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    Project paper on risk of Birth Defects associated with in utero exposure to Antiretroviral Drugs
    (Addis abeba, 2013-04-01) AMSALU TAYE; MEKBEB AFEWORK
    associated with in utero exposure to Antiretroviral Drugs
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    Prevalence and Associated Factors of TBI Among Trauma Patients Admitted to the Adult Emergency Departments of Three Governmental Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01-23) Agumas Shibabaw; Abay Mulu
    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and commonly occurs in low- and middle-income countries. The occurrence of TBI in the world around 54 million to 60 million people each year. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of patients with TBI admitted to the emergency departments of three governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2022. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted in three governmental hospitals at Menelik, Yekatit 12, and Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study is a hospital-based cross-sectional retrospective by design. A structured questionnaire was prepared to collect data from the medical records of patients at the emergency department. Data was entered into an Open Data Kit (ODK) exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 for analysis then the findings were presented using a bar graph, a pie chart, and tables. Results: One hundred forty-one trauma patients were studied, of whom 85 (60.3%) were male and 85 (39.7%) females. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 43.3% (25–44) [SD = 1.007, 95% CI]. The prevalence of traumatic brain injuries was 34.6%, with RTA accounting for 40.4% of all head injuries, followed by violence at 32.6%, fall at 17.7%, and 9.2% were others. Alcohol drinkers (AOR = 1.088, 95% CI), khat chewers (AOR = 1.947, 95% CI), labour workers (AOR = 3.633, 95% CI), low-income levels (AOR = 3.686, CI), and medium-income levels (AOR = 2.060, CI) are all significantly associated with traumatic brain injury. The severity of the traumatic brain injury was 46.8% mild, 34.8% moderate, and 18.4% severe. Conclusion: The prevalence of traumatic brain injury was 34.6%. The most common cause of traumatic brain injuries was found to be road traffic accidents. The severity of TBI was mild. Being male, alcohol drinkers, khat chewers, labour workers, those with unable to read and write, having low- and medium-income levels put them at high risk for traumatic brain injury
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    Prevalence and Pattern of Major Limb Amputation and its Associated Factors Among Patients Admitted to Pediatric and Adult Orthopedic Wards at Three Public Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023-01) Abdi Uka; Abay Mulu
    Limb Amputation (LA) is a surgical procedure for the removal of a limb which is indicated when limb recovery is impossible. It is one of the oldest surgical procedures with a history of over 2500 years. It is estimated that 1.2 million individuals are living with an amputation; and that 185,000 are performed each year worldwide. In Ethiopia most prior research concerning limb amputation has focused almost exclusively on lower limb amputation and there is little information regarding the prevalence of limb amputation. Objectives: To assess the prevalence, and pattern of limb amputation and its associated factors among patients admitted to pediatric and adult orthopedic wards at three public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2020 Methods and Materials: Institutional based cross-sectional retrospective study design had been conducted from September 11, 2020, to August 28, 2022. A serial number on patient registration book from adult and pediatric orthopedic wards of selected hospitals was used to select MRN numbers of patient charts randomly. Data was entered into the Open Data Kit (ODK), a data collection tool’s latest version, and stored on kobo tool. Then the data was exported to SPSS version 26 for statistical analysis. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression tests were done to analyze Factors associated with major limb amputation by considering a statistical significance level of 5%, and 95% confidence interval (CI) Results: During the study period, a total of 3,236 patients underwent surgery and among them medical records of 422 cases were selected from
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    Prevalence of Cervical Spondylosis and its Associated Factors Among Symptomatic Adult Patients Attending Referral hospital in Ethiopia 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01-24) Beyan Abduljewad; Binyam Ayele
    Background: Cervical spondylosis is a comprehensive term that describes age-related chronic degenerative diseases that result in neck pain, tingling in the arms, and possible myelopathic-associated paralysis. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) neurology and rheumatology clinic from May 1, 2022, to December 30, 2022. A 2-year retrospective hospital-based design was implemented. The source population was all spondylosis patients. The study population was all cervical spondylosis patients with complete clinical and imaging data from January 2020 to January 2022, and a total of 339 were selected randomly. Data was collected using the Open Data Kit and the internet-based Kobo Toolbox and analyzed using SPSS version 26. Mean, median, and standard deviation for continuous data and a frequency table for categorical data A bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to see the association between dependent and independent variables. Statistical significance was considered at a level of 5% significance and an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% CI. Result: During the study period, 2176 degenerative spinal disease patients were diagnosed. Of these, the medical records of 339 cases were taken using simple random sampling. Among study participants, 189 (55.8%) were female and 150 (44.2%) were male. The mean age of patients was 54.9 years, with an SD of 10.044. The prevalence of cervical spondylosis was 97 (28.5%), which is the second most common next to lumbar spondylosis (199.5%). 40 (11.8%) had both cervical and lumbar spondylosis, and 3 (0.9%) had thoracic spondylosis. The odds of having cervical spondylosis among females were higher with an AOR of 2.959 (CI: 1.445–6.060; p =.003), and the age group between 40 and 59 was also higher with an AOR of 2.011 (CI: 1.164–6.240; p =.000); smokers with an AOR of 2.02 (CI: 1.843–11.0242; p =.008); and current alcohol intake with an AOR of 2.83 (CI: 1.520–6.0) Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical spondylosis (CS) was relatively high compared to the reported literature. In Korea, Bangladesh (Punjab), India (population), China, Nigeria, and Sweden, the prevalence was: 47.8, 47, 17.2, 13.8; 10.7; and 0.035 percent, respectively. The risk of CS increases with age in both sexes, and females were once mostly affected by cervical spondylosis.
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    Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Dermal Toxicity of Aerial Part Cymbopogon Nardus Formulation on Hematological, Clinical Chemistry and Histopathology of Skin, Kidneys and Liver of Albino Wistar Rats
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10-23) Dagim Tsegaye; Abay Mulu
    Traditional medicine is the culmination of generations of indigenous system of medicine practitioners' therapeutic experiences. Although over 2,000 plants have been identified in Africa and are utilized to cure a wide range of ailments, only few of these plants have had their safety thoroughly investigated. Ethiopians have historically utilized plants as medicine, although little is known about the characteristics and range of these traditional practices. Objective, The aim of this study was to Evaluate of acute and subacute dermal toxicity of aerial part Cymbopogon nardus formulation on hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathology of skin, kidneys and liver of Albino Wistar rats. Methodology, The plant material was harvested about 270 kilometers south of Addis Ababa, in the Wondogenet region surrounding Shashemene town. The Armaeur Hansen Research Institute's (AHRI) traditional and modern medicine research directorate provided the formulation. Essential oil extraction was undertaken by taking the fresh plant material and subjecting it to hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The plant used Clevenger-Arm equipment to carry out the hydro-distillation process. A round-bottom flask weighing 500g of plant material was set on a heating mantle, and the flask was attached to the Clevenger-Arm apparatus after two liters of water were added. The final yield of the oil weighed was 4 ml and the formulation was done with some additives containing 2% of the oil of cymbopogon nardus and 98% of petrolatum stored in refrigerator at 2-8ºC until it is used for the experiment. For acute dermal toxicity test five female rats of age 8-12 week were used , For subacute dermal test 10 animals (5 female and 5 male) with healthy skin were used at each dose level. The females were nulliparous and non-pregnant. Three dose were used, with a control and, petrolatum was used as a vehicle Result, The dermal mean lethal dose LD50 of the C.nardus formulation was found to be above 2000mg/kg but, no mortality sign was observed during the 14 days of study. 28 days dermal application of C.nardus formulation did not produce any toxicity on the behavioral, physical, biological, hematological analytes and gross pathology of the rats at treated dose compared to the control groups. X Conclusion, C. nardus formulation has no dermal toxicity and therefore presents a low toxicological risk. This study concludes that topical application of Rats do not experience systemic toxic responses or acute or subacute negative skin effects from the C. nardus formulation. Key word, Cymbopogon nardus , acute, subacute dermal, sub chronic , toxicity.
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    Project Paper on Risk of Birth Defects Associated with in Utero Exposure to Antiretroviral Drugs
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-02) Taye, Amsalu; Dr. Afework, Mekbeb (PhD)
    Antiretroviral compounds differ from most other new pharmaceutical agents in that they havebecome widely prescribed in pregnancy in the absence of proof of safety. In this paperantiretroviralagents used in pregnant women infected with humanimmunodeficiency virus and their effects on theinfantsare reviewed.This review gives an overview aboutinvivoandinvitrodevelopmental toxicityand teratogenicity of the anti-AIDS drugs (antiretrovirals),inexperimental animalsandhumans. Animal embryos exposed in vivo to antiretrovirals exhibited significantly increased pregnancylosses, drugs incorporation into the DNA of fetal organs, external abnormalities, skeletal defects,developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, reduced weight, anemia, deaths and significantmitochondrial damage. The invitroantiretrovirals exposure of animal cells or organs resulted incytotoxicity, growth retardation, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sister chromatid exchange andother genotoxic effects. Inearlier human studies, management of AIDS positive pregnant womenwith antiretrovirals revealed exposure of their infants to such drugs with evidence of adverse events.However, recent publications present conflicting data about the associations between antiretroviralsand adverse pregnancy outcomes. Because of the increasingly frequent use of highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy,ongoing efforts are needed to monitor any long-term effects of in uteroexposure to themultipleantiretroviral agentsused.
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    Determinants of Placental Abruption among Pregnant Women who attended Tikur Anbessa Specialized and Gandhi Memorial Hospitals: Institution Based Unmatched Case Control Study
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-10) Bazezezw, Tsega-ayehu; Prof.Afework, Mekbeb(Professor); Dr.Mengesha, Abdu (MD, Assistant professor)
    Background: Placental abruption, also known as premature separation of placenta, is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in low resource settings. Despite its negative maternal and fetal outcome, the determinant factors of placental abruption have not been sufficiently studied. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with placental abruption among pregnant women who attended Tikur Anbessa Specialized and Gandhi Memorial Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2021. Methods: A Hospital-based retrospective unmatched case control study was employed at Tikur Anbessa Specialized and Gandhi Memorial Hospitals by reviewing medical chart of women admitted for 3 years from September 11, 2017 – September 10 2020. Among which 376 women (188 cases and 188 controls) were included in the study. After data was collected by using Kobo Collect version 1.27.3 it was exported and analyzed using SPSS version 25. To identify determinants of Placental abruption, Bivariable and Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were done. Statistical significance was considered at a level of significance of 5%, and an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used. Result: Prevalence of PA was found to be 0.25% and six identified independent determinants of Placental abruption with AOR [95% CI] were identified. These were advanced maternal age (Age ≥35) [AOR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.25], previous history of stillbirth [AOR=4.55; 95% CI: 1.11, 18.59], previous history of abortion [AOR=2.28; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.26], previous history of cesarean section [AOR=3.21; 95% CI: 1.64, 6.29], premature rupture of membranes [AOR=8.88; 95% CI: 3.27, 23.65] and preeclampsia [AOR=3.95; 95% CI: 1.54, 10.11]. Perinatal death among cases was 22 (11.3%) whereas there was only one maternal death recorded (0.5%). Conclusion and Recommendations: Prevalence of Placental abruption was low and advanced maternal age, premature rupture of membranes, and preeclampsia, as well as previous histories of stillbirth, abortion and cesarean section, were identified as independent determinants of placental abruption. Practitioners responsible for prenatal monitoring must pay attention to risk factors during prenatal care to prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may associate with placental abruption.
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    Correlation between Patterns of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Clinical Features in Patients with Low Back Pain due to Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease, Attending Orthopedics and Neurology Outpatient Clinic in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2021.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-09) Godanna, Dureti; Afework, Mekbeb(Professor); Dr.Lambisso, Biruk (Associate Professor and department head of Orthopedics); Dr.Kebede, Eskinder(Associate Professor); Dr.Degefu, Hailegebriel
    Background: Low back pain(LBP) is defined as pain coming from between the lower rib margins and the gluteal folds. It is usually accompanied by pain and neurological symptoms in the lower limbs. Lumbar degenerative disc disease constitutes a group of degenerative pathologic changes that are almost universal with increasing age and are a common cause of mechanical low back pain. There were contradictory reports regarding the correlation of MRI(magnetic resonance imaging) findings with clinical presentations. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between patterns of MRI findings and clinical features in patients with low back pain due to lumbar degenerative disc disease(LDDD) at Ortho-spine unite, in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital(TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from April 1, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Method: Hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in TASH, with a randomly selected sample of 246 patients from April 1, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Data was collected using Kobo Toolbox version 1.27.3 and exported to SPSS Windows 25 for analysis. Chi-square test, Bivariable, and Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate the association of different variables. Result: Of the total patients, 56.5% had radiculopathy, 6.1% had extremity weakness and 4.5% had bowel and bladder incontinence. Disc herniation was present in 82.9%, disc degeneration in 54.1%, neural foraminal stenosis in 56.6% and spinal canal stenosis in 44.3%. Spinal canal stenosis was significantly associated with age (age 40-59 [AOR=2.19, 95% CI (1.119-4.287)] & age >60 [AOR=3.7, 95% CI (1.753-7.691)] and radiculopathy, [AOR=2.4, CI (1.388-4.072)]. Neural foraminal stenosis was significantly associated with age [age >60, AOR=3.425, 95% CI (1.560-7.519)], radiculopathy [AOR=2.7, 96%, CI (1.554-4.738)]. Neural foraminal stenosis was also significantly associated with the SLR(straight leg raise) test [AOR=2.0, 95% CI (1.0264.083)]. Conclusion: There is an association between MRI findings and the clinical presentation of patients. Spinal canal stenosis and neural foraminal stenosis were associated with radiculopathy and older age. The lower lumbar levels are highly affected by DDD due to the higher mechanical stress at this level. Radiculopathy is the most frequent clinical presentation accompanying LBP, and Disc herniation was the commonest degenerative finding.
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    Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy, its Associated Factors and MRI PathoAnatomic Findings among Patients Attending Paediatrics Neurology Clinic in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-08) Labena, Fikreselam; Dr.Seyoum, Girma(Associate Professor and Department Head of Anatomy); Dr.Lambisso, Biruk (Associate Professor and department head of Orthopaedics); Dr.Mekonnen, Wintana (Doctor of Physiotherapy)
    Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) describes disorder of movement and posture that appears during infancy/early childhood causing activity limitations that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing foetal or infant brain. Any progressive CNS injury occurring during the first 2(some say 5) years of life is considered to be CP. CP may be caused by prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Objective: The Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cerebral palsy, determine its associated factors and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Patho-anatomy among patients attending paediatric neurology clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: Hospital based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital with randomly selected sample of 422 patients attending to paediatric neurology clinic from September 2017-Septmeber 2020. Data was collected using checklist by using Kobo Collect version 1.27.3 and was exported to SPSS windows version 25 for analysis. Bivariable and Multi variable binary logistic regression analysis were also carried out to determine the effect of explanatory variables. Level of significance of 5%, and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used. Result: A total of 402 patients were used. The prevalence of CP was found to be 35.8% among patients who visited the paediatric neurology outpatient clinic. Twelve variables were associated in Bi-variable analysis, of which five variables, that is; sex, preterm delivery, home delivery Null parity and birth asphyxia were significantly associated with AOR 95% CI. (Sex: 1.89[1.11-3.25], preterm: 7.04[1.55-31.82], home delivery: 7.74[1.66-35.95], null parity: 1.7[1-2.9], asphyxia: 4.47[1.76-11.29] respectively). Among the CP cases spastic CP accounted for 88.9% and 62.5% were quadriplegic.58% of CP the patients were reported to have predominant white matter injury. Conclusion and recommendation: The prevalence of CP in the present study is lower compared to that reported by other African researches. The most significant risk factors for developing CP were perinatal factors such as asphyxia, home delivery and preterm delivery. Among the clinical types spastic quadriplegic type is the commonest and most of the patients are at level 5of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Predominant White Matter Injury was found to be one of the commonest MRI finding. Most of the factors associated are preventable perinatal problems which can be reduced by decreasing complications during birth, better health care during pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period.
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    Prevalence of femur fracture and its associated factors in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital Orthopaedics center, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-10) Samuel, Darba; Dr.Seyoum, Girma (Associate Professor of Anatomy); Dr.Lambisso, Biruk (Associate Professor of Orthopaedics); Dr.Seifu, Alpha (MD)
    Background: Femur is the strongest and principal load-bearing bone in the lower extremity, it can support up to 30 times the weight of an adult. Globally, femoral fracture is a common condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Globally, it is estimated that 1.0 to 2.9 million people per year suffer from femoral fractures. Despite the fact that femoral fracture is a significant public health concern, little attention has been given to it in many countries, including Ethiopia. Objective: to assess the prevalence of femur fracture and its associated factors in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) Orthopedics Center, Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Methods: A 2-year retrospective Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in TASH Orthopedic center from January 1 to 25 /2021. A total of 392 randomly selected fracture patient records kept in TASH from June 2018 to June 2020 were studied. Data were collected by using a checklist through Open Data Kit (ODK) and analyzed using SPSS version 25 software package. To identify factors associated with femoral fracture sites, Bivariable and Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were done. Statistical significance was considered at level of significance of 5%, and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to present the estimates of the strength of the association. Result: The prevalence of femoral fracture was 28.6% (95% CI:24.1-31.1) among fractured patients admitted in the orthopedic surgery and traumatology department of TASH. The majority (77.7%) of the cases were males. In younger patients, femoral shaft was the commonest fracture site (57.5%) and road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of injury (58.8%). In older patients’ proximal femoral fracture was the commonest fractured site (68.8%) and low energy falls were the commonest cause (73.3%). The identified associated factor for proximal femoral fracture and femoral shaft was age >40 year with [AOR= 5.11; 95% CI: 1.58 – 16.58] and [AOR= 0.09; 95% CI: 0.024 – 0.32] respectively. Fall [AOR= 0.03; 95% CI: 0.10-0.89 and bullet injury [AOR= 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.81] were associated factors for femoral shaft fracture as compared to RTA. Conclusion: The Prevalence of femoral fracture was high compared to reported literatures. The risk of proximal femoral fractures increases with ageing in contrast to that of shaft fracture. The risk of femoral shaft fracture is lower in fall down accident and bullate injury as compared to RTA.
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    Composition and Evaluation of Acute, Subacute, and Developmental Toxicity of Essential oil and Developmental Toxicity of aqueous crude extracts of Thymus schimperi in Wistar Albino rats; In vivo and In-Silico Toxicity Studies.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-08) Adane, Fentahu(Phd); Dr.Seyoum, Girma(Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, AAU)
    ABSTRACT Background:In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial part of Thymus schimperi is widely used to treat diseases such as gonorrhea, cough, liver disease, kidney disease, hypertension, stomach pain, and fungal skin infections. In addition, theyhave been used as vegetables to flavor a broad variety of food products. However, there is an insufficient investigation of the toxic effect of T. schimperi. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the acute, sub-acute, developmental, and in-silico toxicity of the essential oil,as well as the developmental toxicity of the aqueous crude extract of T. schimperi on the Wistar albino rats. Method: The aqueous extracts of T. schimperi leaves were prepared.Essential oil of the aerial part of T. schimperiwas extracted by hydrodistillation and was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil was subjected to toxicity studies. In the acute toxicity study, rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n=5). The control group received the vehicle (distilled water and 2% tween 80)whereas the experimental groups received single doses of 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500, and 2 000 mg/kg of vehicle dissolved essential oil. In the sub-acute toxicity study, rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). The control group received the vehicle whereas the experimental groups received vehicle-dissolved doses of 65 mg/kg, 130 mg/kg, and 260 mg/kg of oil orally for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry evaluation. Gross pathology and histopathology of the liver and the kidneys were also evaluated. For the in-silico toxicity study, PubChem CID numbers of GC-MS identified bioactive compounds in essential oils of T. schimperi have been obtained from PubChem. Chemdraw (8.0) was used to construct the two-dimensional structure of the compounds. The Swiss ADMET web tool was used to convert the two-dimensional structures into a simplified molecular-input line input system (SMILES). Furthermore, the toxicity parameters were predicted via Protox II, vNN, and ADMET servers. For aqueous and essential oil extracts developmental toxicity experiments, five groups of Wistar albino rats, each consisting of ten pregnant rats, were used as experimental animals. For the aqueous crude extract developmental toxicity study, the rats in groups III-V were given 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg extract of T.schimper, respectively. On the other hand, in the essential oil developmental toxicity study, the doses 65 mg/kg, 130mg/kg, and 260 mg/kg of the essential extract of T. schimperi were administered forIII-V groups, respectively. Group I and II were negative and ad libitum controls for both experiments. Similarly, Embryos and fetuses were revealed on days 12 and 20 of gestation, respectively. The embryos were examined for developmental delays or growth retardation. Gross external, skeletal, and visceral anomalies in the fetuses were examined. Histopathological examination was carried out on the placenta from both the treatment and control groups. Results: In this study, the LD of the essential oil of T. schimperi was found to be 1284.2 mg/kg. According to the World Health Organization, the oil is classified as moderately hazardous in its oral administration. In the subacute toxicity study, rats showed no significant changes in behavioral indices, gross pathology, body weight, biochemical, and in most hematological parameters. However, hematological profiles showed a significant decrement in 50WBC counts and a significant increment of MCV in high dose (260 mg/kg) groups as compared to the control group. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the control and essential oil-treated groups, observed in the gross and histopathology of the liver and the kidneys. In the in-silico toxicity study, all compounds derived from essential oil showed no cardiac toxicity (h-ERG Blocker), AMES (Ames Mutagenicity), and cytotoxicity via Pro Tox II, ADMET, and vNN-ADMET toxicity predictors. However, by using these servers, from the total 57 compounds, around 21% showed carcinogenicity, 8.8% showed hepatotoxicity, 3.5% caused drug-induced liver injury, 3.5% showed immunotoxicity, and only 1.75 % were potentially toxic to the mitochondrial membrane. In the aqueous crude extract developmental toxicity study, on embryo day 12, the number of somites and the morphological scores in the high-dose treatment group were significantly lower than the control groups. Similarly, the number of implantation sites, fetal weight, fetal resorption, CRL, and placental weightwere also significantly lower in the high dose (2000 mg/kg)treatment group. The mean numbers of implantation sites in the pair-fed control group and the high dose(2000 mg/kg)group were 11.1 ± 0.76 and 8.01 ± 0.45, respectively. Similarly, in the middle dose (1000 mg/kg)and high dose (2000 mg/kg)groups, the developments of the otic and olfactory systems were significantly delayed. Furthermore, in the high dose group (2000 mg/kg), the developmental score of optic system, the number of branchial bars, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were significantly lower than the control groups. Treatment with the aqueous extract of the T.schimpericaused no skeletal or soft tissue malformations. In an essential oil developmental toxicity study, the developmental socres of fetal resorptions, crown-rump length, the number of somites, and morphological scores were significantly lower in 12-day-old rat embryos treated with 260 mg/kg of the extract. There was also a significant delay in the developments of the otic system, olfactory system, and a reduction in the number of branchial bars in day-12 embryos treated with 260 mg/kg of the oil.However, external morphological examinations of rat fetuses revealed no detectable structural abnormalities. The fetal skull, vertebrae, hyoid, forelimb, and hindlimb ossification centers did not differ significantly across all groups. Moreover, treatment with the essential oil caused no skeletal or soft tissue malformations. Although the difference was not statistically significant, fetuses of high-dose treated rats had a reduced number of ossification centers in the caudal vertebrae and hind limp phalanges.There were no significant histopathological changes in placentas in either the crude aqueous extract or the essential oil experiments. Although the difference was not statistically significant, placentas from high-dose essential oil treatment rats had increased decidual cystic degeneration, thrombosis in the intervillous spaces, and decidual cellular apoptosis. Similarly, in the essential oil experiment, capillary dilation and terminal villi proliferation increased dosedependently. Conclusion: From this study, oral administration of the essential oil T. shimperi up to a dose of 130 mg/kg is not harmful. However, in the high-dose (260 mg/kg) group, the WBC count was significantly decreased and the MCV was significantly increased. In the in-silico toxicity study,most of the components of the oil were found to be nontoxic although a few of the compounds showed carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity,immunotoxicity and mitochondrial membrane potential toxicity.The crude aqueous and essential oil extracts of T. shimperi at high doses have a detrimental effect on the development of rat embryos and fetuses. Its developmental toxicity is evidenced by significant delays in fetal and embryonic development, a decrease in the number of implantation sites, and an increase in fetal resorption. Furthermore, administration of the aqueous crude and essential oil extracts in higher doses resulted in a significant decrease in placenta weight, and litter weight. It is, therefore, essential to conducting chronic toxicity of the essential oil as well as its components which showed toxicity in the in- silico study before using preparations containing T. schimperi essential oil as drugs. In addition, the present study provided evidence that using the T.schimperi extracts in a high dose could affect the developing embryo and fetus. Thus, it is recommended to discourage the use of crude and essential oil extracts in high doses.
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    Investigations of Visible Congenital Anomalies at Birth and Associated Factors in Southwestern Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-07) Geneti, Soressa Abebe(Phd); Dr.Gebru, Girmai
    Background: Prenatal development can be considered as normal or abnormal. Abnormal development occurs because of interference of normal development from genetic disorders, environmental factors or the combination of genetic and environmental factors during the critical period of embryogenesis with which the neonate is born with a disorder that is described as congenital anomalies. Congenital anomaly is a series of structural, functional and metabolic abnormalities present at birth because of several causative agents during critical period of intrauterine life. Congenital anomalies highly contribute to abnormal intrauterine development that leads to prenatal disturbance and postnatal morphological defects that may persist throughout life. According to World Health Statistics, about 260,000 neonatal deaths worldwide are caused by congenital anomalies. The frequency of congenital anomalies in developing countries including Ethiopia is underestimated because of the deficiencies in diagnostic capabilities and lack of reliability of medical records and health statistics. Instead, the available recorded diagnoses in vital health statistics relay on obvious illnesses, rather than on preexisting congenital anomaly present at birth contributing to infant mortality and morbidity leading to the significant community problem. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate types, prevalence, incidence and predisposing risk factors which may provide a baseline for public health plan, suggesting protective strategies against congenital anomalies and establish genetic counseling if the defects are of genetic origin and provide input for further investigation. Objective: To assess the prevalence, incidence, types, and patterns of congenital anomalies or disorder at birth and associated risk factors among newborns in southwestern Ethiopia Methods and materials: The study was conducted in southwestern Ethiopia. This research used quantitative study methods and genetic analysis. The quantitative methods included institution based retrospective cross-sectional, descriptive cross-sectional and case-control study. The study was conducted from 2011 to 2015 during which 45,951 deliveries were attended for the retrospective document review study. All records of births that occurred in the selected hospitals during the study period were identified from medical records. Descriptive cross sectional study was also conducted in those six selected hospitals from 2016 to 2018, during which 35,080 deliveries were attained. A prospective registration of all delivers of any gestational age during the study period was conducted to determine the incidence of congenital anomalies. Newborns either still or life birth was evaluated for the presence of any congenital anomalies. Data was collected using structured and standard checklist. Case-Control study was conducted on newborns and their mothers within the period of 2016 to 2018 in those selected hospitals. Data were collected after evaluation of the neonate for the presence of congenital anomalies using the standard pretested checklist. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. P <0.05 was set to be statistically significant. Chromosomal abnormities were also detected in their sub telomeres region using multiple ligation probe dependent amplifications method with help of probe mix. Results The prevalence of the birth defects at birth was found to be 5.5 per 1000 births. Of a total of 35,080 neonates delivered during the study period, 0.72% of them had congenital anomalies. The overall incidence of congenital anomalies in southwestern Ethiopia was 71.6 per 10,000 births. Risk factors such as unidentified use of medications or drugs in the first three months of pregnancy (AOR = 3.435; 95% CI: 2.286 – 5.160), exposure to pesticide (AOR = 3.926; 95% CI: 1.659 – 9.289), passive smoking (AOR = 4.104; 95% CI: 2.277 – 7.397), surface water as sources of drinking (AOR = 2.073; 95% CI: 1.385 – 3.100) were significantly associated with the occurrence of congenital anomalies. Similarly, risk factors such as passive smoking (AOR = 4.171; 95% CI: 2.272 – 7.681), exposure to pesticide (AOR = 3.823; 95% CI: 1.606 – 9.106), and maternal diabetes mellitus (AOR = 16.381; 95% CI: 1.614 – 166.241) were significantly associated with the occurrence of neural tube defects. Multiple ligation dependent probe amplification analysis confirmed the presence of deletion in the chromosome bands of 3q29, 8q24.3, 9q34.4, 15q11.2, 15q26.3, 18p11.32, 19q13.43, Xq28 and duplications of 3p26.3 and 6p25.3 in sample population tested for chromosomal abnormalities Conclusions Nearly equal proportions of birth defects occurred among male and female newborns. The most frequent congenital anomaly was neural tube defects followed by musculoskeletal defects. From frequency distribution of associated factors, mothers who had neonates with congenital anomalies were exposed to passive smoking, pesticides, unidentified usage of medicines during the first three months. Poor folic acid supplementation was more frequent among the neonates delivered with congenital anomalies. Risk factors such as passive smoking, exposure to pesticides, chemicals and use of surface water as a source of drinking during early pregnancy had a significant association with the occurrences of congenital anomalies. As the congenital anomalies were found to be the main causes of infant mortality and morbidity, there is a need for an urgent intervention to control the cases and there is a need to continuously provide health information for the community on how to prevent and control predisposing risk factors. Chromosomal abnormalities were evident in sub-telemeric regions of some sample population.
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    The Effects of Chronic Treatment with DODONAEA ANGUSTIFOLIA Seed Extracts on some Hematological and Biochemical Composition of Blood and Histopathology of Liver and Kidney in Mice.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2010-06) Geneti, Soressa Abebe; Dr.Kinfu, Yamrot; Makonnen, Eyasu(Prof.); Dr.Ergete, Wondwossen; Urga, Kelbessa
    In Ethiopia many medicinal plants are used for the treatment of malaria including Dodonaea angustifolia seed with out considering their side effects. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate the chronic effect of crude extracts of D. angustifolia seeds on some hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of mice. For the chronic treatment, animals were administered with the crude extracts of the plant through the oral route using oral gavage for six weeks at doses of 400 mg/kg/bw and 800 mg/kg/bw of the aqueous extract and 400 mg/kg/bw and 600 mg/kg of the methanolic extract. At the end of the experiment, all mice under treatment were sacrificed after blood collection for hematological and biochemical analysis and liver and kidney sections were randomly taken for tissue processing. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis as well as the microscopic examinations of the liver and kidney sections were compared with control groups. The hematological and biochemical results showed no statistically significant differences between the aqueous extract treated mice at both doses of 400 mg/kg/bw and 800 mg/kg/bw and the control group. In contrast, statistically significant elevation in ALT, AST, urea and creatinine were observed in methanolic extract treated mice at a dose of 600 mg/kg/bw as compared to the control group. Histopathological examinations of the liver and kidney sections of aqueous crude extract treated mice at both doses of 400 mg/kg/bw and 800 mg/kg/bw showed similar histological appearance as that of the control group except some focal inflammation were observed around central vein at dose of 800 mg/kg/bw of the aqueous extract of the plant. In contrast, significant histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney sections of methanolic crude extract treated mice at dose of 600 mg/kg/bw with focal cellular infiltration around central vein of the liver sections at 400 mg/kg/bw showing the dose dependent effect of methanolic crude extract of the plant. In conclusion, the aqueous crude extract is safe to use at effective dose of 400 mg/kg/bw whereas the methanolic crude extract of D. angustifolia at the same effective dose (400 mg/kg/bw) as that of aqueous crude extract has slight toxic effect but adversely affects the biochemical parameter and histology of liver and kidney as the dose level increases to 600 mg/kg/bw. As the aqueous extract did not show adversity at the effective dose, it is recommended that medicinal plant users choose the aqueous extract of the plant. Further investigation is also recommended to isolate metabolites that may contribute the toxic effect of methanolic crude extract on liver and kidney.
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    Extended One-generation Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Syzygium guineense Wall. in Rats.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-05) Abebe, Melese Shenkut(Phd); Dr.Seyoum, Girma (Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, AAU)
    Background: Various extracts of Syzygium guineense Wall. leaves showed scientifically corroborated effects against hypertension, diabetic mellitus, breast and colon cancers, pain, inflammation, free radicals, snake venom, parasites, different bacterial strains, and fungi. It is widely stated that herbal products are presumed to be safe. However, validating the efficacy and assessing the safety of herbal products is mandatory. During pregnancy, an embryo or fetus can be affected by exposure to a variety of chemicals. The potential teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity of S. guineense leaf extract has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this thesis research was to investigate the teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental neurotoxicity, and developmental immunotoxicity as well as glandular and hepato-renal toxicity of the ethanol extract of S. guineense leaves in rats. Methods: For the teratogenicity study, five groups of Wistar albino rats, each consisting of ten pregnant rats were used as experimental and control animals. Groups I-III rats were treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of 70% ethanol extract of S. guineense leaves, respectively. Groups four and five were control and ad libitum control, respectively. Rats were treated beginning from day 6 to day 12 of gestation. Embryos and fetuses were respectively retrieved on day 12 and day 20 of gestation. The embryos were assessed for developmental anomalies and growth retardation. The fetuses were examined for developmental delays, growth retardation, gross external malformations, as well as skeletal and visceral anomalies. Histopathological alterations of the placenta also were evaluated for any treatment-related anomalies. For the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study, the parental Wistar rats, 20/sex/group, were randomly assigned into four groups. Groups one, two, and three received 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of 70% ethanol extract of S. guineense leaf for 10 weeks, respectively: two premating, two mating, three pregnancy, and three lactational weeks. In the parental rats, the effect of extract administration on the food intake, weight gain, weight and histology of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland were evaluated. Moreover, serum level of thyroid hormones and biochemical tests were measured. Sperm analysis was carried out and the length of estrous cycle was measured. Reproductive indices (pre-coital interval, pregnancy duration, mating, fertility, and gestation indices) and pregnancy outcomes also were evaluated. Once the pregnant dams gave birth, the pups were assessed for gross anomalies at birth. The weight of pups was measured on postnatal day zero, four, seven, fourteen, and twentyone. In addition, pups anogenital distance was measured on postnatal day four. The presence ofnipple retention was assessed on postnatal day twelve. Moreover, postnatal death of pups was reported on postnatal day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21. At weaning (postnatal day 21), the pups wererandomly assigned into three cohort groups: to assess reproductive toxicity (set-1), developmentalneurotoxicity (set-2), and developmental immunotoxicity (set-3). All pups assigned into the threecohort groups were orally treated on a daily basis with similar doses used for the parental rats. Set1 pups, 20/sex/group were treated up to postnatal day 70. To investigate the extended effect of the test plant on the first-generation rats, the tests conducted on the parental rats were repeated on theset-1 pups. In addition, weight at and the day of vaginal opening/preputial separation wererespectively evaluated in female and male set-1 rats. Set-2 pups, 10/sex/group, were treated until postnatal day 70 and the effect of the test plant extract on the weight and histopathology of the brain and spinal cord was investigated. Set-three pups, 10/sex/group, received the treatment untilpostnatal day 60 and the toxic effect of the plant extract on the weight and histopathology of spleen,thymus, and lymph nodes was evaluated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and chi-square test using SPSS version 24. Results: The results of potential teratogenicity assessment indicated that administration of 70%ethanol extract of S. guineense leaf resulted in a significant reduction of food intake and weightgain during pregnancy in high dose treated group. It also reduced the crown-rump length, andaverage morphological score of 12 days old rat embryos. Moreover, the crown-rump length of 20days old rat fetuses was diminished by the treatment of 1000 mg/kg body weight of S. guineenseHowever, any of the doses of this plant did not produce significant effect on the number ofimplantations, resorptions, stillbirths, and live births. The external morphological and visceralexaminations of rat fetuses did not reveal any detectable structural malformations in the cranial, nasal, and oral cavities as well as visceral organs. The ossification centers of fetal skull, vertebrae,hyoid, forelimb, and hindlimb bones were not significantly varied across all groups. However,although not statistically significant, high dose treated rat fetuses had a reduced number ofossification centers in the sternum, caudal vertebrae, metatarsal, metacarpal, and phalanges. Theweight of the fetuses and the placentae were decreased. Decidual cystic degeneration was the mostprevalent histopathological changes of the placenta of rats treated with 1000 mg/kg body weightof the test plant extract. In the extended one-generation study, the administration of S. guineense extract resulted in significantly reduced food intake and weight gain of parental rats. Administration of 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract prolonged the duration of estrous cycle and pre-coital interval of female parental rats. The mean number of litters and live births were significantly reduced in the treated groups. Rats treated with higher doses of the plant extract also showed significantly increased serum ALT, AST, ALP, and urea levels. Moreover, the blood glucose level of rats treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract was significantly decreased compared to that in the control groups. The serum level of thyroid hormone (T4) was significantly reduced in the rats treated with 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of S. guineense extract. Treatment of the rats with the high dose (1000 mg/kg body weight) of the plant extract significantly reduced the relative weight of the uterus and ovaries. No significant effect was observed in the number and morphology of spermatozoa, duration of gestation as well as mating, fertility, and gestation indices. The pup’s weight, presence of nipple retention on male pups, anogenital distance, and number of postnatal deaths during lactation period were not significantly varied between the treatment and control groups. Furthermore, the weight and histopathology of reproductive organs (weight except for uterus and ovaries), liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland were not significantly affected by treatment with S. guineense extract. Similar to the parental rats, the result biochemical tests measured in the first-generation set-1 rats indicated that serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP were significantly increased while food intake, weight gain, and serum levels of glucose and thyroid hormone were significantly decreased. In addition, the relative weight of the seminal gland, uterus, and ovaries was reduced by treatment with S. guineense extract (1000 mg/kg body weight). The relative weight of the other reproductive organs, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland was not significantly affected. In the firstgeneration rats, treatment with 1000 mg/kg body weight of S. guineense extract prolonged the length of estrous cycle. The weight at and the day of vaginal opening/preputial separation were not significantly altered by treatment with the test plant. Similarly, neither the relative organ weight nor the histopathology of the brain, spinal cord, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes was affected by treatment with S. guineense extract. Conclusion: In conclusion, administration of 70% ethanol leaf extracts of S. guineense resulted in decreased food intake and weight gain of pregnant and nonpregnant rats in the high dose treatment group that indicated its toxicity at a high dose. Treatment of rats with the high dose of S. guineense extract revealed growth and developmental delays as evidenced by reduced crown-rump length and average morphological score of 12 days old rat embryos and lower crown-rump length of 20 days old rat fetuses as well as the average number of total and live births. The plant extracts also affected the blood chemistry, the length of estrous cycle, and the weight of reproductive organs that showed its toxicity at a high dose. Therefore, consumption of the plant, especially at a high dose, may be teratogenic and toxic. Thus, regulation and monitoring of the use of S. guineense leaves should be considered. Moreover, liberal consumption of S. guineense leaves should be taken curiously and cautiously. Further investigation should be conducted by increasing the number of test animals, extending the duration of treatment period, and including additional tests/organs and other test animals.
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    Evaluation of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Moringa stenopetala seeds on kidneys, liver, and some blood parameters of Wistar rats
    (Addis Abeba University, 2021-01) Mamo, Ephrem Fisseha; Dr. Afework, Mekbeb(PhD., Associate Professor of Anatomy)
    Traditional medicine is the oldest and culture-based method of the health care system. Among the traditional medicine practices, the use of herbal medicines is the most popular and used by most populations around the globe. M. stenopetala is one of the herbs used as a treatment for various illnesses in different Ethiopian societies. Although there are some data available regarding the various biological activities of the different parts of Moringa plants, that of safety study is scarce, especially relating to the extract of its seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxic effect of orally administered aqueous extracts of M. stenopetala seeds on gross and histopathology of kidneys and liver, and some blood parameters of Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 15 female rats were randomly divided into five groups with three rats in each group. The experimental groups (Groups I - IV) received a single dose of 300mg/Kg, 2000mg/kg, 3500mg/Kg, and 5000mg/kg of the extract, respectively, while the control group (Group V) received distilled water orally. For the sub-chronic toxicity study, 24 rats for each sex were randomly divided into four groups, each group comprising of six rats. The rats in the experimental groups (Groups I - III) received 250mg/Kg, 500mg/Kg, and 1000mg/kg oral dose of the extract for 90 days, and the control group (Group IV) received distilled water for a similar duration. In an acute toxicity study, LD 50 of the aqueous extract of M. stenopetala seeds was found to be above 5000mg/Kg dose. There were no observed apparent significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group in body weight gain, relative kidneys and liver weight, and gross pathological changes at the end of the 14 days experimental period. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, there was no mortality in all experimental rats of both sexes. Besides, there were no substantial changes in the general condition, hematological and biochemical values, and relative organ weight of the kidney and liver. Moreover, the light microscopic histopathological examination of sections of the kidney and liver showed no change in the treatment groups as compared with the control group in both sexes. Therefore, this study demonstrated that 90 days oral administration of aqueous M. stenopetala seeds extracts are relatively safe in rats up to 1000mg/Kg dose.
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    Association between foot type and podoconiosis: comparative cross-sectional study,North west,Ethiopia,2018/19.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-01) Argachew, Yikeber; Dr.Seyoum, Girma(Ph.D., Associate professor)
    Background: Podoconiosis is neglected tropical diseases of foot; that affects barefooted subsistence farmers who have long term exposure for volcanic red soils. In earlier studies the diseases is assumed to be caused by genetic –environment interaction. The fact that the diseases are multi factorial in origin and not all barefooted individuals develop podoconiosis initiates the researcher to investigate which type of foot is more liable to develop podoconiosis. Methodology: Comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted in Gojjam North west Ethiopia using standard clinical (FPI-6) measurements for control groups and digital radiographic (angular) measurements for cases to determine foot type. Univarate, bivarate and multivariate analysis was used. Result: A total of 144 households with 144 members aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Almost all patients (99.0%) were in the age group 15-64 (the age group that includes economically active individuals in Ethiopia), did not read or write (65.0%), and were farmers (87.0%). Those who are illiterate, un married were more affected by podoconiosis (AOR = 3.378, p=0.079 and AOR = 8.664, p = 0.027). The average monthly income is the other finding which is associated with podoconiosis development (AOR =0.999, p< 0.001). Individuals who were shoes early in their life are less likely to develop podoconiosis (1.075, p = 0.018). The population with low and high arched are more likely to develop podoconiosis (AOR = 2.096 and AOR=15.383) respectively. Discussion: In our study low and high arched community members who are above age eighteen are more likely to develop podoconiosis. This may be the low arched foot exposes individuals in more surface area to volume ratio for the ground so that the chance of the silica to penetrate the foot will be increased where as for those who are high arched individuals the plantar pressure between the foot and the ground is high than other foot types that may again give the opportunity for red silica to penetrate the skin of the foot. Conclusion and recommendation: The study winds up with individuals who have low arched foot are more affected with podoconiosis than other foot types. The findings of the study also reassure podoconiosis affects more the poor and illiterate population than the rich and literate population. For this the researcher suggests large scale combination of foot parameters and genetics should be done for developing effective management of podoconiosis
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    Prevalence of dermatoglyphic patterns and palmar creases among diabetic and non-diabetic patients at governmental hospitals, east Gojjam Zone,North West Ethiopia,2019.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-09) Tefera, Yihun; Afework, Mekbeb(PhD)
    Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of the skin ridge patterns on the fingers, palms and soles of human. Dermatoglyphics patterns are genetically determined and affected by physical, topographical and environmental factors in intrauterine life. There are lines in the palm known as palmar creases. A normal human palm contains three major creases. The patterns of the epidermal ridges and palmar creases serve as a diagnostic tools in a number of diseases that have genetic backgrounds. Diabetes mellitus is one such of diseases with a strong genetic basis and certain dermatoglyphics and palmar crease variations are expected to occur. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of digital dermatoglyphics and palmar crease patterns of the hand among diabetics and non-diabetics patients in governmental hospitals, East Gojjam zone, 2019 Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by both observation and interview methods. Bilateral palmar and fingerprints were taken by mobile camera from selected volunteers of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects attending East Gojjam zone government hospitals. A Pearson chisquare test, bivariable, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were employed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed and p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Result: In both diabetics and non-diabetic subjects loop type was the most frequent followed by whorl and arch types. Their prevalence were respectively 66.9% [95% CI: 65.4, 68.3], 28.4% [95%CI: 27, 29.8], and 5.1% [95% CI: 4.1, 5.4] in diabetics and 63.4% [95% CI: 61.9, 64.8], 32% [95%CI: 30.5, 33.4] and 4.7% [95% CI: 4.0, 5.3] in non-diabetic subjects. Being male was nearly 1.4 times likely to have loop type (AOR= 1.385 95%CI 1.120, 1.714) and whorl type (AOR=1.359 95%CI 1.090, 1.696) than arch type of dermatoglyphics patterns. Normal type of palmar crease has nearly similar distribution between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. From aberrant creases simian had a bit higher distribution in diabetics compared to non-diabetics study participants. Conclusion: The study showed that there was significant difference in the distribution of fingerprint patterns between the diabetics and the non-diabetic subjects. The findings in the palm showed that normal crease was the most frequent creases. In addition, there was significant association with sex, body side and symmetryness in the pattern of fingerprint distribution between the diabetics and non-diabetic subjects.
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    Effects of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Morphology of Placenta and Birth Weight of Fetus in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-08) Kifle, Habtu; Dr.Seyoum, Girma (Associate Professor)
    Background: The placenta is a unique characteristic of higher mammals that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. It is connected with the fetus through the umbilical cord. Preeclampsia (PE) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) influence the normal function of the placenta which in turn affects the birth weight of the fetus. Objective: To comparethe Effects of Preeclampsia and IUGR on Morphology of Placenta and Birth Weight of Fetus in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from May 2019 to June 2019. Method:A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 pregnant women consisting of 22 mothers with PE, 10 with IUGR, and 22 without any complication. Maternal, fetal, and placental data were recorded after delivery. The micro/macroarchitecture of the placenta was examined by inspection, measuring and microscopically. The data were entered using EPI data version 4.2.0 and analyzed by SPSS version 21. One way ANOVA was performed to compare the mean differences of the placenta and the newborn’s weight across the groups. P values less than 0.05 were assumed as statistically significant. Results: The findings showed that placental weight was 485.45gm in the normotensive, 422.27gm in the PE, and 328.00gm in IUGR groups (p<0.002). The mean placental diameter was 19.05cm, 17.07cm, and 15.08cm in uncomplicated, PE, and IUGR mothers respectively (p<0.001). The mean placental thickness was 21.16mm in uncomplicated, 19.42mm in PE, and 17.06mm in IUGR mothers (p<0.001). The mean placental number of cotyledons in the uncomplicated group was 19.00 whereas it was 17.18 and 15.10 in PE and IUGR participants respectively (p<0.001). Histological results; placental calcification was observed in 60% of IUGR and 36.4% of PE, infarction in 40% of IUGR and 36.4% of PE, thrombosis in 30% of IUGR, cytotrophoblast proliferation in 31.8% PE, syncytial knots in 36.4% of PE, basement membrane thickening in 30% of IUGR and fibrinoid necrosis in 22.7% of PE groups. Conclusion: Preeclampsia and IUGR significantly decreased the weight, diameter, thickness, and the number of cotyledons of the placenta. The weights of the babies also were significantly smaller in IUGR. Even though it was not statistically significant histological abnormalities of the placenta was more common among IUGR and PE patients than the uncomplicated pregnancies. Using the current study as a baseline, investigations should be conducted on the effects of specific types of preeclampsia on morphology of placenta.
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    Prevalence of digital ridge and palmar crease pattern types and associated factors among high school students in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia.
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-08) Tirit, Destaye; Dr. Afework, Mekbeb(PhD, Associate professor); Tadesse, Fentaw (MSC in Biostatistics).
    Introduction: The term dermatoglyphics is composed of two Greek words, “derma” and “glyphic” meaning skin and curves respectively. It indicates the study of the epidermal ridge configuration on the fingers, palms and soles. Palmar creases or lines are epidermal flexure lines present on palmar surface of the hands .These are unique, permanent and genetically controlled morphological variables. Dermatoglyphics and palmar creases are important tools for diagnosis of congenital diseases, personal identification, and criminal investigations. Objective: This study aims to assess prevalence and associated factors of digital ridge and palmar crease pattern types, among high school students in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods and materials: A cross- sectional survey qualitative and quantitative study was conducted. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study subjects. The data was collected using self-administer structured questionnaires and by observational checklist after taking photograph of fingers and palms of students. A Pearson chi-square test, Independent t-test, bivariable and multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were employed using SPSS (version 20). Significance was set at p value less than 0.05. Results: : Most of the study participants had loop type digital ridge pattern which accounts 60.2%, whereas whorl and arch types accounted 32.2% and 7.6% respectively. Females were less likely to have arch pattern (AOR=0.57; 95%CI: 0. 40, 0.82) and loop pattern (AOR=0.69; 95%CI: 0.61, 0.8) than whorl pattern, when the rest variables are kept constant. Being right hand had higher loop pattern (AOR=1.19; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.36) than whorl pattern. The mean difference of ridge count was significantly higher among male students (0.005) and whorl pattern types (0.001). Among variant palmar crease types Simian crease pattern (5.9%) was the most common followed by Suwon crease pattern (3.5%), and Sydney crease pattern was the least (2.7%). Normal palmar crease was significantly higher among females but variant palmar creases are significantly higher among males (0.03). Conclusion: The loop type was the most prevalent type of digital ridge pattern. The mean of ridge count of male was higher than female students. Among the palmar crease pattern, Normal crease pattern was the most prevalent type and the common type among the variant palmar crease patterns was Simian crease.
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    Assessment of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors with Pediatric Hydrocephalus in Selected Diagnostic Centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2020-09) Mulugeta, Blein; Dr.Seyoum, Girma (Ph.D., Associate Professor of Anatomy); Dr.Mekonnen, Abebe(Radiologist, andNeuroradiologist; Assistant Professor of Radiology)
    Background: Hydrocephalus (HCP) is defined as pathophysiology with disturbed CSF. Neither qualitatively nor quantitatively are there adequate data to determine the prevalence and incidence of HCP in the developing world. HCP is a treatable condition that when left untreated, has fatal consequences. Objective: The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors in pediatric HCP in selected diagnostic centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional facility-based study was conducted over a retrospective and prospective data collection periods. Children aged 5 years and below who came to the four selected diagnostic centers for MRI and CT examination were studied. The collected data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Result: The retrospective study included 639(58%) males, 432 (42%) females, and 753 (68.4%) infants were aged younger than 24 months. The mean age calculated was 22.3 months. Children diagnosed with HCP were 245 (22.3%); of these HCP cases, 153(62.4%) were classified as noncommunicating HCP. Aqueductal stenosis, 17.9% was found to be the most common cause associated with congenital HCP. This study identified infants aged younger than 24 months to be significantly associated with HCP (P<0.05). Regarding the gender and age distribution of the prospective study, 57(57.6%) males, 42 (42.4%) females, mean age of 24.9 months, and 60 (60.6%) infants aged younger than 24 months were included. Children diagnosed with HCP were 23 (23.2%); of these HCP cases, 13(56.5%) were classified as non-communicating HCP. This study also found Aqueductal stenosis 26.1% as the most common cause associated with congenital HCP. Inadequate consumption of folic acid, usage of the folic acid supplement after conceiving, and familial association of HCP were all found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the high prevalence of HCP was due to the high prevalence of Aqueductal stenosis and NTD; with a small contribution of post-infectious causes. The majority of infants who present with HCP are aged younger than 24months.