy and adult outpatients visiting health facilities in selected towns of Ethiopia. A total of 3398 participants were selected for the prevalence study, and 1400 participants were selected for the risk factors assessment study from Addis Ababa, Ambo, Asela, and Batu towns. Blood samples were collected as part of routine medical services, and Leftover serum was tested for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All positive results within 10 % gray zone margins of OD were repeated for the same ELISA test and immunoassay. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 statistical package software. Results: Of 3398 study participants 2406 (70.9%) were females. The mean and median age was 34.10 and 30 years respectively. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 7.42% (95% CI = 6.6 -8.3) (252/3398), without showing any significant difference in sex and age category. Of 1400 sub population which we assessed the risk factors for acquisition of HBV, 72.4 % (1013) were female and 80 .1 % (1121) live in urban area. Rural population were 2.25 times more likely to be infected by HBV than people from urban (OR = 2.248; 95% CI 1.37 -3.69, P = .001). More over family history of viral hepatitis were found to be the strongest predictors of HBV infection (OR = 3.84 (95% CI: 1.73-8.52), P =.001). Conclusion: The sero prevalence of HBSAg in this study was moderately high. The prevalence was higher among rural residence and family history of HBV. Therefore, there should be organized health education emphasizing on rural population and screening of family member infected with HBV.
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    Bacterial profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern among cancer patients who are takingChemotherapy at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Yimam, Seid; Hailu Melese; Yohannes Meron
    Background:Bacterial infection is one of the most common complications among cancerpatients. Bacterial infection and antimicrobial resistance remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy.This study wasused toassess the epidemiology of bacteria in cancer patients who are taking chemotherapy inTikurAnbessa Specializedhospital, emphasizing antibiotic resistanceof theisolated organism. Objective: To assess bacterial profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern among cancer patientsactive on chemotherapy at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 197 cancer patients active on chemotherapy participatedfrom February toMay,2021 at Tikur Anbessa specializedHospital in Addis Ababa.Bloodandurine from each participantwas taken. Using a convenient sampling technique, a total of 197blood cultures and 197 urine cultures were performed. Early morning midstream urine (MSU)specimens were collected using lick-proof re-usable sterile plastic containers. All blood andurine samples were cultured and bacterial isolates were identified by their colony morphology,gram staining reaction, and biochemical tests. Drug susceptibility testing was done using theKirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Data analyses were performed using SPSS version 24.0 Result:Out of 197 blood cultures, 30/197(15.23%) were positive, and from the total 197 urinecultures, 29/197(14.72%) isolates were positive. Gram-negative bacteria 42/59(71.19%) were thepredominant pathogens.CoNS7(23.33%) andS. aureus6(20%) were the most dominantbloodstream bacteria.E.coli9(31.03%) was the predominantly isolated bacteriuria. Resistancefor three classes of antibiotics was detected, 4/8(50%) ofmultidrug resistanceCoNS, 5/8(62.5%)of Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus, 3/14(21.43%) of MDREscherichia coli,2/11(18.18%) MDRKlebsiella pneumoniae, 1/3(33.33%) MDRK.oxytocaand 1/1(100%)MDREnterobacter aerogenesisolated. Conclusion:Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed an increasing level ofresistance for most of the antibiotics usedempirical therapy is alarming.Routine determinationof the microbial and drug resistance spectrum of pathogens should be an essential componentespecially cancer patients active on chemotherapy infection control and care in our setting.
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    Magnitude of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections and Risk Factor among Police Personnel in Addis Ababa Police Commission Residence Camp, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-07) Mesfin, Solomon; Mulu, Andargachew(PhD); Diriba, Regassa (MSc)
    Background: Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV & HCV) are viruses causing viral hepatitis. Its infections are still major public health problems around the globe. Police personnel are high-risk people for parenteral and sexually transmitted diseases such as hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Therefore a dual infection of these viruses can occur and even persists in the same patient. Data regarding magnitude of HBV and HCV among police officers in Ethiopia is limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine magnitude and risk factor of HBV and HCV among Police personnel at Addis Ababa Police Commission residence camp. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March - July 2021 on Addis Ababa Police commission camp personnel’s. By using simple random sampling method ten police camps selected and then calculated sample size was distribute to each camp by population proportion to size applying proportional allocation formula and collect basic demographic and other data for risk factor analysis. Serum samples from each volunteering personnel’s was screened for the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCVAb by using qualitative rapid and ELISA test kits. Data were entered into EPI-INFO version 7, then cleaned and verified. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 25. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Result: A total of 422 study participants were involved. The majorities (75 %) of them were males and the remaining quarters were females. The age distribution range form 18-57 years. The majority 58.8% were occupational activity in the organization as criminal defense. The overall prevalence of HBsAg and HCV were 4.3% and 0.7%, respectively. High prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab was observed in age 28-37 years. History of contact with jaundiced patient (AOR (95%CI) 21.025(4.30; 104.71), p = 0.000), shaving (AOR (95%CI) 29.21.74(1.45; 587 .61), p = 0.028), alcohol consumption (AOR (95%CI) 5.36(1.10, 26.09), p = 0.038) and occupation of crime defense (AOR (95%CI) 0.027(.002, 0.403), p = 0.009) were significantly associated with hepatitis B virus. Conclusion: Intermediate prevalence of HBV and low prevalence of HCV were observed among police officers.
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    Assessment of the Impact of Training and Development programs among Public Hospital Medical Laboratory Professionals Performance in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-09) Basaznew, Temesgen; Hassen, Hassen
    Background: The core of every service providing firms function relies on an organization’s greatest asset; its human resources. Training strategies ensure; staffs are competent and retained since they are satisfied, and that motivation and commitment are enhanced through promotion opportunities for all employees over the longer term through educational opportunities. But in developing countries public service organization, there are still challenging gaps especially in sub Saharan countries like Ethiopia due to various factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the role of training and development programs on Medical Laboratory professionals (MLTs) working in public hospitals in Addis Ababa city. Methods: Was used a descriptive cross-sectional study design conducted from March 02, 2021 to April 28, 2021. Purposive sampling technique for the selection of the sample respondents was employed (sample size=104). Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire from 14 public hospital laboratories at Addis Ababa city. The research also followed a descriptive exploratory evaluation approach. Statistical analysis for the data set follow correlation analysis to understand the relationship between variables and statistical tools like SPSS version 20 was employed. Results: Findings of the study showed that more than half of medical laboratory professionals (56.7%, n = 59) believe training and development programs enhances their job satisfaction, motivation, engagement and job performance. In contrast, considerable numbers of respondents (= 40%) either disagrees or remain neutral in compliance with lack of training and development programs available to respondents. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that except in the case of job satisfaction, training and development through mediation of job satisfaction and engagement of employees have significant predicting power of medical laboratory professional’s performance. Conclusion: The outcomes of the current research are generalizable only to medical laboratory professionals in public hospitals in Addis Ababa (From March 02, 2021 to April 28, 2021) due to lack of formal documentation and uniform patterns of training and development programs. Recommendation: policy makers and HRM personnel need to make their training and development procedures available to their line supervisors and researchers in order to enhance transparency and accountability of their human resource development function. Finally, the study has discussed the limitations, implications and future research area.
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    Magnitude of Sharp, Biological Splash Exposure and Factors Associated among Medical Laboratory Professionals in Public Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-11) Bekele, Demem; Hassen, Fatuma(MPH, PhD candidate,Assistant Professor); Sisay, Abay(MSc, PhD candidate,Assistant Professor)
    Background: Biological splash exposure and sharp injury are the common occupational health -related problems among healthcare workers. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the magnitude of sharp injury, biological splash exposure and associated factors among medical laboratory professionals at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted in 13 public hospitals found in Addis Ababa, from April 2020 to July 2020. Simple random sampling was used to select participants to respond for the developed structured questionnaire, related with magnitude of biological splash exposure and sharp injury, and associated risk factors. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 20. The strength of association between dependent and independent variables were computed using an odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and p value less than or equal to 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study was conducted on 294 medical laboratory professionals. The magnitude of sharp injury was 191(65%) and biological splash exposure was 212(72.1%). Sharp injury was 2.97 times more likely to happen among Medical laboratory professionals who had service 5 years and less as compared to those who had 6 years and above(AOR:2.97, 95% CI: 1.18-7.49); Working 40hour/week and below (AOR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.28-0.92) 0.51 times less likely to be vulnerable to sharp injury as compared to those who were working 40 hours and above 6 ; marital status where being single were 0.48 times less likely to have sharp injury(AOR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.26-0.90); absence of availability of adequate safety box were 1.95 times more likely to have sharp injury(AOR: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.03-3.69);moreover, attendance seminar or workshop training decrease the risk of sharp injury significantly (AOR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.88). On the other hand, biological splash had significant association with: service year of 1-5years (AOR: 3.76, 95%CI: 1.3910.17); working in comfortable work environment (AOR: 0.41, 95%CI: 0.20-0.85); and attending seminar or workshop training (AOR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.18-0.75); 0.51 times less likely to biological splash. Conclusion: The magnitude of sharp injury was 191(65%) and biological splash exposure was 212(72. 1%).To decrease occurrence of these incidences, it is recommended to strengthened training, discipline in following safety guideline, supplying an adequate safety box and replacing before it is full, proper supervision, avoiding workload are highly recommended.
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    Evaluation of Laboratory Design and Ergonomics Workstation in ClinicalLaboratory inAddisAbaba, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2011-07) Lemma, Eshetu; Taye, Beniyam(BSc,MLT,MPH); Hassen, Fatuma(BSc, MLT, MPH)
    Background: Since advancement of science and technology in the area of laboratorymedicine in 21st century thedesign of laboratory should be organized into high flexibilityzones and need an open plan to support the dynamic nature lab testing by manual or semi-automated or fully automated. The most difficult issue in design of laboratory is allocationand organization of space. Although well design laboratory is in place, it will becompromised if the ergonomics workstation and workflow of laboratoryarenot designedwell. In Ethiopia there is no baseline information on laboratory design, ergonomicsworkstation, and workflow sited on literature.Objective: To evaluate the ergonomic workstation, workflow and laboratory design inclinical laboratory inAddis Ababa,Ethiopia.Method: A cross-sectional study design was used. Quantitative method and directobservationwere conducted.Result:Ergonomics: Work-related musculoskeletal complaint was strongly associated withpoor ergonomic workstation. A one year increased in work experience and age of employee,the odds in favor of compliant were estimated to be increasedby a multiplicative factor of1.374 and 0.921 respectively.A total of 117 ergonomics workstation was evaluated. Theoverall workstations mean score was 1.95 and66.6% of workstation found a mean score oftwoand belowwhich indicate poor ergonomic conditions.Workflow:A total of 28 specimen collectionworkflowand 26 chemistry laboratory workflowwere identified. A total of 8 non-valued added steps were recognized from the existedchemistry laboratory workflow.The average timeofsampleswaitingat reception prior todelivery to respective laboratorieswere decreased as moresamplescollectedwithinshorttime interval.The average cycle times of 489 blood sample drawing process were 3.58minutes and 76.5% (374) ofblood samplesweredrawnwith an average cycle time of 1.0 to5.0 minutes.Atotal of 1231.31 minutes were identified as non-value added (waste) time fromexistedworkflow of chemistry blood samples testing process and seven non-valued addedprocess stepswere recognized. Clinical chemistry laboratoryprocess cycle efficiency was56.6%. Laboratory design: The adjoining and adjacent matrix principles were notdocumented in assessed laboratories.The laboratory design didn`t show the direction ofevacuation plan during emergency situationand fire extinguisher were not strategically placed and free of obstruction. Black lion hospital laboratoriesdidnothave anymechanicalventilation system.Laboratory andnon-laboratoryactivities were not separated.Conclusion and recommendation:Hospital laboratories should aware of ergonomicsprincipleand applicationand whenevernew laboratory equipmentpurchaseorder in place itwould have beenmuch better to consider the three factors:quality, cost and ergonomicspecificationof product. Laboratory employees shall modifyorreconfigureor reposition theworkstationor equipment to fit the work to yourself not you to fit towork and by doing thispossible to prevent associated musculoskeletal disorders. Concerning the workflow,laboratories should identified non-value added process or steps or activities and byeliminating those wastes and implementinga powerfulbusiness improvement tools like leanmethod possible tomaximized customer needs.Laboratories must assess their workflowperiodically to identify wasteful practicesand focused only value-added activity to increasetheprocess cycle efficiency and productivity. Whenever laboratoryconstruction orrenovationat the stageandprior to design, identifyingthesize and nature of laboratory test being performed,laboratory workflow,number and sizeof laboratory equipments needed, type and numberof ergonomicscasework and countertops,number of sinks available, aisles betweenworkstation andequipments, position of utilitycords,plumbing fixtures, location of safety station, emergency evacuation plan, number andsize of doors and windows, access control areas, and the like should be identified andcalculatedin detailearly in planning and programming phases of laboratory design. Furthermore, Laboratory proximity programming and functional relationship betweenlaboratories and reception should be determined early in design process and laboratorymoduleunit space size determinationand open plan laboratorytogether with lean laboratorydesign should be consider in design process. Finally, laboratory manager, engineer,architecture, hospital administrator, other relevant individual must be part of laboratorydesign construction and renovation team.
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    The magnitude of PulmonaryTuberculosis and Comparison of Lipoarabinomanan RapidTest Assayswith Conventional Tuberculosis Diagnosis atSaint Peter SpecializedHospitalAddis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-08) Bekele, Mekdes; Desta, Kassu(MSc, PhD fellow, Associate Professor); Asmamaw, Asegedech(MSc, Lecturer)
    Background:-Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that is caused byMycobacteriumtuberculosis.It is widely distributed globally with high mortalityand morbidity. Africa isone ofthe continents which ismostly affected. Poor and shortage of diagnostic facilities were proven tobe the major limitations in preventing the disease.Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) cultureandAFBsmear microscopyare the gold standard diagnostic testing strategies for TB even though theyboth have a variety of limitations, especially in resource-limited countries. Additional rapid testthat can help the diagnosisof TB in antigen and the antibody-based assay is Lipoarabinomanan(LAM) which candetect the antigen from urine and its antibody from serum in patients withactive TB. Objective: To assess the magnitude of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Comparison ofLipoarabinomanan Rapid Test Assays with culture-based tests at Saint Peter SpecializedHospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted on 314 study participants from March 2021 toJune 2021. After obtaining informed consent, data were collected using a standardizedquestionnaire. Urine, sputum, and serum samples were collected from pulmonary tuberculosissuspected patients that showed signand symptoms of TB. Then Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) culture,gene expert, and LAM rapid kit testing were done following standard procedures. Thedata wereentered and analyzed using Epi Data version 3.1 and SPSS version 23. We used descriptivestatics including, KAPPA analysis. Results:a total of 314 participants wereenrolled in this study and 176 (56.1%) were male.Themagnitude of PulmonaryTuberculosisbased on Lowenstein–Jensen culture methods was 20.7%, amongculture pulmonary positive cases blood Lipoarabinomanan, urine Lipoarabinomanan,GeneXpert detected 50, 42, 45 cases respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of bloodLipoarabinomanan was 76.9 and 94%; urine Lipoarabinomanan was 64.6 and 91.5%; andGeneXpertwas69.2 and 92.3% respectively. Conclusion:Accordingly to the present finding, theLipoarabinomanan test hasgood sensitivityand specificity for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis versus GeneXpert methods.Further largescale study is required to understand the use of LAM based assay for the diagnosis ofPTB.
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    Prevalence of Intestinal parasites, Salmonella and Shigella, Associated Risk Factors and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of isolates amongfood handlers in Addis Ababa police commission camps, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-10) Talegeta, Feleke; Dr.Wolde, Mistire(MSc, PhD); Zerfu, Biruk (MSc, PhD Follower)
    Background:Diseases such as Salmonellosis,Shigella, and intestinal parasites remain a major public health problem worldwide. The problem is especially acute in developing countries due to the personal hygiene and handling practices of food processors. Food handlers have been caught by various pathogens and are being transmitted to the police. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of intestinal parasites, Salmonella and Shigella, associated risk factors and ant ibio t ics susceptibility pattern of iso lates among food handlers in Addis Ababa police commission camps, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods:From February to May 2021, cross-section study were conducted in ten sub-cit ies selected by Addis Ababa Police Commission Camps. Social demographic data and fecal samples were collected from 247 study participants. Stool specimens were tested by wet mount and float at ion, and sedimentat ion with microscopic.The stoolculturewasdone onXylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar (XLD) and Deoxycholate citrate agar for(DCA) SalmonellaandShigella ident ified on the biochemical tests(nutrient broth,KIA, Citrate, LIA, Urea, and Mot ilit y) and also Salmonella agglutinating test performed.Ant imicrobial suscept ibilit y test was doneon Muller Hinton agar plates against ampicillin (10 μg), ceftriaxone (30 μg), chloramphenicol (30 μg), and ciprofloxacin (5 μg). The Data were entered, coded and analyzedwith SPSS version 25. The associations between risk factor and intestinal parasite were tested using the Chi-square test. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical Significance. Results:The majority of food handlers (83%) were young people aged less than 26,the mean age of the respondents 22.7, standard division 5, and range 38. All the food handlers were women. One hundred and forty-three (57.9%) food handlers were educated beyond pr imary school. Most (54.3%) of food handlers were serve below one years. A 98.8% of the participants interviewed had a toilet in the workplaceand wash their hands before serving and serving any food. Similarly, most the respondents 179 (72.5%) said that when they suffer from diseases such as diarrhea, they do not prepare food.Twenty-nine (11.74%) of the participants had intestinal parasites. Entamoebahistolytica/dipar was the most widespread parasite (5.7%) of those who provided stool samples. In addition, 1.6% (4/247) of the samples was positive for Salmonella. All o f the Salmonella isolates were sensitive for gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, Nacidixcacid, cotrimoxazole, imipenem, and marocain and all isolates were resistant to antibiotics like Ampicillin, Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, and Cefuroxime. Conclusions: We conclude that the health problems in the study area areintest inal parasite and Salmonella. To address foodborne illness in Addis Ababa Police Commission Camps regular health education and training programs among food handlers had requested to address.
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    The Prevalence and Spectrum of Fungal Pathogens and among Confirmed Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Saint Peter’s Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-01) Abebe, Addis; Bitew, Adane(MSc, PhD)
    Background: Fungal infections were a major cause of morbidity and mortality in confirmed patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. These infections had clinical and radiological characteristics of similar to tuberculosis which may be easily misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Fungal pulmonary infection could be acquired in tuberculosis, immune deficiency patients, and other chronic diseases. Many physicians missed fungal pulmonary infection because it does not show specific clinical manifestations. The burden of sever fungal infections was not well addressed in Ethiopia. So, this study was undertaken to determine the profile of fungal pathogens and co-infections among pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed patients at Saint Peter’s Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2020 - June 2021. Five hundred sputum samples were collected from pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed patients who were screened by Xpert MTBRif/assay.All sputum samples were inoculated to Sabrouad dextrose agar, Brain Heart Infusion agar and Potato Dextrose agar. Fungi were identified following standard microbiological procedures. The inoculated Medias were incubated at 250C and 37 0C for 4 weeks respectively for each sputum samples. Mold identifications were performed by macroscopically; looking the growth form and rate of growth, surface and reversed coloration and by its microscopic appearance. Yeasts were identified by Chromo agar medium used for Candida species and urease used for Cryptococcus neoformans. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20 software. Result: In this study, out of 500 sputum samples taken from TB c o n f i r m e d patients, 3 2 2 ( 64.4%) o f t h e m w e r e i n f e c t e d b y pulmonary fungal isolates. Male patients accounted for2 2 0 ( 6 8 . 3 %)whereas female patients accounted for 102 (31.7%).Yeast isolates 89 (27.6%),mold isolates were 71(22%), and mixed infections showed in 162 (50.3%) patients. Conclusion: High distribution of fungal isolation (64.4%) was obtained in patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. We recommend for policymaker’s to conduct further studies and consider the need of fungal screening in these patients. Pulmonary mycoses can be misdiagnosed and mis- treated as pulmonary tuberculosis diseases. Our study indicates that fungal etiology mustberequiredin100%theclinicallyconfirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
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    Genetic Diversity of Merozoite Surface Protein-1 and 2 Genes in Plasmodiufalciparum Isolates among Asymptomatic Population in Boset and Badewachodistrict, Southern Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-10) Chekol, Tsegaye; Dr.Wolde, Mistire(MSc, PhD); Zerfu, Biruk (MSc, PhD Follower)
    Background:The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum plays an important role indetermining the intensity of malaria transmission.High polymorphism has been demonstrated inmerozoite surface proteins 1 and 2at differentgeographic locations in malaria endemic areas.This study aimto knowgenetic diversity of P. falciparumin the study area. Objective:This study aimed to evaluate theGenetic diversity ofP. falciparummerozoite surfaceprotein-1 and 2 and genes inBoset andBadewacho district, southern Ethiopia. Methods:A cross-sectional studywasconducted atNura Hera of upper awash agro-industrymigrant farmworkers, Bosetworeda, East Shewa, southeastern and East Badewacho District,Hadiya Zone SouthernEthiopiaduring peakmalaria transmissionfromMarch to June 2020.Afinger-prick bloodwascollected frommalariaasymptomatic individual asepticallyand screenedfor plasmodium species bypreparing thick and thin blood films, and200 μl of finger-prickeddried blood spot(DBS)were used for molecular test.Thenfor thoseP. falciparumpositivecases,genetic variationtestsfor merozoite surface proteins (msp-1) and (msp-2) producing wasdonebyusing Nested PCRmethods.Data were entered and analysed using SPSS version 25. Theproportion of msp1 and msp2 allelic was calculated to present the distribution of different allelicfamilies. The associations between proportions were tested using the Chi-square test. P values≤0.05 were considered to indicate statistical Significance. Results:Among738participants43 were hadmalaria,most of them werein the age group greaterthan 24 years;27 (62.8%), and the mean age of the participants was 26.88 (± 15.78 SD) years.The majority of participantsweremale 24 (55.8%) and most of the participants 26 (60.5%) weremarried.AmongP. falciparummsp-1 andmsp-2genes that were successfully amplified andanalyzed, 109 different fragments were detected. Within themsp-1gene, a total of 54 differentfragments with K1, MAD20, and RO33 had (16.3%), monoclonal infections seen. Thefrequencies of diclonal infections wereMAD20 + K1, MAD20 + RO33 and RO33 + K1withallelic families’of20.9%, 9.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The frequencies of triclonal infections,MAD20 +K1 + RO33, were 2.3%. The multiplicity of infections for themsp-1genotype was1.5. Likewise, within themsp-2gene, a total of 55 different fragments with monoclonal infectionwas identified of which four and fifteen belonged to FC27 (9.3%), and 3D7 (34.9%),respectively. Diclonal infections (FC27 + 3D7) accounted for 18 (41.9%). Conclusions:The higher the MOI in this study, the higher the prevalence of malaria in theseareas and the need to strengthen control interventions.
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    Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Enteropathogen among under-five Children with Diarrhea in Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-10) Bereka, Seada; Dr. Tesfaye, Abraham (PhD); Walelign, Sosina(Msc)
    Background: Globally, diarrheal disease is a common condition associated with high morbidity and mortality in under 5 children. Every day, it is estimated that more than 4000 children lose their lives due to diarrhea. Despite its significant public health concern, little is known about prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of enteropathogen in many countries, including Ethiopia. Objectives: To determine Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Enteropathogen among under-five children with diarrhea in Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed from October to march 2021 among 411 conveniently selected diarrheic patient in Yekatit 12 hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by using Structured questionary. Stool samples was examined for parasites and enteric bacteria. Each bacteria then identified using colony morphology and standard biochemical tests. Anti-microbial susceptibility testing was performed by using disc diffusion techniques on Muller Hinton Agar. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 software package. To identify factors associated with enteropathogen, Chi-square (χ2) test was applied statistical significance was considered at level of significance of 5%. Result: Among 411 examined stool samples, in more than a quarter (106(25.8%)) of the samples enteropathogen was detected. Of those majority (90(84.9%)) were intestinal parasites the rest (16(15.1%)) were positive for bacteria. Entamoeba histolytica and salmonella were the predominant enteropathogen which accounts for (51(12.4.7%)) and (10(2.4%)) respectively. unprotected drinking water source(P=0.002), poor hand washing practice of care giver (P=0.020) and poor Cleaning of utensil for child feeding(P=0.025) were statistically significant for the presence of enteropathogen in stool. Among patients who had Salmonella and shigella infections almost all were resistant for ampicillin and amoxicillin. But all the identified Salmonella and shigella isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. Conclusion and Recommendation: The finding of this study indicates that Entamoeba histolytica and salmonella species were the predominant etiologies and the presence of bacterial isolates resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs for treating diarrhea in children Therefore, carry on identified associated factors and regular drug susceptibility test is essential to reduce the problem.
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    Staphylococcus Aureus and MRSA Contamination Level of Working Clothe, Hand Carriage, and Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Healthcare Workers at Federal Police Hospital; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-11) Kaba, Zewditu; Desta, Kassu(MSc, Ph.D. fellow, Associate Professor of Medical Microbiology); Asmamaw, Asegedech (MSc Medical Microbiology)
    Background: Contaminated workings clothe and hand of health care workers can cause nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) is the main causative agent of nosocomial infection and it can be transmitted through working clothe of health care workers from patient to health care workers and from health care workers to patients at hospitals. Poor hand hygiene is the main way of spreading infectious organisms. Objective: To assess Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA contamination level of Working Clothes, Hand carriage, and knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) among Health Care workers (HCWs) at Federal Police Hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted at the Federal police hospital (FPH) from November 2020-March 2021 by inclusion of 222 healthcare workers. 222 swab samples were collected from the working clothing of all participants and 53 hand swab samples were randomly collected from 53 HCWs. Culturing, identification, and antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed at the Federal Police Hospital microbiology laboratory using conventional standard microbiology tests. The positive and negative control organisms' S aureus and S epidermidis were obtained from Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) microbiology department. The demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practice of study participants were collected by providing self-administered questioner and observational checklists. The data entry was done by Microsoft Excel and chi-square data analysis done by using SPSS version 21 software. Results: Out of 222 study participants, 39(17.6%) were contaminated with staphylococcus bacteria. A total of 41 staphylococci were isolated from 35 working clothes,2 hands, and 2 were isolated from both clothes and hands. From a total of 41 isolates, 18(43.9 %) S aureus, and 23(56.1%) coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) were identified. 12(67%) Methicillin sensitive S aureus (MSSA) and 6(33%) Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) were identified from a total of 18 S aureus isolates. About 86.9% of study participants have good knowledge about the use and handling of working clothes related to bacterial contamination. 60% of them show a good attitude and 70.1% were practicing good on using and handling of working clothes related to the prevention of bacterial contamination. Conclusion: In this study the contamination rate of working clothe and hand carriage of S aoreus was 6.8% and 5.6% respectively and 33% of the isolates were MRSA. Even though study participants have good knowledge, attitude, and practice about working clothe and hand hygiene continuous awerness of staff is paramount to prevent MRSA in the hospital.
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    Bacteriological Quality of Lettuce and Tomato Associated with Consumer’s Hygienic Practice in Lafto Vegetable and Fruit Market, Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-09) Kedir, Tofik; Desta, Kassu(Msc and PhD); Gobena, Waktole(Bsc and Msc)
    Background:-In the health conscious society of 21st century, vegetables become fundamental portion of human diet. They provide us essential vitamins, dietary fiber,minerals, antioxidants and vitamin C. However, due to its high water solubility and heat sensitivity, the vitamin is vulnerable to loss during thermal processing. During production, collection, transportation and preparation the vegetables usually contaminated with pathogens from human or animal origin. Particularly vegetables requiring minimal or no further processing before consumption are one of the main sources of food born pathogen. Objective:-This study was conducted to determine the bacteriological quality of lettuce and tomato associated with consumer’s hygienic practice in lafto vegetable and fruit market in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Methods:-A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 to August 2021 in Lafto vegetable and fruit market in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. A total of 60 samples of vegetables; 30 samples of lettuce and 30 samples of tomato were purchased, packed in zipper bag and transported to Ethiopian Public Health laboratory with the aid of sterilized dish in the ice box.The samples were appropriately diluted, analyzed and calculated for their microbial loads, mean, frequency, percentage and compared with international standards.Drug susceptibility test was also done forStaphylococcus aureus andSalmonellaspecies. Results:-Sixty eight percent of total samples had aerobic colony count ≥ 5Log CFU/g; while 57% of samples had total coliform ≥ 4Log CFU/g and 28% of samples had fecal coliform ≥2Log CFU/g which were above permissible level for consumption without further processing.E. coli,S.aureus and Salmonellawere isolated from 11%, 16.7% and 5% of total the sample respectively. All S.auresisolets were sensitive to gentamicin and 80% isolates were sensitive to Tetracycline/Chloramphenicol/Erythromycin whereas Ampicillin/Penicillin/Cefoxittine drugs were 100% resistance toS.aureus. Salmonella species isolates were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin and Co-trimoxazole and 100% resistance to Ampicillin/Tetracycline/Erythromycin. Conclusion:-The present study clearly shows that the bacteriological quality of lettuce and tomato sold in the market had high level contamination of aerobic colony count, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus species. Therefore vegetables need to be washed and disinfected before consumption.
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    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice and Associated factors towards method Validation/Verification among Laboratory Professionals Working in Selected Health Facilities, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-09) Getahun, Tegbar; Hassen, Fatuma((MPH, MA, PHD Candidate); Sisay, Abay(BSc, MSc,PHD fellow)
    Background: Method validation and verification are among the requirements to be fulfilled by the laboratories in order to attain quality management system and assessing their own competence. There is paucity of data in Ethiopia regarding the laboratory professional’s knowledge, attitude and practice on method validation/verification. Objective: To assess the knowledge, Attitude and Practice on method validation/verification and associated factors of laboratory professionals in selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study design using qualitative and quantitative data collection approach was applied in Addis Ababa from 01Dec 2020 to 30March, 2021 on 400 medical laboratory professionals working in selected health facilities. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics was computed for most of the study variables. Likert scale analysis was used to analyze the attitude level and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations with dependent and independent variables. Frequency distribution tables were used to describe the findings. P values less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant when looking for associations between dependent and independent variables. Result; From a total of 400 participants, 85(21.3%)of them had better knowledge on method validation/verification. Majority of the study participants, 397 (99.3%) had a good attitude on method validation/verification. Regarding their practice on method validation/verification, 344(86.6%) and 324(81%) of the participants did not perform method validation and method verification respectively. Majority of the respondents 326(81.5%) didn’t take trainings on method validation/verification. And the associated factor that affects the implementation of method validation/verification were 15(3.8%) due to competent staff turnover, 18(4.5%)work load, 42(10.5%) lack of training. Conclusion; These study resulted that there is a good attitude but lower knowledge and poor practice on method validation/verification. Absence of adequate training and work experience o the laboratory professionals are the major factors, and continues training, education and motivation is needed to implement laboratory quality management system.
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    Viral Suppression Rate and Associated factors among Children whose Sample Refereed to Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-09) Bulti, Gutema; Hailu, Melese(BSC, MSC, Ph.D. Fellow); Araya, Shambel (MSc)
    Background: Measuring of Viral load in the plasma of patient is the most important indicator in response to Anti Retro viral treatment, and to monitoring regularly progress of the patient, by suppressing the Viral Load to a threshold of < 1000 RNA copies/ml, which is used to define suppressed viral load, if it is confirmed in the laboratory. adherence will be addressed and followed to switch to second-line Anti Retro viral treatment. Objective: the aim of this study was to determine viral suppression rate and associated risk factors among children tested for HIV viral load among patient‟s sample refereed to Ethiopian public health institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: Across-sectional study was conducted. Data on socio-demographic factors including Age, sex, test reason, treatment combination, adherence, treatment duration on Anti Retro viral treatment, WHO clinical staging, were extracted from the request, Viral suppression and failure was determined using the WHO definitions (viral suppression as viral load < 1000/ml) and their associated factors. Significant association between study variables and interpretation of data was done using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval and P value <0.05. Result: A total of 340 children‟s sample was used in the study. Majority of children (87.9%) have suppressed viral load test rate and 12.1% non-suppressed. Children who had fair adherence to ART (AOR=0.23; 95% CI=0.001-0.395), were more likely to have viral load suppression rate. Children‟s whose treatment reasons were Routine VL-2ndVL at 12 Month Post ART, Routine Viral Load Annual Viral Load Test, Routine Viral Load-First Viral Load Test 6 month or Longer, Target Repeat (Confirmatory), Viral Load (initial viral load >1000cop/Ml) more likely had viral suppression rate (AOR=0.261;95% CI= 0.94-0.723), children between Age 3-10,were (AOR=17.76; 95% CI=1.623-194.19). Conclusion The rate of un-suppressed viral load is High among children tested for HIV Viral Load in Ethiopian Public Health institute and Children adhered to ART treatment have more likely to be virally suppressed.
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    Bacterial Profile, Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and the Associated Risk factors among Cancer Patients Suspected with Urinary Tract Infection in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-08) Duga, Etabez; Desta, Kassu(MSc, Ph.D. Fellow); Abera, Dessie (MSc, Ph.D. Fellow)
    Background: Bacterial infection is one of the most common life-threatening complications of cancer and cancer treatment. Ureteral tract infection (UTI) has become a serious concern in cancer patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the spectrum and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria related to urinary tract infections among cancer patients. Objective: The study aimed to determine antimicrobial resistance pattern, UTI bacterial profile, and their associated risk factors among cancer patients attending Tikur Anbesa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2020 to May 2021 among UTI suspected cancer patients in Tikur Anbesa hospital. Study participants were recruited through a convenient sampling technique through consecutive sampling. Socio-demographic variables were collected using a pre-tested questioner while clinical variables were collected through chart review and physical examinations. A morning midstream urine sample was collected for urine culture. Colony characterization and species identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility were carried out. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics were presented using tables and figures. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: Of the total of 272 urine sample tested , about 20.2% of the study participants were culture positive for a different type of bacterial pathogens predominantly gram-negative pathogens outnumber 45 (81.8%). E. coli was the predominant one reported among 26 (47.3%) of the patients followed K. pneumonia 9 (16.4%), Enterococcus Spp. 5 (9.1%). Majority of the isolates were sensitive for gentamycin 69.1%, meropenem 95.6%, nitrofatonin 84%. Incontrast, isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin 90.7%, augmentin 88.9%, and ampicillin 96.4 %. Factors such as being female (AOR 7.86, 95% CI (3.45, 17.89)), the presence of additional comorbidity (AOR 2.4, 95% CI (1.05, 5.49)), those who had a history of catheterization (AOR 3.61, 95% CI (1.04, 12.52)) and symptomatic cancer patients (AOR 3.79 95% CI(1.84, 7.79)) had statistical significant association with more likely to develop bacteriuria Conclusion and Recommendations: Bacteriuria among cancer patients was considerably high. Being female, having a history of catheterization, presence of additional comorbidities, and being symptomatic have been associated with bacteriuria. E. coli was the predominant bacterial isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns showed that the majority of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, augmentin, and ampicillin. Thus, urine culture is very important for cancer patients to control drug resistance, to restrict and give only after doing culture and sensitivity tests.
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    Magnitude of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV among Febrile Patients Attending Health Institute at Aura District, Afar Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-07) Edao, Rago; Desta, Kasu(MSc, PhD Fellow, Assistant Professor); Zerfu, Biruk(MSc, PhD Fellow)
    Background: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV are among the major public health concerns globally and are highly infectious diseases. During the first six months, most of the infections with viral hepatitis are often asymptomatic; therefore, detection of the virus at the early stage is difficult. The burden of viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections and co-infection with HIV still underreported in Ethiopia due to the lack of a coordinated health system and data management inability at the central level. In spite of increasing studies on viral hepatitis and their co-morbidity at different parts of the country, few data exists in Awra and Gulina district of Afar region. Objective: To assess the burden of hepatitis B & C viruses and HIV among patients attending health facilities and association of viruses with socio-demographic factors and each other virus. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed among 400 sera that were collected from Kelewani primary hospital and Derayitu health centre of Awra and Gulina district of Afar Region, north-eastern part of Ethiopia from February to May 2019. A pilot study were performed to assess the positive rate of both HCV, HBV and HIV to proceed with the research and continuous monitoring of the refrigerator was checked during the last couple of months to assure sample storage and stability before analysis. The two hepatitis viruses were screened by Anti-HCV and HBsAg rapid test kits, the seropositive sera were subjected to ELISA. HIV was screened sequentially by following HIV rapid test algorithm of Ethiopia; positive sera were confirmed by ELISA. Data were entered, coded and analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 25. A p-value < than 0.05 was considered statistically significant, Result: A total of 400 sera (59.8% of female) of age ranging from 4-80 years (mean= 25.9, SD = ±11.6) were used for this study. Of all samples 13% (52/400), were sero-positive for one or two viruses, specifically 9.8 %( 39/400), 1% (4/400) and 2.3% (9/400) for HBV, HCV and HIV respectively. 0.5% (2/400) was corresponded to the co-infections of HCV-HBV and HBV-HIV. The rates of positivity among both sexes were relatively similar; from the group in female participant sera, 61.5% (24/39), 50% (2/4) and 55.6% (5/9) were accounted by HBV, HCV and HIV respectively. HIV was more common in age category of 30 years and above (COR=7.536, 95% CI=1.543-36.803, p-value = 0.013). Conclusion: The burden of HBV and HIV at this study area were found high among febrile patients. Similarly, HIV was significantly distributed among elderly febrile patients that may be an indication for these contagious viruses to be circulated in the community.
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    Assessment of knowledge, Attitude , Practice (KAP) and Associated Factor of Clinical Laboratory Proffessionals in Use of IQC for Laboratory Tests among Selected Public and Private Hospitals in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-06) Ayele, Marta; Hassen, Fatuma (BA, BSc, MPH, PhD fellow); Molla, Habtamu ( BSC, MSc, PHD candidate )
    Background: A well-organized Laboratory Quality Assurance Program includes Internal Quality Control (IQC) procedures, External Quality Assessment (EQA) programs and Laboratory Quality Management (LQM). IQC is a set of procedures that are used in daily routine work to control daily variance of test results, problems are identified immediately and the method is brought back on track. So it needs professionals‘ knowledge and commitment. Internal quality control (IQC) in laboratory is a crucial part of quality that poor practices of professional on IQC affect the result of patients. That is why this study raises the question of KAP of laboratory professionals in use of IQC among selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa. Objective: To assess knowledge, Attitude and Practice of clinical laboratory proffessionals and associated factors in use of IQC for laboratory tests among selected public and private Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using questionnaire to assess KAP of laboratory professionals and its associated factors in use of IQC among selected public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 2020 to April 2020.A total of 250 laboratory professionals from selected public and private Hospitals were participated in the study. Pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire were used .Data entry and analysis were performed by using SPSS version 20 software. Descriptive statistics, such as mean, median, analysis were used. Association of different factors with KAP of laboratory professionals were done using the Binary logistic regression and level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05 Results: From the total of two hundred fifty participants, (response rate, 100%) 147 (58.8%) were male. In this study 220(88.0%), 224(89.6%) and 168(67.2%) study participants had good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards IQC, respectively. The mean number of test menu was 29.16 (SD +2.38), minimum 21 and maximum 33.from their available number of tests no one practice IQC for more than 80% of the tests, around half (52.8%) of the personnel practice IQC for only 50-65% of the available tests. Conclusion: Even though majority of participants had good knowledge and attitude towards IQC, around one third of them had poor practice on IQC in the laboratory, there reasons for majority participant were shortage of QC material. There was no significant difference on KAP of laboratory professionals from public and private hospitals towards IQC. No risk factors were observed for poor knowledge and negative attitude towards IQC. Practice for all test had significant association with LQM training, duration of training and having schedule for IQC.
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    Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Anti-Rabies Activity of Convolvulus Kilimandschari, Kalanchoe Lanceolate and Stephania Abyssinica, Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Rabies in Arsi Zone, Oromia Regi onal State, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-10) Alemu, Anberber; Dr.Nigatu, Wondatier(MSc, PhD Associate Professor); Desta, Kassu(PhD Candidate, Associate Professor); Deriba, Regassa(MSC)
    Background; -Rabies is viral zoonotic disease progressive neurological infection which causes encephalitis in all warm-blooded animals. Dogs are the greatest reservoir host and transmit the disease to other animals and man. It is 100% fatal after the on-set of clinical manifestation of the disease. Plants are widely used conventionally for the treatment of rabies and contribute to the development of modern drug and treatment of this disease. Objective: -The objectives of this study was to assess the acute toxicity and anti-rabies activity effect of C. kilimandschari, K. lanceolate and S. abyssinica, traditionally used for the treatment of human rabies. Methods: - An experimental study was conducted between February, 2020 and June, 2021. In vivo acute toxicity and anti-rabies activity test was done in 78 Swiss albino mice. Extract was prepared from the powdered study plant using 70 % hydro-ethanol and concentrated by using rotary evaporator. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of biochemical parameters. Brain samples were collected for confirmatory test of rabies virus. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 26 for windows software, Statistical analysis was undertaken by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results; -In this experiment, 20,15and 30gm crude extract / yield/ obtained from 100gm powdered 70%hydro ethanol extracted of C. kilimandschari, K. lanceolate and S. Abyssinia respectively. The crude extract of S. Abyssinica did exhibit sign of toxicity at dose 550mg/kg treatment groups of mice, The LD50 of Abyssinica was 560mg/kg.C. Kilimandschari and K. lanceolate did not exhibited any sign of toxicity at all doses levels. The level of serum enzyme ALPand CHO of mice treated with C. Kilimandschari were highly reduced. However, ALT, AST, BILD, BILT, Urea and K were increased in treated mice with K. lanceolate compared to negative control. All plant crude extract did show significantly(p<0.05) increase in the survival period of time compared to positive control group of mice and they have anti-rabies activity in all dose of crude extracts. Conclusion: - All plant extracts had demonstrated significant anti-rabies virus survival rate as compared to positive control groups. However, there is a need of large scale and detail studies should be designed.
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    Magnitude of H.pyloriinfection and its association with Pre-eclampsia among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gandhi memorial hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-09) Tsegaye, Nebiyu; Araya, Shambel (MSc); Diriba, Regassa(MSC)
    Background:Helicobacter pylori infections are associated with many complications of pregnancy including preeclampsia and itcolonizes the gastric mucosa of about half of the world‟s population. It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori infection could contribute to the etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsia by inducing a pro-inflammatory state. The association H. pylori with preeclampsia needs to be further explored. Objective:To assess magnitude of H. pylori infection and its association with preeclampticpregnant women attending antenatal care at Gandhi Memorial hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2021. Methods:Hospital-based case control study was conducted amongclinicallydiagnosed preeclamptic and Non-pre eclamptic pregnant women at Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected for H. pyloriantigen test from study participants. The collected data was analyzed using statistical methods in SPSSversion23. Simple descriptive statistics was used to present the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects. Association between Clinical variables and H. pyloriinfection was performed with multivariate logistic regression. A p-value of <0.05 at 95% confidence level was considered as statistically significant in all the analyses. Result:A total of 93 cases and 186 controls were included in the study giving that a response rate of 92(98.9%) and 180(96.8%) from all participants that included in the study respectively. In this study, the overall prevalence of H. pyloriinfection in all study participants was 38.9% (106/272). The prevalence of H. pyloriinfection was higher in cases than controls, 54.3% (50/92) vs. 31.1% (56/180) respectively. The mean age was 29.01(SD+4.93) years in cases and 30.37(SD+ 6.2) yeas in control group. Ages 26-35 years accounted for the majority proportion for both cases 62 (67.4%) and controls 128 (71.1%). A positive association was found between H. pylori infection and Preeclampsia (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 2.41–4.10). Conclusion: H. pylori infection has been found to be associated with preeclampsiawomen. In this study, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in cases than in controls (which was 54.3% vs. 31.1% respectively. “Parity, systolic blood pressure and status of hemoglobin were significantly associated with pre eclamptic women with H-pylori”.Key words:Helicobacter pylori, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnant women