Formulation of Nutritionally Enriched Macaroni with Blends of Durum Wheat, Tef and Chickpea

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Addis Ababa University


Pasta is unleavened extruded product which is made from dough of durum wheat semolina or blends of durum wheat with rice, tef, sorghum, chickpea, lupin etc. In Ethiopia, pasta products made commonly with only semolina, which has lower quality in some important nutrients such as protein, fiber and minerals as compared with other cereals and legumes. Also, semolina is in shortage of supply due to low durum wheat local production. Despite these facts, there is still lack of research on formulating pasta products from composite flour with other cereals and legumes of higher nutritional quality and production rate. Therefore, in this study the usage oftef and chickpea flours to enrich pasta products (specifically macaroni) was investigated by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Macaroni was prepared using composite flours of durum wheat semolina (60-100%), tef (0-40%) and chickpea (0-15%) using D-optimal mixture design. For cold press extrusion, pilot scale single screw food extruder was used. Then, first order polynomial model was applied to describe the influence of semolina, tef and chickpea proportion on nutritional composition, cooking quality, textural analysis and sensory evaluation of macaroni products. Throughout the study durum wheat macaroni (100% semolina) was used as a control. Results indicate that an increasing proportion of tef and chickpea flour significantly improved the nutritional composition of the blend macaroni (protein, fiber, fat, iron and zinc content). Incorporation of chickpea flour only up to 15% with semolina produced a macaroni comparable sensory quality with semolina macaroni. Similarly, though the addition of tef flour considerably increased the cooking loss and it also considerably improved the water absorption capacity/index of the macaroni. Protein, fiber, filmness, stickiness, cooking loss and overall acceptability were deem as common optimum parameter for macaroni formula. The formula containing 73.46% semolina, 11.55% tef and 15% chickpea was selected as the best formulation to produce a nutrient rich macaroni product with desirable cooking, texture and sensory quality. Understanding the impact of the blending ratio to improve macaroni nutritional quality was considered useful to develop pasta products. Keywords: Macaroni, tef, chickpea, cooking and textural property, RSM, D-optimal design



Macaroni, tef, chickpea, cooking, textural property, RSM, D-optimal design