Food and Nutritional Sciences

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    Screening Food Test Parameters to Detect Adulteration of Teff (Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter) Flour and Injera with Non-Edible Adulterants
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-06-06) Sileshi, Biruk; Getachew, Paulos (PhD)
    Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is the main staple cereal in Ethiopia that is used to prepare a fermented flatbread with a unique slightly spongy texture named injera. Majority of Ethiopian diets consist of injera which accounts for about two-thirds of the daily protein intake of the Ethiopian population. Recently, adulteration of teff flour and injera with non-edible ingredients is becoming a serious problem putting the consumers’ health at risk. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to screen some of the common food analyses test parameters that could detect nonedible adulterants in teff flour and injera for potential use in future routine inspection analysis. In the study, simulation of the adulteration was made on two widely distributed white teff varieties, namely Quncho Teff (DZ-Cr-387) and Magna Teff (DZ-01-196). Three adulterants were selected based on the information gathered from local health bureau, namely Sawdust (organic adulterant) and two inorganic adulterants, chalk powder (calcium carbonate) and gypsum (calcium sulphate dihydrate). Based on the information gathered, the teff to adulterant ratio was (7:3). Thus, the primary investigation was conducted on this adulteration ratio. Accordingly, the analytical tests at this adulteration ratio resulted in a significant mean value difference between the adulterated and control teff flour samples. Secondary investigation was done by preparing injera using lower ratio of teff flour to adulterants (9.5:0.5), (9:1), (8.5:1.5), (8:2) and (7.5:2.5), while unadulterated (100%) teff flour injera was used as control. Ratios resulting in acceptable injera appearance were used as cut-off adulteration ratios to apply the selected test parameters. The final investigation was conducted using the cut-off adulteration ratio, on which the selected test parameters were applied to compare significant mean differences (p < 0.05) between control and adulterated teff flour and injera samples. The overall results of the physicochemical analysis showed that some parameters like crude ash, and crude fibre, and mineral analysis of calcium could be used as detection test parameters for samples as low as 5% adulteration ratio. Qualitative tests such as effervescence and precipitation are also effective tests to detect adulteration. Therefore, this study provides test parameters for preliminary teff flour and injera adulteration detection, which can further be developed by concerned bodies to come up with standard analytical procedures for the detection teff and teff injera with the tested and other similar adulterants.
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    Association of Women Landownership with Child Feeding Practices and Nutrient Intakes among Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Oromia Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07-07) Dereje, Geleta; Tamene, Aynadis (PhD); Abebe, Zeweter (PhD)
    Background and methods; Nutrition-specific interventions alone will not help countries to end child malnutrition; nutrition sensitive interventions are also needed, such as women empowerment like women-land ownership. Therefore, this cross sectional study was proposed to assess the association of women-land ownership with child feeding practices and nutrient intakes among under five children in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices were assessed in addition to dietary assessment using a 24-hour recall. Descriptive statistics were presented in frequency and percentages and in the form of mean ± SD. Any difference in the variables was compared, based on women-land ownership, using Chi square test and Mann Whitney u test. Result show that early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were approximately 60%; the prevalence of continuous breastfeeding at 2 years was 64.5%; and timely introduction of complementary foods was 39.2%. Starchy staples were consumed by more than 90% of the children; close to ¾ of the children consumed legumes and nuts; animal source foods consumption was below 20% except dairy products (84%).The minimum dietary diversity score was achieved by 46% of the children. The median energy intakes for children aged above a year, the intakes of carbohydrate, protein and iron were more than 100% of the recommendation. Conversely, the intakes of energy, at the stage of the second 6 months, the fat, the calcium (those above one year) and the ascorbic acid intake were below the recommendation. However, there was statistical difference (p<0.05) in the proportion children of women with land and without landownership who consumed starchy staples, legumes and nuts, dairy products and ascorbic acid. In Conclusion, suboptimal IYCF practices were common. Energy and nutrient intakes were inadequate except for carbohydrates, proteins and iron. In addition, intakes of starchy staples, legumes and nut, dairy products and ascorbic acid was associated with women land ownership. Therefore, Optimal Infant and young child feeding should be addressed. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen women-land ownership in addition to implementing proven interventions.
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    Complementary Feeding Wash Practice and Nutritional Status of Children 6-23 Months the Case of Rural Villages in South Wollo
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-10) Bichaye, Amanuel; Baye, Kaleab (PhD)
    Background: In addition to the dietary practice, access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities contribute to child growth failure. However, the combined role of dietary practice and access to WASH on child growth outcomes is remains to be studied in rural Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of complementary feeding and WASH practice towards child nutrition outcomes. Methods: A community-based Cross-section study design was employed among rural households (n=464) having children 6-23months in south Wollo in Apirl 2021, using a multistage sampling technique. Dietary assessment, anthropometric and biochemical (hemoglobin) measurements were done. WASH components were partly assessed through observation. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, bivariate and multiple logistic regression using SPSS. Result: Children meeting the minimum dietary diversity was 25%. Proportion of household having access to improved water source (56.3%), improved sanitation (16.6%) and hygiene (54.88). Only 6% of households satisfy for all the three combined WASH components. Regarding nutrition status of children, stunting is more prevalent (44.2%), wasting (5.9%), underweight (14.7%) and anemia (63%). Non-breast children, mother height, fever. Diarrhea was associated with all components of WASH. Having a mother with formal education was an advantage to meet MDD. Being in early age group of 6- 11 months (AOR=2.33, 95% CI 1.49-3.57), having diarrhea episodes (AOR=1.59, 1.02-2.47) and exposing to the unimproved water source (AOR=1.57, 1.05-2.33) were associated with anemia. Factors associated with stunting: non-breast feeding (AOR= 2.6, 95% CI 1.08-6.3), increasing child age 12- 23months (AOR= 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.31) and maternal height <150cm. Conclusion: Only quarter of children meet the minimum required dietary diversity. Significant proportion of children are anemic and stunted. Above average the households do not have access to improved water source and hygiene practice. Therefore, in addition to diet-based interventions, the complementary role of WASH through reducing common childhood illness could have significant contribution to the improvements in child nutrition outcomes.
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    Macro-Nutrient Loss Associated With Food Waste in Cafe and Food Court of Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-28) Kiros, Getnet; Debebe, Zelalem (PhD)
    Background: Various researchers have reported that one third of food that we produced were wasted per capital per year in the globe which can cover daily recommended intake of millions people. Previous study showed that wasted food in consumer level contains between 1,249 and 1,400 kcal per capita per day, but there is no study on energy and macronutrient loss in Ethiopia café, restaurant and mass catering service provider that embedded along with wasted foods. Objective: To assess the prevalence of macronutrient loss that are embedded in wasted food in the catering service provider and contextualize the amount of nutrient loss in terms of gaps between current and recommended intakes Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study conducted at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University. A representative sample size of 350 plates (consumers) were-selected to participate in the study. Simple random sampling technique used to select the study participants. Randomly selected male and female students considered in the study. Interviewer administered questionnaire for sociodemographic and direct weight measurements used to collect the data. Crude food waste (plate leftover) data converted to its equivalent macronutrient loss based on local food composition data and the results of laboratory-based analysis of nutrient composition of the food. The collected data entered and processed by SPSS, to analyze the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Mean comparison analysis was used after setting statistical significance at α= 0.05. Independent T-test analysis conducted to compare the significance different between male and female mean values. Results: three hundred fifty adults took part in the study with a response rate of 91.9 %, of whom 320 (91.9%) were AASTU café‘ consumers. The prevalence of food waste was 31.7 %, 46.1 %, 26.9 and 21.8 % for Injera, bread, cooked pea and lentils, respectively; while it was 40% for vegetables (cooked cabbage). The wasted food contained equivalent number of loss: energy 13538 MJ, 107 protein, 517 Carbohydrate, 71 total Fat, 2,104 dietary fiber Kg per capita per day. There were significant difference in Carbohydrate and energy equivalent loss (P<0.05); female plate loss (M= 175.8, SD= 37.5) was higher than male (M=119.7, SD= 34.0) and energy equivalent loss for female (M= 897.9, SD= 203) was lower than male (M=952.9, SD= 188). Mean energy loss could cover on average 46.5 % energy (Kcal/d) of adult female and male RDA. Carbohydrate equivalent loss (g/capita/d) covered on average 65.5% of the lower range of AMDR (45-65 %Energy). Protein equivalent loss embedded in the food waste also could cover on average 46% of Protein EAR (66 g/d) for adult age female and male. Using carbohydrate as an example, 517g carbohydrate loss mean that 55% more of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adult woman. This is equivalent to the carbohydrate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for an average 1870 adults and the amount of wasted macronutrients are equivalent to cover the gap for 3738 adults‘ food energy requirement per day. Conclusion and recommendation: This was the first study to document the loss of macro- nutrients from selected common staple food waste in the Institution based food supply. Even if only a small portion of discarded food can practically be made obtainable for human consumption, efforts to redistribute surplus foods where appropriate and prevent food waste in the first place could increase the availability of nutrients for needy, while saving money and natural resources.
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    Comparative Study on the Nutritional Composition, Ant-nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Newly Introduced (Lupines Angustifolius) and Locally Grown (Lupinus Albus) Lupin (Gibto) Varieties in Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-07) Shambel, Zerihun; Zegeye, Adamu (Assoc. Prof.)
    Inadeql/ate availability and consumption 0/ protein /oods in developing countries are a major concern as large segments 0/ population 0/ these countries suffer /1'0117 protein-energy malnutrition. Exploitation 0/ underutilized locally available varieties, introducing and adaptation 0/ new types a/legume crops with beller nutritional projiles and yielding capaCity is considered as an important approach to combat the protein-malnutrition. A comparative study on proximate composition, mineral composition, ant inl/trit ional/actors and jill1ctional propert ies /01' both raw and processed seeds a/newly introduced AI/stralian Sweet LI/pin (L I/pinlls angustijo!ius) and locally grown lvhite Ilipin (Lupinlls alb us) varieties obtained from !-loleta Agricultl/ral Research Institute Center lIIas conducted. The mean crude protein, crude ash, crude /at and crude jiber contents a/the raw nelll and local lupin varieties lIIere 25.55,2.92, 6.42, I 4. 89g11 OOg and 35.17, 2.75,6.59, 14. 79g1100g, respectively. The local lupin variety had higher crude protein content than the new lupin variety. The mineral, Zn, Fe and Ca cOl7lents were 2. 74, 2.48, 112.62I17gI100g and 3.46, 2.94, 44mgl /OOg, respectively /01' the new and local lupin varieties. The new lupin variety had higher Co content than the locetl lupin variety. The new lupin variety (Lupinus angustifolius) had lower total alkaloid and higher phytic acid content than the locet! lupin (Lupinus albus) variety. The nelll lupin variety showed comparable jimctional properties and sensory acceptability lIIith the local II/pin variety. The nelV II/pin variety had higher lvater absorption capacity, eml/lsion activity andfoal17ing capaCity than the local lupin variety. Except the minerals content, both traditional processing methods applied in the present study significantly (p
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    Physicochemical and Casein Characterization of Ethiopian Camel Milk (Camelus Dromedarius)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-10) Fesseha, Zeratsion; Zegeye, Abiy (PhD); Retta, Negussie (Prof.)
    Abstract The samples were collected from East Showa zone of Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia and the ana lysis part conducted in Addis Ababa University college of natural Sciences Center for food Science and Nutrition laboratory with the objective of Physicochemical profile determination and characterization of Dromedary camel milk casein. Twenty milk samples were collected from secondary and tertiary partum she camels. physicochemical analysis of whole milk was done and casein samples were characterized using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SOS-PAGE). Data was analyzed using computer package SPSS version 20. The following observations was made from the results of the study; the average percentage (mean ± SE) Physicochemical composition of whole camel milk for pH, titratable acidity, ash, total solids, total crude protein, fat and lactose were 6.71 ± 0.010, 0.16 ±...0.004, 0.61.± 0.026, 1l.84 ± 0.17, 2.69 ± 0.08, 3.35 ±...0.029, 5.42 ± 0.13 and 2.08 ± 0.004 respectively. Average casein yield per 100mi whole milk was 2.44% which contributes about 90% (w/w) of the total protein content (2.69%). Casein was purified by acid precipitation at its isoelectric point of pH4.6 and separated in to three major components of a-CN, p-CN and k-CN with molecular masses estimated in kDa as 28.84, 23.40 and 22.40 respectively. The molecular masses were determined using standard weight markers pageRuler™ (Thermo scientific Inc.) having molecular weight range of 10,000 to 170,0000a. The relative quantities of a-, p-, and k- were also estimated using the re lative quantitation method from Myimage software (Thermo scientific Inc.) and fo und to be in the ratio of 1.3: l. 2: l. The estimated molecular sizes and ratio of casein fractions (a-CN, p-CN and k-CN) were different as compared to other research works whi ch could be because of differences in sample breed andlor differences in analytical measurement procedure. From the physicochemical anal ysis result of this study, it is possible to conclude that Dromedary camel milk is a good source of protein, fat, lactose and minerals. Key word s:- Camemilk, Camel milk Protein, Camel milk fat, CamelImlk Lactose, Camel milk case in and SOS-PAGE
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    Preparation of Wine from Cactus Pear Fruit/Belesl (Opuntia spps)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-09) Beyene, Yosef; Asfaw, Nigist (PhD); Asfaw, Araya (PhD)
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    Change in Phytates and HCI-extractability of Minerals Due to Processing of Chick Pea in Ethiopia Variety
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013) Fikre, Yordanos; Urga, Kelbesa (PhD); Ahdisa, Melese (PhD)
    Change in phytates and HCI-extractability of minerals due to processing of chickpea grown in Ethiopia was studied Chickpeas contained a significant amount of phytic acid, i.e. 98.06±0. 136mg/100g When it was subjected to cooking methods, soaking (6, 12, 18 h), dehulling, autoclaving and .Iprouting (24, 36 and 48 h), a strong decrease in level of phytic acid with a remarkable increase in the HCI-extractability of calcium, zinc phosphorus, and iron occurred. Combination of soaking and cooking was found to be the best method for decreasing the phytic acid content, that is. 48 89±0.152 mg/ IOOg the control and significantly (p< 005) increasing the non-phytate phosphorus and HCI- extractable phosphorus. Some mineral losses were noticed when the legume was subjected to soaking, cooking, and germination but the maximum losses, occurred when the seeds were dehulled. However, HCl-extractability of Ca, P, 2n and Fe improved to a significant extent when the chickpea seeds were soaked, soaked- del7Ulled, cooked and :,prouted which may have been due to decrease in the phytate content followed by processing. Moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and total ash ranges were 5.04-6.88 %, 14.21- 23.86 %, 3.71-6.21%, 1.25-3.97% andI.01- 2.78% respectively. The range of iron, zinc, calcium and phosphorous were 1.34- 4.76, 1.72- 2.94, 69.29 -162.3 7and 20. 75-30.66 mg/ IOOg respectively. Key words.' Cooking, dehul/ing, sprouting, autoclaving, HCI-extractability, iron, calcium, Phosphorus, Phytic acid, soaking
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    Assessment on the Adequacy of Energy and Micronutrients in the Food Supplied and the Nutritional Status of Children from Selected Orphanages in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2017-03) Yabibal, Woinshet; Debebe, Zelalem (PhD)
    It is well known that the increasing number of orphans and vuln erabl e children in Ethiopia have resulted in the expansion of orphanages in whi ch chil dren are provided with bas ic necessities o f li fe including food, clothin g, shelter, schoo ling and health care fac ili ties. However, children in these in stitu tions become undernouri shed due to lack of adequate resou rces and li mitations of knowledge and understandin g on th eir nutri tional needs. In Ethi opia, although diffe rent researches have been conducted on the nu tr it ional status of children, only few studies are done that assessed the adequacy of nutrients given and the nutritio nal status of chi Idren in orphanages. The main objective of th is study was therefore to assess the energy adequacy of the food given and the nutritional status of c hildren from selected four orp hanages in Add is Ababa. An in stitution based cross sectional study with multistage random sampling was applied between Janua ry to Febru ary 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to coll ect data from the children and caretakers in the orphanages. Food samples that were given in the se lected orphanages throu ghout the week were collected and tested in the laboratory for their nutrient composition and were analyzed using independent samp le t-test to determine differences between government and non government orphanages. One sample H esl was also applied 10 compare the energy difference between the meal given in the orphanages with the RDA. The child ren's nutritional status was assessed anthropometrica lly usi ng a Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age and Weight-forHe ight indices. WHO Anthro plus software for Assess ing Growth of the World's Chi ldren and Adolescents was used. t-test for proportions was used to compare the differences in proportions of children who were malnourished among government and non government orphanages. The da ily mean energy intake of the children was 1320 ± 304 Kcal. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the children was 20.96 %, 17.34 % and 9.27 %. The total mean energy intake among the chi ldren in non government orphanages was significantly higher (p 0. 05). In conclu sion, thi s study fo und that malnutrition is prevalent among children in se lected orphanages of Addis Ababa. To improve the nutri t ional status of the children, stakeholders should formulate and strengthen nutrition programs and polic ies oriented towards this segment of the population. Key words: Malnutrition, Children, Orphanages, Add is Ababa.
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    Organoleptic and Nutritional Evaluation of Tefinjera Supplemented with Treated and Untreated Fenugreek (Trigonella Joenum-Graecum L.)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2011-05) Abera, Woinshet; Abdisa, Melese (PhD)
    The experimen/ was conducled wilh an objeclive of assessing nUlrilional, organo/eplic and anlinulrienl conI en Is of fenugreek sllpplemenled and unsupplemenled Tef Injera. Therefore, Injera prepared jiwn Ihe blends conlaining differenl proporlions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of raw, roasled, soaked and germinaled fenugreek seed flour were evalualed for nulrilional composil ion and sensol), characlerislics. The proximale composition o.f fenugreek supp/emenled injera signijicanlly (p<0.05) increasedfor moiSlure, prolein, fal andjiber wilh blending ralio of 0%, 5% and 10%. The mean moisture, prolein, fat andjiber conlenl signijicanlly (p<0.05) increasedji-om 6.3 10 6.9 gl100g, 9.0810 10.4 gl100g, 1.61103.2 gi iOOg and 3.3103.7 gl100g respeclively. Conversely, Ihe nulrilional conlenls of lolal ash. carbohydrale, and energy generally significanlly (p
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    Effect of Germination and Fermentation on Microflora, Sensory Characteristics and Energy Density of Fermented Low Tannin Sorghum/Chickpea Blended Porridge as Complementary Food
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Markos, Tsion; Urga, Kelbessa (PhD)
    NlIIrilional composition, microbiology and sensO/y characteristics oj' germinated and fermented low lannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) variety ("teshole ") and kabuli chickpea (Cicer arielinum L.,) variety ("harbu ' ) blend were invesligated. Traditional processing (germinat ion and jimnel1lation) methods were observed to be effective in reducing antimllritional facto rs. Siondard Methods o/AOAC were usedfor analysis o/nlltritionol compositions. Porridf!,el lI'ae evaluated/ur their acceptobilitv test using a nine poinl hedonic scale. Tvlal p/ole ('ollnl (lnd IOe/ic acid baclerial cOllnl Irere enumerated using Plate Count Agar and MRS ogCt/; re.sjJectively Fermentation for -18 hours reduced the tOlal baclerial count from \I 57 to 3. 1610gcjil/m by reducing the pH to the level of <-1.5 which inhibited the gruIL th of tolal bacterial count to the level <410gcji.t!ml. Combined ejfect of germination ond jimnentalion increased crude protein from I3.55 to 15.78. total energy frum 4lU.3:! tu -115.11. colcium ji'om 51.-19 to 57. 76. zinc from 2.676 to 3.17 and phosphorus from 26.11 to 38.87 Ing/ fOOg, but decreased crude fiber/rom 3. 05 10 2.4 7, carbohydratefi'om 78. 90 to 76.74. iron ii'om 5.29 to ·128. phytale from 52.02 to 20.10 and tannin ji'om 38.35 10 3-1.19 mg/ IOOg of sorghumlchickpea blend. Over all senson' acceptability of jermentedlf!,erminated sorghumk hickpel/ blended parric~f{e " 'os mo/"{' liked h,. the ponelists. ClIlI1hined etr~ct or germination/fermentatiun increased the energl density of sorghum/chickpea blend by reducing viscosity from 5122cP (cuntrol) tu 1Y86cP (acceptable value 0/ viscosity jur young children). II can be concluded thaI. genninu/;on Cine/fermentation were observed to decrease the tolal bacterial count, increase energy density by decreasing the viscosity of porridge and increase the sensory acceptability by improving Ihe organoleptic property a/porridge prepared from LOlli tannin sorghumlchickpea bLend. Key I\lords: Germimition, Fermentation, Complementary food, Ant inutritiol7al jilclvrs, Low tal7nin sorghum, Chickpea.
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    Vitamin A, B12, Foliate, Ferreting and Transferring Status of Se(Nod and Third Trimester Anemic Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in West Showa Zone, Ambo Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Bekele, Teshome; Baye, Kaleab /Ass. Prof.)
    Iron, folate and vitamin B12 play important roles in the healthy development and brain function of the fetus. The levels of these micronutrients in pregnant women are influenced among other factors by dietmy habits. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of iron biomarkers, serum retinol, B12, C-reactive protein (CRP) andfolate in second and third trimester pregnancies at/ending antenatal care in the west showa, Oromia region. One hundred four anaemic pregnant women were screened during their 2nd and j"d prenatal visit. A socio-demographic characteristic of study subjects were obtained and Hemoglobin (Hb), serum retinol, serum ferritin (sf), serum transferrin (sTjR), folate, retinol and vitamin Bil levels were evaluated. Based on WHO guidelines, anaemia was defined as severe Hb<7gIL, moderate 7-9.9gIL and mild 9.9-1 0.9gIL; ID as sf <12 pglL and sTjR >8.3glL. Serum folate and B 12 deficiencies were defined as levels <6.8 nglml and 150 pglml respectively. The mean age and gestational week 1vas 24.6±5 years and 23.3± 5.6 weeks re:,pectively. The mean concentrations of llb in serum were 10.5±1.2 gldL, 30.3±23.6 pglL for sf, 5. 4± 2. 8glL for sTjR, 1. 69±2.02JU1101lL for retinol, 7. 6±3.5nglml for folate, 187.4±53. 7pglml for vitamin B12 and 4.5±1.6 mglL for CRP. IDA was present in 32.7%, VitB l l deficency in 26.9% and fol ic acid deficiency in 2 7.9% of anaelllic pregnant women. Vitamin 812 and serum transferrin were associated with CRP (I· ~ 0.189; P ~ O. 015). Iron, vitamin A, vitalllin B12, and folate defiCiencies as well as infections were relatively common in the anaemic pregnant women. Vitamin A and vitalllin B12 supplementation in addition to iron IIIUSt be considered in pregnant women living in the study areas. Key words: Anaemia, Hemoglobin, ferritin, fo late, vitam in B 12, Vitamin A, pregnancy
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    Effect of Muscle Storage on Beef Oxidation
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-05) Amanuel, Temnet; Abdisa, Melese (PhD)
    Lipid ox idation in meat and meat products is the major biochemical process that occurs during storage and cooking of beef leading to quality deterioration: undesirable odour and fl avour called rancid ity. Rancidity may give rise to toxic compounds like malondialdehyde. The objective of this work was to determ ine the effect of musc le storage for different duration on quality and oxidation of four beef musc les (Quadriceps femaris, Longissimus dorsi, Ii?/i'aspinatus and Rhomboideus). Beef muscle samples were vacuum packaged in pol yeth ylene bag and stored at sub zero (4 °C) temperature for day 0, 7, 14 and 21 before analysis were made for different parameters of study. Measured responses were determinat ion of th iobarbitu ric ac id reactive substance (TBARS), total pigment, heme iron (mg/kg), concentration of metm yoglobin , L 'aobo colour va lues, pH value, proximate composition and senso ry evaluat ion. The TBARS mean values showed an increasing trend with increased storage time, whi le tota l pigment and heme iron decreased. The formation of metmyoglobin increased with increased storage time. The color parameters (L *, a', b*) showed a decrease with increasing storage time regardless of muscle type. The pH values tend to increase with increasing storage time. Muscle storage types significantly affected mean proximate va lues. Sensory analyses revealed deteriorat ion in fla vour, color, aroma, texture and overall acceptance. It was concluded that muscle storage time affects meat.
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    A Comparison of Hypoglycemic Effect in Diabetic Mice and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves Extract of Moringa Stenopetala and Moringa Oleifera
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-06) Awoke, Temesgen; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay (Prof)
    Diabetes is a defect in the body's ability to convert glucose (sugar) to energy. It develops either when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient quantities of insulin or the insulin produced is defective. This metabolic disorder is characterized by hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose level greater than 126 mgj dl taken on at least two separate occasions). Medicinal plants are used in the traditional medical practice to treat diabetes mellitus in different part of the world. Moringa sp. has been documented to have medicinal importance against various illnesses. The present study was conducted to compare the anti-diabetic activity and total phenolic content of two species of Moringa; namely M. stenopetala and M. oleifera leaves extracted with methanolwater and further with ethyl acetate as fraction. The anti-diabetic activity was studied by repeated oral dose administration of the extract of the leaves and the fraction in Streptozotocin induced mice. The mice were grouped into six groups; Moringa stenopetala methanol-water extract treated, Moringa stenopetala ethyl acetate fraction treated, Moringa oleifera methanol-water extract treated, Moringa oleifera ethyl acetate fraction treated, Standard diabetic drug treated and Diabetic control. The diabetic mice received the extract and the fraction of both leave daily for 21 days. The result showed that ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa stenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level initially was 190.6±3.4351 mgj dl and it reduced to 129±1.8708mgj dl and 109±4.6368mgjdl respectively after 14 and 21 day administration. Also this fraction has potential antioxidant activity and remarkable amount of phenolic concentration. The result indicated that M. stenopetala leaves are suitable source of green leafy vegetable to reduce the diabetic complications in diabetic patients. Key words: anti-hyperglycemic, phenolic, diabetes, antioxidant, Moringa stenopetala, Moringa oleifera
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    Physicochemical, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Sensory Characterization of Belete-Gera Forest Honey, Jimma, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-11) GlMikael, Tekleweyni; Belay, Abera (PhD); Debebe, Zelalem (PhD)
    The study aimed to investigate the quality of honey based On botanical origin, physicochemical, antimicrobial, antioxidant and sem'olY properties collected ./i'om Belete -Cera forest, Jimma, Ethiopia. A total fol'/y eight samples honey samples were collectedji'om Jimma- Ethiopia and categorized into seven mono/loral honey I.Ising melissopalynology. Sugars (/i'uctose, glucose, suc/'Ose, maltose) and hydroxylmethy/iu/ilral were investigated using high per/ilrmance liquid chromatography and moisture, pH, acidity, ash, au., conductivity and colour were analysed using harmonized method of the international honey commission. The antioxidant content (phenol, flavonoid) and antioxidant activity (2, 2 -Diphenyl I-picryl hydrazyl assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power, Peroxide Radical scavenging activitie.l) were analysed using UV. Ipectrophotometer. The antimicrobial properties were analysed using disc diffi.lsion and sensruy acceptability based on seven hedonic scale. The mono/lora honey /ilund in Belete-Cera were: Eucalyptus. Cuizotia spp, Viciafaba, Trifolium, Vernonia. Hypericum and Sativa in which their total sugar content 64.67±6.181IDDg (Eucalyptus), 63.8±5. 74g11DDg (Cu izotia), 63.D8±5.14gI IDDg (Vicia/elba), 62.16±4 . ././gI IDDg (TirijiJlium), 6-I68±./35gI IDDg (Vernonia), 63.45±5.19gI IDDg (Hypericum), 64. 73±4. 44gl 1 DDg (\'(It iva), pH 4.1 D±D. 0.1 (Eucalyptus), 4.3±D.DD (Cuizotia), 4.23±D.D2 (Vicia /elba), 4.25±D.DD (Trifolium), '/D9±O.D3 (Vernonia) , 3. 7D±D. 0. 1 (Hypericum), 3. 62D±. DO (Sa tiva), moisture content 15. D±D.16 (Eucalyptus), 17. D±O. 32 (Cuizotia), 188±D.15 (Vicia faba) , 15. 8±D.32 (Tiri/olum), 19.D±0 15 (Ve rnonia). 16.2±D.29 (Hypericum). 18±D.24% (sativa). electrical conduclivity D.5D±D.D'/ (Eucalyptus), D.2D±0.D1 (Cuizotia), D.2±a DO. (Viciafaba), 0. ./2±D 12 (Tirfolium), 0. 31 ±D 0.7 (Vernonia), 0..3 7±D 0.5 (Hypericum), D. 26±D. D4mS!cm (Sat iva), HlvlF 12. 2±4. 8 (EucalyptU5), 16.1 ±3. 9 (Cuizot ia), 16.33±./.5 (Viciafaba), 21.95±D.87 (Trifolium), 18.23± 172 (Vernonia), 12. 25±4. 94 (Hypericum), 19.2D±4.2Dglkg (Sativa), au, D.53±aD4 (Eucalyptw), D56±DD1 (Cuizotia), D.59±D.DD(Vicia .fclba), D.54±D. 0.1 (TrifOlium), O.IiD±a DO. (Vernonia), D.55±D.DD(Hypericum), D.59±a DD%(Sativa), ash content D. 30±D. 0. (Eucalyptl/.l) . D.l±a 02 (Cuizitia). D.3D±D. a (Vicia .fclba), 0.1 D±a DO (TrifOlium), D. 6±0. 0.4 (Vernon ia). O. 2±{). 0. I, UI ±O. ODmglkg (Sativa) re.lpectively. Mean phenol content for Eucalypt"s, Cuizotia spp, Vicia.f(dJa, Triji)lium. Vernonia, Hypericum and Sativa were: 615.6±5.50, 536.4±4.0D, ./53. 1±3. 12 . .//3.2±2.51, 425. 0±2. DO., 406. 7±3.J3, 61.95±1.47CAElkg respectively; Flavonoid.l· had 41.50±0.84, 24.22±a 73, 31.83±O.16, Il.D9±D./I, 12. 18±D.DI, 25. 62±D. 0.8, 18.9D±D./ImgQElkg mpectively, , DPPH had -I7.4D±1.13, 5272±D.32, 42. 27±1.l3. 55. 93±D. 69, 37.29±D.II, 6D.0I±D.D87, 72.76±5.D9% respectively and peroxide radical scavenger had 636±2.82, 59.2±D.46. 863±II.D3. 72.7±636, 76.2±7.21, 82.4±7.91, 65.D±I.13% respectively. The mean sensOlY acceptance/ill' Eucalyptus and sativa taste was 5.44±D.95, 5.32±1.13 respectively: smell 5.54 ±D.95, 5. 2D±D. 94, respectively: color 5. 52±D. 78, 5.86±a83respectively and over all acceptability was 5. 78±a84, 5.58±D.99 respectively in a scale of seven. The results I!f honey indicated thai, all Ihe honey samples collected./i'om Belele-Cera/oresl area salisfY Ihe Codex, EU and Ethiopian slandard. Eucalyptus honey had the besl quality as compaieredji'Oln Ihe rest and Honey is unique on ils /loral source of the neclar ii-om which if was made and assessing Ihe physicochemical and anlioxidanl properly ofhoney'ji'om differenl area is necessaty. Key words: Anlioxidanl, Anlimicrobial, Honey, Physicochemical
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    Formulation of Nutritionally Enriched Macaroni with Blends of Durum Wheat, Tef and Chickpea
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-06) Kore, Tamrat; Getachew, Paulos (PhD); Abebe, Workineh (PhD)
    Pasta is unleavened extruded product which is made from dough of durum wheat semolina or blends of durum wheat with rice, tef, sorghum, chickpea, lupin etc. In Ethiopia, pasta products made commonly with only semolina, which has lower quality in some important nutrients such as protein, fiber and minerals as compared with other cereals and legumes. Also, semolina is in shortage of supply due to low durum wheat local production. Despite these facts, there is still lack of research on formulating pasta products from composite flour with other cereals and legumes of higher nutritional quality and production rate. Therefore, in this study the usage oftef and chickpea flours to enrich pasta products (specifically macaroni) was investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Macaroni was prepared using composite flours of durum wheat semolina (60-100%), tef (0-40%) and chickpea (0-15%) using D-optimal mixture design. For cold press extrusion, pilot scale single screw food extruder was used. Then, first order polynomial model was applied to describe the influence of semolina, tef and chickpea proportion on nutritional composition, cooking quality, textural analysis and sensory evaluation of macaroni products. Throughout the study durum wheat macaroni (100% semolina) was used as a control. Results indicate that an increasing proportion of tef and chickpea flour significantly improved the nutritional composition of the blend macaroni (protein, fiber, fat, iron and zinc content). Incorporation of chickpea flour only up to 15% with semolina produced a macaroni comparable sensory quality with semolina macaroni. Similarly, though the addition of tef flour considerably increased the cooking loss and it also considerably improved the water absorption capacity/index of the macaroni. Protein, fiber, filmness, stickiness, cooking loss and overall acceptability were deem as common optimum parameter for macaroni formula. The formula containing 73.46% semolina, 11.55% tef and 15% chickpea was selected as the best formulation to produce a nutrient rich macaroni product with desirable cooking, texture and sensory quality. Understanding the impact of the blending ratio to improve macaroni nutritional quality was considered useful to develop pasta products. Keywords: Macaroni, tef, chickpea, cooking and textural property, RSM, D-optimal design
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    Association between Dietary Diversity Score, Anemia, Iron, Zinc and Vitamin a Biomarkers among Women of Reproductive Age in Selected District of West Gojjam and Agew Awi, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-06) Hassen, Tadiwos; Baye, Kaleab (PhD)
    Background: Women of reproductive age (WRA) in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are at high ri sk of inadequate intake of micronutrie nts due to diet being dominated by sta rchy staples. Collection of information on dietary diversity to inform food security and nutritional assessments has been promoted, but there is not an agreed upon set of indicators in usc. Recently minimum dietary diversity women (MDD-W) endorsed for women, which dictate taking a minimum of five from ten-food groups. However, little is known about MDD-W predictive ability for quality of women's diet in SSA including Ethiopia. Objective: This study investigated the associ at ion between dietary di versity score, anemia, iron, zinc and vitamin A status among women of reproductive age in West Gojjam and Agew Awi zone in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods: The study conducted in seven kebeles in Bahir Dar Zuria and Dangla District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Case control study design employed among anemic and non-anemic women of reproductive age (WRA). About 179 WRA were part icipated in the study. Data on socio-demographic status and dietary diversity using 24-hr recall , and validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) collected. Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, zinc deficiency and vitam in A defi ciency for both groups in average were 18.4 %( serum ferritin < 30~g/L), 65 %( 70 ~g/L) and was 12.4 %« 0.81 ~mo IlL), respectively. The overall MDD-W for the WRA was 3.00± 0.757 and the percentage of WRA who achieved minimum dietary diversity (~ 5 food groups) was only 3%. All biomarkers, except serum transferrin receptor, had pos itive association with dietary diversity. Conclusions: The finding of the study indicates high prevalence of iron and zinc defic iencies in both groups ofWRA, while from the total , 97 % ofWRA failed to fulfill MDD. Low prevalence of vitamin A also observed. There is sign ificant association between DDS and selected biomarkers. Si nce both groups had low dietary diversity score, MDD-W could not predict the diet quali ty. Therefore, programs that focus on impro vi ng micronutrient intake through stimulating dietary diversity and fortification of commonly consumed and affordable food products might be needed. In addition to these modern technologies like on-farm di versity, contribute towards improving dietary diversity and qual ity. Keywords: Minimum dietary diversity, women of reproduct ive age, micronutrients
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    Nutrient Density and Energy Relation of Selected Traditional Weaning Foods in Three Food Insecured Kebeles of Demba Gofa Woreda, Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-06) Tuba, Tadele; Retta, Nigussie (prof.)
    Types, preparation, ingredient proportions, JYCF practices and Nutrient composilions of commonly used traditional weaning Joods in three kebeles (Dakisho Subo, Vba Phizgo and Falka Tsaw'lye) were studied. Data were collected using structured questionnaire ji'om mothers with children older than 6 months but younger than 24 months and evaluated Jor its nutrient components using standard procedures. Gruels prepared Jrom cereal flour were the first Joods introduced to children in Ihe kebeles and analysis results showed that, Crude protein was ranged ji-om 145 - 4. 27g1100 g with the crude Jat ranged ji-om 1.49 - 3.69g1100 g. The ash con/en/ ranged ji-om 1.63 - 3.20g1100 g with the fiber content ranged ji-om 2.37 - 5.27g.·1UUg. The carbohydrate and gross energy contents were ranged Jrom 85.64-90.23gIJ OOg and 379.87- 396.85kcaI1100g. Minerals calcium, iron and zinc contents rangedJrom 41.43 - J48.85mgl 100g; 24.80 - 39.95mg1100g and 0. 74 -. 2. 76mgl JOOg respectively. Antinutritional fe/ctor.l. PhylUles rangedJrom 23 7.94 - 299.70mg1100g and Tannins rangedji-om 33.92 - 81 .69mgl 1UUg There was low protein intake by children in the kebeles since their weaning Joods were mainly based on cereals with no other supplementation. Germination and roasting were used Jor the preparation oJJormulated IVeaning foods /;'om low cost locally uvailable ingredients and the nutrient compositions were analysed fiJI' prOleirl rangedji-om JO.8 / - 15.8/g1100g with theJat content were rangedji-om 1 . ./8 - ./03g. /()II~ The ash content rangedji-om 2.28 - 2. 57gl JOOg with the fiber content rangedji-om 1.96 - ./.U.JgI10Ug The carbohydrate and gross energy contents were rangedJrom 75.92- 81. 61g1100g and 381.08- 403. 19kca/1100g. Minera/s; calcium, iron and zinc ranged ji-om 15.38 - 56. 611/1g11 OOg. fi.oO - 17. 87mgll OOg and 1.72 - 5.1 8mgl1 OOg respectively. Antinutritional Jactors: Phylic acid ranged ji-om 191.61 - 269. 75mgl 100g and tannin ranged Jrom 12.55 - 4145mg1100g. The senSf)/Y acceptance tastes Jor Jormulated weaningJoods showed that panelists scored lik(~ moderately 10 like velY much in all allributes and the protein contents a/so were higher than rradilional weaningJoods. ThereJore all (he blends can be used as alternalives to (he 'veaning./oods in Ihe kebeles as well as in lhe Woreda 10 improve the nutritional SIC/tus oJchildren and help ro IOckle malnulrition.
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    Occurrence of Aflatoxin Contamination in Milk and Dairy Products from Bishoftu and Its Surrounding
    (Addis Ababa University, 2017-11) Tadesse, Selamawit; Zewdu, Ashagrie (PhD)
    Aflatoxin contamination of milk in the Greater Addis Ababa milk shed Ethiopia was reported in 2016, indicating a that high probability of contamination of milk corning from the surrounding areas of Addis Ababa. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products (cheese butter and yogurt) in Bishoftu (Ethiopia). The effect of different dairy production processes to the concentration of AFM1 was also investigated. In addition, KAP (Knowledge attitude and practice) study was conducted on local producer and on employees from dairy industries. Milk (n=108), cheese (82), yogurt (93) and butter (82) samples were taken from both industrial and local producers by purchasing from their shops and the level of AFM1 was determined using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Irnmuno Sorbate Assay) method. From 366 samples analysed 361 samples were found positive and the maximum value of aflatoxin among all the analyzed samples was found in cheese which is 5.580+0.08I-'g/kg and the minimum (Not detected) in butter. Under comparing the mean values of each dairy product type of local products with the industrial products all the industrial products have a higher mean value r~lative to the local one. In addition to this the KAP study shows though the local producers had knowledge on mycotoxin related questions their knowledge specific to AFM1 practice towards reducing the contamination level of AFM1 is not enough. But they have a positive attitude towards reduction of AFM1 level. Unlike the local producers employees in dairy industry had a better practice towards reducing the level of AFM1 contamination. Even though researches have been done about level of AFM1 in milk so far, this shldy shows that the problem on the occurrence of the toxin s till persists. Therefore, the government should establish a program to regularly cheek AFM1 levels and take corrective mitigation measures. Key words: Aflatoxin Ml, Milk, Cheese, Yogurt, ELISA, KAP assessment
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    Effect of Processing on Nutrient Composition, Antinutritional Factors, Protein Digestibility and Bioaccessibility of Selected Minerals of Lablab Purpureus (L.) Sweet Grown in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-06) Abdela, Seada; Addis, Getachew (PhD)
    Lablab purpureus is one of the under utilized and less studied legumes of arid and semi-arid lands. It is a good source of protein and other nutrients. This study was conducted to determine the effects of some commonly applied traditional processing methods on antinutritional factors, in vitro protein digestibility and mineval bioaccessibility of Lablab purpureus seeds. Proximate composition was determined according to AOAC method. Selected minerals (Co, Fe, Zn and P) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). In vitro protein digestibility and bioaccessibility of minerals were conducted under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions using intestinal enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin). To investigate the effects of traditional processing methods; soaking (for 6, 12 and 18h), dehulling, boiling and germination (for 24, 36 and 48 hrs) were applied on the two varieties of lablab (black and red) seeds. The black variety of lablab raw seeds had a mean of 7.1 % Moisture, 3. 4 % ash, 2.5 % fat, and 25.03 % crude protein. There is no significance (p>0.05) difference among the two varieties in terms of the above nutritional compositions. The crude fiber content was 13.7 % in black and 10.6 % in red varieties. The total CHO content ofrenv seeds in black and red varieties was 55.37 % and 58. 77 %, respectively. The total energy of 344.1 Kcal in black and 357.32 Kcal in red varieties was recorded. Among the traditional processing methods, dehulled-boiled samples showed higher increment in protein content (22 %). The total CHO and energy contents were higher in delwlled samples (65.75 and 389. 01 Kcal, respectively) over their respective controls (55.37 and 344.1 Kcal).The mean of In vitro protein digestibility in raw samples was 70.91% in black and 71.9% in red varieties. All traditional processing methods applied in the current study significantly (p<0.05) increased in vitro protein digestibility. Germination showed the higher increment (6.8- 28.6 %). The mineral content of the black variety was 105.59 of Co, 3.72 of Fe, 3.89 ofZn and 432. 75 mgll00g of P in raw sample. There is no significance (p>0.05) difference among varieties in Fe and Zn content. The red variety had Ca content of 102.06 IIIgII00g and P content of 461.15 mgl IOOg. Delwlling and dehull- boiling samples significantly (p<0.05) decreased calcium content (50.49 and 56.03 II/g1I00g, respectively in black). All traditional processing methods significantly (p<0.05) decreased Fe and Zn contents. Dehulling and germination increased phosphorus cpntent up to 21 and 12% respectively. Bioaccessibility of minerals in renv seeds of black variety was 45.39 % for Ca, 34.04 % for Fe and 54.27 % for Zn. There is no significance (p>0.05) difference among varieties in bioaccessibility. All traditional processing methods significantly (p<0.05) increased bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Zn. Dehulling sholVed the highest increment in Ca bioaccessibility (up to 84 %). The phytic acid content of raw seeds in black and red varieties was 320.83 and 338.33 I11g1100g, respectively. The tannin content was 1.32 in black and 1.48mgll00g in red varieties. The total alkaloid content was found to be 1.3% in black and 1.5% in red varieties. All traditional processing methods significantly (p