African Studies

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    Ethiopia’s Perspective on Foreign Policies and Strategies of the Us Towards the Horn of Africa: The Case of Ethiopia Post-2018
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-12-01) Teramed Adane; Samuel Tefera (PhD)
    The research examines Ethiopia's perspective on the US foreign policy and strategy towards the Horn of Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular. Though the scope of the study is limited to post-2018, the study examined prior periods of relations to see the trend. The research investigates the realism theory on which US foreign policies and strategies are based. The study also analyzes the foreign policy and strategy of the US from the idea of Realism perspective. The paper could spark a frank discussion among scholars and professionals on some possible faulty historical events that occurred in the countries' relations and make this research a springboard for further study in enhancing the cooperation between the countries. The researcher used a qualitative approach. The research design is descriptive and exploratory. The data are gathered from books, articles, websites, and data from selected people through questionnaires. As per the research, both countries enjoyed an excellent relationship in the first one-and-a-half years of post-2018. However, after the occurrence of the Tigray conflict and the failed attempt of the US brokered GERD negotiations, the two countries' relations deteriorated. The research also suggests ideas that Ethiopia shall cultivate the trust of the US and that it has no other agenda other than alleviating poverty and exerting effort for its people's betterment. Democratization and respecting human rights shall also be top on the agenda.
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    African’s Indigenous Knowledge System and Institution in Dispute Resolution: The Case of ‘Borana’ of Ethiopia and ‘Gabra’ of Kenya Ethnic Groups in Africa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Wakjira Rebuma; Getachew Kassa (Dr)
    The dispute becomes a normal part of people's or communities' lives, resulting in large numbers of fatalities and a path of property devastation that triggers natural disasters. The primary focus of the study is on the function of native dispute handling and resolution procedures among the Horn of Africa's Borana and Gabra peoples. This is also consistent with the viewpoint that is currently being promoted by the nations of African intellectuals and the AU's ‘African Solution to African Problems’. Additionally, the study was driven by three goals: the methods used for resolving disputes in the communities, the legitimacy of justice in dispute resolution using the indigenous knowledge system and institutions, and the study's contribution to good governance and peaceful coexistence between the communities of Borana and Gabra. On the other hand the study used Purposive sampling technique to identify the area or district where the units of observation met the criteria, as well as to conduct convenient sampling, which is helpful when the researcher gathers data from the population that is ready and prepared to provide information. Secondary information is obtained from books, journals, Medias, online sources and newspapers. The finding also revealed that the patterns of dispute resolution by using indigenous knowledge system and institution is different among Borana and Gabra’s communities, but it is effective and acceptable procedures in resolving dispute. Finally, the study advised that concerned stakeholders support indigenous knowledge-based dispute resolution methods used by the Borana and Gabra communities, which go through various levels of dispute organs and promote peaceful coexistence among Horn of Africa communities
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    The Role of African Film to Promote African Culture: The Case of Ethiopian Film
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Addis Tesfa; Dawit Lakew (Ass. Prof)
    African films have presently been made available by content providers to diverse individuals both home and in the diaspora due to the availability of several new media platforms supported by technology. Due to globalization and the exponential rate at which those in the emerging world are embracing western cultures, anxieties have been raised as to the future of African cultural heritage. Ethiopia is one of the few African countries with a lengthy filmmaking history. Ethiopian filmmaking dates back to the 1930s. For a long time, however, its development was stalled. In Ethiopian film production consequently, this study examined the role of African films in promoting African culture in the case of Ethiopian movie. The research applies the qualitative research methodology, The Focus Group Discussion, (FGD) interview with Film professionals and academic expert qualitative data collection method was adopted involving. Findings revealed that to some extent, the Ethiopian films are used to promote Ethiopian culture but they do not fully portray the original Ethiopian culture due to cultural hybridization. Furthermore, findings showed that most films are haphazardly produced abandoning the original Ethiopian contents. However, it was concluded that as much as these films are initially targeted towards promoting and portraying Ethiopian African cultures, they defeat the whole spirit by marrying different cultures. The study therefore recommended that priority should be given to local contents as this will make the Ethiopian culture appear vital and important. Conclusively, the study also recommended that the government should facilitate fund for local films ,should support the film makers by giving theme training and opening film schools ,the filmmakers also must conduct thorough research and read extensively about the their local culture if they must get it right
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    The Impacts of Uae’s Increasing Involvement in the Horn of Africa: The Case of Ethiopia Since 2018
    (Addis Ababa Univeristy, 2022-10-01) Enchalew Ayalew; Samuel Tefera (PhD)
    The UAE's post-Arab spring involvement in the Horn of Africa changed the region's political dynamics. The Gulf countries, especially the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, were concerned about the consequences of the Arab world's revolutions. The Muslim Brotherhood, a major wing in Egypt, was established in 1928 and has ideological differences with the governments of the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The movement advocated for young leadership and the reformation of Islam. However, the two countries monarchal types of government are staining against such a reformist movement. Following the civil war in Yemen, UAE and Saudi Arabia may have shifted attention to countering Iranian expansion and Qatar crisis. Both started competing with each other in the Horn of Africa to control and dominate the ports in the region: United Arab Emirates in Djibouti and Eritrea and later in Somaliland to counter Iranian expansion towards the Horn of Africa region. Key words: GCC, GERD, Ethiopia, UAE, Horn of Africa The UAE's involvement had a significant impact on the Ethiopian economy, as well as the region's peace and security. The involvement somehow benefited Ethiopia, especially in the rapprochement with Eritrea. Following the normalization of relations, trade between Ethiopia and the UAE increased, and investment, cooperation, and aid helped Ethiopia to overcome economic problems. The involvement benefits Ethiopia on the GERD issues because of its neutral stance and relationship with Ethiopia. However, the UAE's involvement also increased regional tensions, especially between Sudan and Ethiopia and Ethiopia with Egypt, which provoked conflict in the region. Because of their fleeting interest in the Horn of Africa, they are unable to provide dependable friendship to any nation in the region. Finally, though they brought the use of alternative ports to Ethiopia, they created conflicting types of relations between Addis Ababa and Somalia following the Berbera port development argument in 2016. Generally, the UAE's involvement in the Horn of Africa brought more challenges for Ethiopia because of its interest in the region
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    Post-Brexit UK’s Africa Strategy in Peacebuilding Process: the Case of Somaliland
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-06-01) Hanna Andargachew; Samuel Tefera (PhD)
    The major purpose of this study was to assess the post-Brexit UK Africa strategy. This study employed a qualitative research technique and qualitative content analysis of coded data. The UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and individuals in Somaliland working closely on Peacebuilding and governance issues responded to the open-ended survey questionnaire on Somaliland security and stability. According to the results of this research, UK has been the biggest actor in Somaliland support for development through the UK AID program. However, the UK's considerable commitment to help regional peacebuilding with the Somalia Strategy with the government in Mequadisho has posed a threat to Somaliland's completed peacebuilding, as this comprises the UK's policy of direction in recognizing Somaliland statehood. Post-Brexit UK Africa strategy is promised to take higher risks and accept lower returns to deliver in the toughest areas in the continent such as the Sahel region. The strategy is promised to give opportunities for economic development in the most difficult environments, helping tackle the causes of instability, insecurity and conflict. However, implementing the strategy is anticipated to take more time and will not benefit Somaliland Peacebuilding process in a different way than before until after a few years‘ time. Moreover, post Brexit UK Africa strategy will contribute directly to some of the positive ‗shifts‘ towards constructive engagement and conflict outcomes, because the strategy put priority in re-structuring how the UK is previously situated to respond to security and stability area. This study concludes that the legality of Somaliland will continue not being the primary agenda in post-brexit UK Africa strategy. However, there are hints when conducting this research that the UK acting alone without the EU may strengthen old colonial ties with countries such as Somaliland. From the Somaliland side, the country is busy in making the country stable and secure to show Somaliland‘s importance to the international community a secured region and expects this to extend to state recognition. However, there is no sign for State recognition in the UK politics, at least not yet. As a result, it is preferable for the post-Brexit UK Africa strategy to engage and for the Somaliland government to comprehend the shift in strategies as well as the challenges and opportunities that it will bring to situate themselves.
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    Special Status Agreement Between Ethiopia and Kenya: Ethiopian Perspective on Lapsset Project
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-03-01) Abdurhman Temam; Zerihun Berhane (PhD)
    Ethiopia and Kenya signed several agreements and have been developing joint infrastructural projects. Mainly, the study would assess the Special Status Agreement between Ethiopia and Kenya and explore perspectives on LAPSSET. This study employed Qualitative approach method. Drawing on qualitative method, data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Interviews were conducted and furthermore, secondary data was used to corroborate the primary data collected. The significant finding is that the SSA signed with the objective of elevating the economic relations of the two countries and granting special status to trade, investment, infrastructure and food security and sustainable livelihoods seems to lack commitment from both sides. Besides, the LAPSSET brings in South Sudan in to the equation to significantly boost trade, tourism and investment. Low level of trade has been noted throughout because of tariff and non-tariff barriers. By conclusion, implementation of SSA is very low, much more needed to be done to ensure the effective implementation, and Ethiopia has to give much emphasis to the realization of big infrastructural projects in the frame work of LAPSSET.
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    The Place of Indigenous Music Education in Africa: The Case of music Colleges in Ethiopia and South Africa.
    (Addis Abeba Universty, 2023-10-01) Tsion Abate; Woube kassaye (PhD/Associate Prof.)
    Due to a number of factors, music education at higher education institutions encounters a range of challenges , and an adequate amount of attention is not given to music education as a role in the development of indigenous music. Tertiary music education must include indigenous music education in order to fulfill its obligation to provide music teachers with an opportunity to utilize indigenous knowledge effectively. Since Ethiopia has a rich history of indigenous music, it is widely considered that properly integrating indigenous music education will significantly advance Ethiopian music education. This study makes an effort to assess how indigenous music education is included in Ethiopian music colleges, namely Entoto TVET College, AAU Yared Music School, and South African college of Music University of Cape Town's, music department. For the study's execution qualitative content analysis was used through analyzing related documents on indigenous music education. The categories of the qualitative content analysis units in the study were based on phrases and topics. Furthermore Semi-structured interviews were used in this study to gather additional data. Semi-structured interviews with the music teachers and principal of the two institutions were undertaken to collect the verbal data. The data gathered during the investigation showed that it was insufficient to include indigenous music education. Lack of sufficient consideration for indigenous music in educational policy and curriculum is the key factor affecting the extent of its incorporation. The main barriers to the incorporation of indigenous music instruction in music colleges were a lack of qualified indigenous music educators and a paucity of indigenous musical instruments. As a result, according to the research, indigenous music education was included into these colleges through the texts, which were examined using content analysis to identify six different themes in which conclusions led to some insightful recommendations to institutions and decision-makers in the field of music education.
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    The Geopolitical Rivalry of Foreign Powers in the Horn of Africa: Exploring the Dynamics, Risks, and Opportunities with a Special Focus on Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba Universty, 2022-11-01) Ayalneh Addisu; Mohammad Hassen (Ph.D.)
    The Horn of Africa has been a geopolitical contestation, battleground, and cheeseboard for antagonistic foreign powers since historic times. The rivalry has now reached its peak, making the region the most militarized and security zone in the world. The study's general objective is to explore this geopolitical rivalry of foreign powers in the HOA, with a particular focus on Ethiopia. The research used an exploratory research design and qualitative approach. In order to gather primary data, the researcher conducted in-depth interviews with purposively selected key informants. Secondary data were thoroughly reviewed and used to complement and substantiate the primary data. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the collected data. Aside from empirical literature, three theories were used to frame the entire research: classical geopolitical theory, realism or neorealism, and regional security complex theory. The study's findings indicate that the HOA is experiencing new and tough geopolitical rivalry driven by geo-strategic, geo-economic, geo-security, vigilant containment, and resource competition. The region is experiencing new geopolitical rivalry between three groups: the West, the East, and the Middle East (Middle brokers) framed by realism and classical geopolitical theories. There is complex geopolitical rivalry formation of military bases, and training posts, as well as geo-economic rivalry in the commercial ports, investment, trade, and loan. China is influential in economic rivalry, and the West has tried various strategies to counter its influence. Since the 2011 Arab Spring, the Middle Eastern powers also played a significant role in the HOA geopolitical rivalry. Internal discontent among Middle Eastern groups is exported to the HOA, exacerbating the regional situation. The geopolitical rivalry brings both risks and opportunities to Ethiopia and RSCT has clearly applied and risks and opportunities are easily spilled to the region. The rivalry posed a peace and security risk, exacerbating internal instability and adversarial powers may exploit the internal situation as an advantage to destabilize Ethiopia. The militarization of the littoral states and the regional arms race posed a threat to the safe utilization of ports and could block the importation of arms. It also heightened the GERD tension and could obstruct the construction process. If Ethiopia manages the regional dynamics properly, the rivalry has many opportunities such as economic, regional stability, and Ethiopia could be a diplomatic champion of the non-aligned groups. Recommendations for the betterment of the region and Ethiopia are also clearly stated in the study. The paper stated that the issue is ongoing and needs further research and theoretical assessment.
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    test paper
    (2023-12-06) test author; test advisor
    test abstract
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    The Need for Decolonization: A Case Study of Addis Ababa University
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-09) Gezahegne, Kidus; Kassaye (PhD), Getachew
    In the wake of South Africa’s universities call for decolonization, several African universities started scrutinizing their curriculums and world’s knowledge production. Their attempt is to identify epistemic injustice and treat it with a proper decolonial framework. One of the foremost African universities, Addis Ababa University, stands under-represented in this decolonial dialogue. The following case study, using the perspectives of College of Social Sciences’ academicians, investigated Addis Ababa University’s College of Social Sciences’ need for curriculum decolonization and the academic potential to do the work. The academician’s perspectives were captured through six semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the help of a conceptual framework which emanated from Jansen’s (2017a) and Woldegiorgis’s (2021) decolonization conception. The findings revealed that there is a need for a soft decolonization in college of social sciences and positive academic attitude to do the decolonial work. The study concludes admitting the diverse nature of decolonization conception and the necessity of further researches. Key Concepts Decolonization; Knowledge Production; Epistemology; Curriculum; Indigenous Knowledge
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    The Influence of Ethiopian Music Videos Released In 2020-21 G.C on the Behavior of Addis Ababa University Students
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-06) Kebede, Tibebu; Kasay, Woube
    This study with its title “The Influence Of Ethiopian Music Videos Released In 2020-21 G.C On The Behavior Of Addis Ababa University Students” has the main intention to investigate the various effects and impacts of recent Ethiopian music videos on Students of Addis Ababa University in various aspects. It sought to explore recent Ethiopian music videos in terms of their possible contribution, significance, and limitations on cultural representation, identity formation and shaping behavior, gender representation, and most importantly their effect on students’ academic performance among other things. The study focuses on four campuses of Addis Ababa University: Sidist Kilo, Arat Kilo, College of Business and Economics, and the Yared School of Music, out of the university's several campuses. A Qualitative research method with a descriptive approach was used for the study as it helps to show the issue in a detailed description to give a good understanding for the readers. Purposive and snowball techniques were also used to select the participants, Whereas semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis were among the main ingredients used for data gathering of the study. The study found that most current Ethiopian music videos do not accurately depict and promote Ethiopia's culture and reality, even though others were found to be good. Prejudice based on gender and unequal representation in music videos were also noted as concerns. Furthermore, while some of the performance and conceptual music videos help some of the students to perform better in their field of study, the rest were found to be a barrier for the students to lose concentration and attention on their study.
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    Managing Political Engagement of Diasporas in Africa: A Case Study of Ethiopia
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-07) Zerihun, Hanna; Hassen (PhD), Mohammed
    This paper explores the participation of African diaspora in the politics of their home country by focusing on the experience of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian diaspora is said to be highly politicized, large in number and well-educated; they keep in touch and are interested in domestic affairs. Therefore, according to their management and participation methods, they have the ability to challenge the country or give up its huge potential. So far, the relationship between the Ethiopian government and the diaspora has been more confrontational than cooperative. The political and political climate in Ethiopia tends to view the diaspora as cash crows and favors participation in political decision-making in a moderate manner. In any case, the diaspora participates in national politics through various other channels. After the reforms in 2018, the government made rapid adjustments to give expatriates a say in their hometowns. However, if there is no favorable political and institutional framework, the relationship between the diaspora governments will not be easily resolved in the short term. The researcher will use qualitative analysis methods in interviews, document analysis, video analysis, and websites.
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    Challenges of Building Developmental States in Africa: The case of Rwanda and
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-06) Abie, Mulugeta; Abebe (PhD), Dechassa
    This paper examines Challenges of Building Developmental State of Africa: The case of Rwanda and Ethiopia. The political setting is tightly constrained, ethnic based and the state has not allowed the private sector freedom of action to generate the required levels of production. The prevalence of party allegiance at the expense of meritocracy in recruitment and promotion coupled with corruption and rampant rent-seeking political economy became threat to the country’s existence and development. Ultimate success will depend on the capacity to transform a state as it has been central to the development process. Rwanda has made achievements in building developmental state as part of its priority means of poverty reduction. It also backed its economy in the spirit of f nationalism and by structuring its political structure through some restrictions including the 2003 ban on political parties based on ethnicity, religion, or sex. Major parties include the Rwandan Patriotic Front, the Social Democratic Party, and the Liberal Party. Further, it has also performed well in other aspects towards building a developmental state. The subject matter of the study i.e. the developmental state has not been researched adequately. Particularly in the case of Ethiopia little research is available on the issue. Hence, this research is intended to provide preliminary understanding on the factors, instigating specific questions in this line of inquiry. Therefore, the exploratory research design is most suited to the purpose sought – exploring factors affecting the developmental state perspective. In order to analyze the problem, secondary data was collected.
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    The Investment Climate In Eastern Africa: A Comparative Study Of Ethiopia And Uganda
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-08) Behabtu, Biskut; Fenta (PHD), Getahun
    The investment climate has been viewed as a major stimulus to economic growth in developing countries that shaping the opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. FDI has increased as developing countries continue to create the enabling environment to attract foreign investors serve as a strong mechanism for the encouragement and spread of business opportunities there by enhancing economic development and used as technology transfer for domestic investment. Ethiopia and Uganda, over the last decade, pursued various forms of economic reforms in order to become more competitive in FDI attraction. To attain the objective using time serious data from 2005-2019, primary and secondary data collection, as well as administering interview was tools of data collection method. Mixed research approaches both quantitative and qualitative methods are used and descriptive research analysis was applied for the collected data. Finally, triangulation methods used for collected data analysis against the information collected through interview. Analyses of time series secondary date indicate trends of FDI inflow and domestic investment in Ethiopia and Uganda. Depending on the findings and the response of interview from the concerned bodies in the two countries investment sector, the main challenges affecting FDI and domestic investment is weak promotion strategy and justice system, supply of full infrastructure, lengthy procedure of land providing and custom clearance. In addition corruption related problem particularly in Uganda and unequal treatment by the law for foreign and domestic investor especially in Ethiopia are major bottlenecks accounted for decline FDI and domestic investment over years.
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    South Sudanese women’s involvement in armed conflict and their influence during the reconciliation processes between Government and the oppositions
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-06-28) Bihon, Biruktayet; Gebreselassie (PhD), Kidist
    South Sudan becomes independent from the Republic of Sudan in 2011. The world’s new nation entered into a civil war within three years of gaining its independence. Struggle for political power between the President of South Sudan Salva Kiir and the vice president Riek Machar resulted in severe casualties. Since the outbreak of the civil war in 2013 until the signing of R-ARCSS (2018 peace agreement), Millions have fled, killed, and become vulnerable. However, the role of women during the conflict in South Sudan has evolved in different ways. Women during the South Sudan civil war had been a combatant (for all warring sides), supporter to fighter spouse, a stimulator to the fight and reconciler to the peace. The two peace agreements even include women during the agreement and in the post-power-sharing framework. Thus, this research opts to explore the severity of the conflict and the involvement of women during the peace agreement, and the impact of their involvement post-agreements. To conduct the research, primary and secondary sources were employed that gave the study a detailed explanation quantitatively and qualitatively
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    Regional Economic Integration in Africa: The Case of Aviation Industry in Ethiopia and South Africa
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-06) Belay, Yonas; berhane (PhD), Zerihun
    The focus of this study is to account for air transport liberalization by holding countries economy together in the context of integration aspiration and optimism in line with fostering sustainable regional development. Hence, the study is to understand the attributes of liberalization of air transport for regional economic integration in Africa with Ethiopian and South African experience. Though the essence of liberalizing air transport to development is valuable, independent rush of countries in Africa to development is a backlash against regional economic integration and shared destiny. The study used qualitative approach and descriptive research design. Purposive sampling technique was employed since it enabled the researcher to use his judgment to choose people that are presented and available that best meets the objectives of the study. Data gathering instruments were interviews. In the gathering tool, individuals were selected based on their professional relevance to the objectives of the study.In concluding part of the study, it is indicated that the aviation industry is determinant for regional economic integration in Africa in promoting integration and desired regional development and engagement of sovereign countries to harmonize their own respective aviation policy. It also briefly states how air transport is linked with regional economic integration and development, including the implications which have been reflected in theYamoussoukroDecision and Africa Union’s agenda 2063 in bringing regional integration for collective aspirations and common economic and political destiny. The challenges encountered in the course of liberalizing aviation and using it as a tool to integrate countries among different interests within their regions are also issues of concern. Regional integration is an increasingly desirable and workable developmental arrangement which facilitates the creation of institutions in which the central authority exercises their power on their sphere.So, the legitimacy of the foundation of institutional design of aviation industry matters. To minimize the dominance of westerns, Africans shall upgrade the strategic cooperation within themselves. The findings indicated the role of air transport which plays much in regional economic integration and growth that air transport is the nation's economic engine and has the ability to drive other sectors in addition to booming the economy. The role of air transport is enormous and could be tagged as a lifting machine for development with the respective regions. It wouldbebetter in an open sky and the response of respondents is that the degree of openness matters economically for integrating regions. The unified voices of the AU paint a vision of what we, for future generations and the continent, want for us.Air transport in South Africa facilitates spillover effects on other businesses like tourism. Key words:Aviation, Aviation industry, Ethiopia, Regionalism, Regional integration, South Africa
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    Africa in Search of “True Federalism”: A Comparative Assessment of the Norm and Practice of Federalism in Ethiopia and Nigeria
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-08) Teressa, Yohannes; Abebe (PhD), Dechassa
    Federalism as a normative concept has two important aspects: self-rule for certain purposes and shared-rule for others with a view of accommodating and promoting distinct identities within a larger political union. The quest for self-rule and shared-rule gives rise to centripetal and centrifugal forces. The delicate balancing of these opposing forces is the real challenge of a truly federal exercise.Given the wide ethno-cultural diversities in African countries, it is surprising that only a few countries on the continent have so far opted for federalism. Among these few countries are found the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In this thesis, the federal exercise in these two countries have been comparatively examined with a view of finding out the convergences and divergences exhibited in their federal exercisesin light of classical theories of federalism. Towards the attainment of this objective, the thesis seeks to answer wheatear and if the federal exercises in the two countries are in par with the tenets of federalism, how their exercises in federalism have impacted the socio-economic developments of the countries and what corrective measures, if any, should they take to fine-tune their ventures in federalism. The methodological approach of this study is qualitative. The main objective of the study being achieving an in-depth understanding of the federal exercises in the two countries by reviewing pertinent literature, this approach is followed.The study has established that, finding the right balance between the centripetal and centrifugal forces and forging a sustainable federal system has been a real challenge in both countries. In spite of their circumstances of extreme diversities, bothcountries haveaccumulated political powers and financial resources at the center at the expense of the regional governments. These facts have not only impeded their attainment of tangible socio-economic development but also forced many to question whether and if the countries can truly be considered federal at all. Having considered the problems in the federal exercises of the two countries this thesis recommended that if the countries are to materialize any meaningful socio-economic development and ensure sustainable peace and security for their people, then, they should realign their modus operandi (norm and practice) in line with the classical theories of federalism by truly decentralizing political power and fiscal resources in a way that empowersthe regional governments. Key Words: Federalism, Centralization, Development, Security, Self-Rule, Shared-Rule.
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    African Solutions for African Problems: Ethiopia’s Mediation Role in (2018-2019) Sudan Political Crisis
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-03) Motuma, Tisefin; Hassen (PhD), Mohammed
    After the overthrew the 30- year old rule of Al Basher the political condition of Sudan had been in a state of swinging to the left and to the right.What Ethiopia did in this particular case was to avoid an all-out conflict and bring the contending parties to the negotiating table in a step-by-step process with a spirit of ‘’African solution for African problem’. The effort succeeded to have resulted ina power sharing deal between the TMC and the civilian opposition power. Itis believed to be the first step towards a democratic transition for the Sudan. This study therefore sought to assess the contribution of Ethiopia towards bringing the disputing Sudanese parties to reach an agreement in the spirit of solving African problems by African. The study utilized qualitative method and non-probability sampling technique to select informants. By conducting semi-structured interviews and extensively reviewingsecondary data sources the study has examined the role, approaches, achievements, and challenges of the Ethiopian-led mediation during the 2018-18 Sudan crisis. The study established that there were various actors in the mediation process in theSudan. Ethiopia’s mediation effort was successful.The successes of the process, has depended on the outcome, acceptability of the mediators by the warring parties, the neutrality of the mediators in the process, and the skill and knowledge of mediators on the causes of conflict, the parties and process. Nerveless, the mediation process was not smooth. There were major challenges including mistrust between the negotiating parties, internal friction among civilian groups, and pressure from various actors and skepticism towards Ethiopia’s initiative. Finally, the study recommended that, coordinated and timely application of specific political, diplomatic, and economic and/or security measures and activities in response to a situation threatening peace should be a responsibility of each member states. Also, to be effective conflict prevention must be planned and implemented with its contribution and transition to longer-term peace and security as a key consideration.Finally, critical post-conflict components should be addressed.
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    The Contribution of Tourism Development to African Economic Development: Lessons from Ethiopia and Morocco
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-07) Zeyede, Henok; Mohammed (Ph.D), Yasin
    This this study was conducted to assess the contribution of tourism development to African economic development: lessons from Ethiopia and Morocco. The contribution of Tourism development to Ethiopian and Moroccan economic development with focus on GDP and employment creation was discussed. The researcher was used purposive sampling method for the study. Primary and secondary data sources were used. Primary data were collected through key informant interviews. Published and unpublished sources such as, magazines, proceedings, pamphlets, and reports of offices were used as a source of secondary data. Qualitative Research design was used for the study and narration was used as a method of data analysis in order to address the objectives of this research. Based on the study finding, it was concluded that, Morocco has been found to be an example for developing and managing its tourism industry. Various things such as the formulation of effective and customized policies, the deployment of huge resources to support the industry, the provision of educated and market oriented tourism personnel’s can be inferred from Morocco. In addition Ethiopia has also shown a reliable dedication to advertise its natural and manmade tourist attraction to the world including registering various historical heritages and cultural and religious festivities by the brand of “land of Origin”. Despite the academic and policy attention to branding in Tourism, there seems to be no clear path for authorities to follow in establishing their marketing strategic plan for branding, stakeholder’s effort to promote the new tourism and Ethiopia as a tourist destination. Therefore it is recommended that there should be common understanding on tourism development guideline for the Government bodies and other stakeholders. In addition all concerned stakeholders from governmental and private sectors should work in cooperation towards the provision of skilled human resource for the sector, and provide quality tourism service. Key Words: Hospitality Industry, Tourism Policy and Reforms.
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    Challenges of Nation Building in Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria: A Comparative Study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-11) Keri, Sherif; Abebe (PhD), Dechasa
    Despite the fact that both Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria are endowed with rich human and natural resources, the observable political, economic, and social phenomena of DRC and Nigeria indicates an absence of successful nation-building process, even after six decades of independence. There are abundant documents and related articles on the challenges faced by these countries in their efforts of nation-building. However, literature of comparative context, which deals with the challenges of nation building of DRC and Nigeria is unavailable. The current study shows the countries‘ efforts and challenges in nation-building. It also indicates their similarities and differences. In order to address the challenges of nation-building efforts of both counties, a qualitative comparative research design was adopted. Accordingly, the findings of the study indicate that the challenges of nation-building faced by the two countries include; challenges from colonial legacy, ethno-religious strife, weak institutions, corruption, poor governance, poverty and socio-economic inequalities, external intervention, leadership crisis, violence, and instability are among the various factors which deserve mention. The findings furthermore, suggest that there are significant similarities and differences between the challenges faced by DRC and Nigeria. For instance, the British colonial system provided better opportunity of political experience and civil servant role for the Nigerian elites as opposed to the Belgian Congo. In contrast to the smooth decolonization process of British Nigeria, the decolonization of Belgian Congo was abnormal, and the external intervention in post-independence Congo was more aggressive than that of Nigeria. Although both countries followed various nation-building policies, the challenges outweighed their endeavors. The findings of the study suggests that by implementing proper policy choices: establishing a national consensus of civic ideals rather than ethnic identity, carrying through a pro-people constitution, political, and economic policies, and by building an inclusive capable political, economic, and social institutions, it could be possible for the two countries to overcome the challenges of nation-building, and attain sustainable development. Keywords: Nation, State, Nation-State, Nation-Building, State-Building.