Assessment of Hepatitis B Sero Prevalence , and Associated Factors Among Adult Outpatients Visiting Selected Health Facilities in Ethiopia.

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Addis Ababa University


Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus and is the most serious type of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a widespread infectious disease throughout the world. Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus that causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. HBsAg is the main clinical marker indicating acute or chronic infection. Objective: To assess the sero prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, and associated factors among adult outpatients visiting selected Health facilities in Ethiopia. Methods: Health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2021 to October 2021 among Anitinatal care, Anti retrovirus therapy and adult outpatients visiting health facilities in selected towns of Ethiopia. A total of 3398 participants were selected for the prevalence study, and 1400 participants were selected for the risk factors assessment study from Addis Ababa, Ambo, Asela, and Batu towns. Blood samples were collected as part of routine medical services, and Leftover serum was tested for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All positive results within 10 % gray zone margins of OD were repeated for the same ELISA test and immunoassay. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 statistical package software. Results: Of 3398 study participants 2406 (70.9%) were females. The mean and median age was 34.10 and 30 years respectively. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 7.42% (95% CI = 6.6 -8.3) (252/3398), without showing any significant difference in sex and age category. Of 1400 sub population which we assessed the risk factors for acquisition of HBV, 72.4 % (1013) were female and 80 .1 % (1121) live in urban area. Rural population were 2.25 times more likely to be infected by HBV than people from urban (OR = 2.248; 95% CI 1.37 -3.69, P = .001). More over family history of viral hepatitis were found to be the strongest predictors of HBV infection (OR = 3.84 (95% CI: 1.73-8.52), P =.001). Conclusion: The sero prevalence of HBSAg in this study was moderately high. The prevalence was higher among rural residence and family history of HBV. Therefore, there should be organized health education emphasizing on rural population and screening of family member infected with HBV.