About Addis Ababa University Institutional Repository (AAU-ETD)

AAU-ETD is an electronic open access institutional repository of Addis Ababa University that makes available and digitally preserves the scholarly outputs produced at AAU. The repository contains both published and unpublished work including: theses and dissertations,preprint,staff and student publications.

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Recent Submissions

Towards Integrated Urban Flooding Risk Management in Ambo Town and Its Watershed, West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
(Addis Ababa University, 2021-09-01) Gemechu Shale Ogato; Amare Bantider (Associate Professor); Davide Geneletti ( Associate Professor); Ketema Abebe ( Assistant Professor)
A GIS-based spatial planning and land use management is asserted to be a versatile tool in building capacities for flood disaster reduction and preparedness underpinning sustainable urban development.The purpose of the study was to analyze urban flooding hazard and risk and develop integrated urban flooding risk management strategy for Ambo town and its watershed. The study adopted a mixed research approch which combined quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. The study confirmed that residing in flood prone area, poverty, lack of alternative livelihoods, and lack of proper drainage channels are the underlying causes of socio-economicvulner ability to urban flooding risk in Ambo town. Unwillingness of people to move away from hazard-prone areas due to the nature of their livelihoods, the high prices of properties, and a lack of awareness of the risk of hazards anticipated were identified as internal barriers to governance of urban flooding risk reduction in the study area. A strong positive association was confirmed between urban households’ perception on structural and non-structural measures practiced in Ambo town and their perception on the effectiveness of the current governance of urban flooding risk reduction. A statistically significant relationship was confirmed between respondents ’access to credit and their education level, total income, and employment status. A statistically significant relationship was confirmed between respondents’ perception on their vulnerability to disease after flooding risk and their demographic and socio-economic characteristics. 63.04% of the watershed is moderate flooding hazard area while 52.9% of Ambo town is moderate flooding hazard area. 20.2% of Huluka watershed is moderate flooding risk area while 21% of Ambo town is high and very high flooding risk area. The IDF curves developed indicate that rainfall intensities increase with increase in return periods for all the seven stations and the Huluka watershed. High rainfall intensities were confirmed to be related toshort durations while low rainfall intensities related to long durations for the same return periods. Bush and shrub land, forest, grassland, and water land use/land cover type declined with68.2%, 59.3%, 32.7%, and 5.1% respectively between 1979 and 2017. Based on the land use/ land cover analyisis in the watershed, urban built-up area, cultivated land, and bare land use/land cover type increased with 351%, 105%, and 41.9% respectively between the year 1979 and 2017.Infrastructural and agricultural expansion, increased demand for wood, local environmental and biophysical drivers, rapid human population growth, economic drivers, technological drivers, policy and institutional drivers, and local socio-cultural drivers were identified as drivers of land use and xxland cover changes. There should be urban disaster risk reduction policies and strategies at national level which guide local urban disaster risk reduction interventions and the principles of good governance should be properly practiced in governance of urban flooding disaster risk reduction in Ambo town. It is vital to pay attention to the coordination between urban development and flooding hazard and risk through appropriate spatial planning and land use management in Ambo town and its watershed. Keywords: Governance, flooding, land use/land cover, land use management, spatial planning
The Effect of Income Diversification on Bank Performance: In Case of Selected Commercial Banks in Ethiopia
(AAU, 2024-01-10) Dessalegn Munach; Yohannes Workaferahu (PhD)
This thesis investigates the relationship between income diversification and bank performance based on financial performances of 17 commercial banks. Income diversification is the practice of raising a bank's proportion of fee, net trading profits and other non-interest income within its net operating income, in other words it is an expansion into new revenue-generating financial services, with the exception of conventional intermediation activities. The study sampled the financial performances of 17 commercial banks during the period of 2014 to 2021 and used explanatory research design, quantitative research approach and secondary data sources that were gained from National Bank of Ethiopia like annual reports, financial statements and company information. The model that employed in this thesis was Random Effect model. The panel data was presented by using inferential statistics. The proxy (dependent variable) is return on assets (ROA) that measures performance of the banks and the independent variables are Herfindahl Hirschman Index (HHI), Herfindahl Hirschman Index for non-interest income (HHINONII), ratio of non-interest income to total asset (NONIITA), Share of Fees and Commission over Noninterest income (SHFC), the ratio of loan to total asset(LOANTA)and exchange rate (EXR). The econometric results have shown positive and significant association between ratio of non-interest income to total asset (NONIITA) and bank performance (ROA) while Herfindahl Hirschman Index for net operating income (HHI) indicated negative and significant impact on bank performance this in part justifies policy actions to promote diversification. The coefficients of the remaining variables have shown positive but insignificant association with bank performance except HHINONII. From a policy point of view the finding suggests that bank regulations which might tend to increase the level of income diversification (non-interest income) should be evaluated carefully. Generally, the major findings reveal that income diversification has impact on return on asset of the banks i.e. an increase in income diversification leads to an increase in return on asset (ROA), which implies that banks are benefited from diversification of their activities beyond the traditional lending activities. Finally, the study recommends that Ethiopian commercial banks to diversify their income across non-interest income and to use it wisely by considering the right areas of diversification.
Depression and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Attending at Diabetic Follow Up Clinic of Mikilililand Health Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
(Addis Ababa University, 2023-11) Assamin Assafaw; Assefa Berihun (Ass. prof.)
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess depression and its associated factors among type-2 diabetic patients attending at diabetic follow up clinic of Mikililand health center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 159 type-2 diabetic patients attending at diabetic follow up clinic of Mikililand health center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Result: The overall prevalence of depression in the study was 41.5%. Those patient living in rent house [AOR= 5.927 (95% CI = 1.743,20.148)], those with duration of diabetes >5 yrs since diagnosis [AOR = 16.038 (95% CI = 1.611,159.3648)], those having family history of diabetes [AOR = 4.419 (95% CI =1.044,18.701)], those who had or experienced diabetes related complications [AOR= 9.166 (95% CI = 2.866, 29.314)] and alcohol use status [AOR = 30.1
An Investigation of Secondary School English Language Teachers' Professional identity, Professional Self-Esteem, and Job Satisfaction
(Addis Ababa University, 2023-03) Achame Haile; Hailom Banteyerga (PhD)
This study aimed at investigating secondary school English language teachers‟ professional identity, professional self-esteem, and job satisfaction with reference to the Sidama National Regional State, Ethiopia. It specifically focused on exploring English teachers‟ initial motivation to join the field, identity formation, the types of professional identities claimed, and identity tensions. It also sought to examine the relationship between English teachers‟ professional identity, professional self-esteem, and job satisfaction. To achieve these objectives, a mixed-methods design and multiple theoretical frameworks, mainly the theory of community of practice, symbolic interactionism, and the looking glass self, were used. Cluster and availability sampling techniques were employed to select the schools and the participants, respectively. Accordingly, ninety-four (N = 94) English teachers were selected from 10 government secondary schools. Among these, 16 English teachers were selected purposively and participated in the qualitative aspects of the study. Narrative interviews and focus group discussions were used to generate the qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through adapted professional identity, professional self-esteem, and job satisfaction questionnaires. The qualitative data was analysed following the grounded theory approach. Pearson‟s correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between professional identity, professional self-esteem, and job satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to test the direct and indirect effects of professional self-esteem and job satisfaction on professional identity. The findings revealed that English teachers joined the profession accidentally, and their professional identity formation process is a gradual, continuous, and complex one. Exposure to native speakers, inspiration from role model teachers, university courses, collegial discussions, and the day-to-day activities of teaching English were found to mediate the formation of identity. Some of the claimed professional identities of English teachers subsume subject matter experts, pedagogical experts, and didactical experts, particularly inspirers, socialisers, and actors. The findings also indicated that English teachers felt professional identity tensions related to fluency, pronunciation, subject matter, social status, and native speakerism. The results of the correlational analysis indicated that professional self-esteem (r = 0.81, P = 0.000) and job satisfaction (r = 0.70, P = 0.000) are positively and significantly correlated with professional identity. SEM analysis revealed that both professional self-esteem (β = 0.66, P ≤ 0.001) and job satisfaction (β = 0.27, P≤ 0.001) positively predicted professional identity. Consequently, it is recommended to pay a close attention to English language teachers‟ professional identity and put the issue at the forefront of the agenda in the English teacher education system and the ELT field in Ethiopia at large.
The Role of Social Media in Crisis Communication: The Case of the Government of Ethiopia during the Tigray War
(Addis Ababa University, 2023-11) Berihun Mekonnen; Abdulaziz Dino (PhD)
The Tigray war in Ethiopia has highlighted the multifaceted role of social media in crisis communication. While the Ethiopian government has leveraged social media platforms to disseminate its narrative on the cause of the conflict, updates on military operations, counter opposition narratives, and refute international media coverage, concerns regarding the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of government-shared information have been prevalent. This study employed a descriptive research methodology, incorporating mixed data collection techniques, to comprehensively address the research questions. The combination of surveys and key informant interviews provided both qualitative insights and quantitative support for the study's findings. The study assessed and validated the role social media play in government’s crisis communication underscoring despite the absence of a clear crisis communication strategy and active public engagement, the government's crisis communication appears to have garnered it the much-needed popular support, potentially influencing the war's trajectory. Furthermore, social media's role extended beyond mere communication, evolving into a tool for disseminating propaganda, suppressing dissent, harassing critics, and exacerbating ethnic tensions. Key Words: Crisis Communication, Social Media, Tigray Conflict, Government Communication.