Veterinary Epidemiology

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    Seroepidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Neospora Caninium in Cattle of Pastoral Production System in Teltelle District of Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Kula Jilo; Dr. Yitbarek Getachew
    Neosporosis is a cosmopolitan disease that has recently emerged as a major cause of abortion in smallholder dairy farms in Ethiopia. However, the status and impact of Neosporosis in pastoral cattle production settings at large and Borana pastoral area, in particular, is uncovered. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2020 to May 2021 to determine the seroprevalence and to elucidate potential associated factors for N.caninium infection in cattle in the Teltelle district of Borana zone. A total of 180 blood samples were collected from randomly selected herds(n=48) were examined to detect antibodies specific to N.caninium using indirect ELISA ( Innovative diagnostics, ID Screen®, and Montpellier, France). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information about the potential risk factors of N.caninium from the owners (n=48) of sampled herds. Among the sampled animals 9 were positive on iELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 5.0% and 14.6% at animal and herd levels respectively. Animal level multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated animals with a history of abortion had significantly higher odds to be N.caninium seropositive (AOR=23, 95%CI: 2.354-188.702; P=0.006). Similarly, a significant association of prevalence was noted with the presence of open source of water (AOR=9, 95%CI: 1.599-47.568; P=0.012) and the presence of dogs (AOR=6, 95%CI: 11.213-27.222; P=0.028) respectively. At the herd level, the result of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly higher likelihood of N.caninium seroraections in the herd with the history of abortion (AOR=16; CI=1.446-175.939; P=0.024) and dystocia (AOR=7; CI=1.008- 45.071; P=0.049) respectively. Therefore, the study revealed for the first time provided evidence for N. caninium infection that was significantly associated with history abortion in a pastoral cattle production system. Further confirmatory epidemiological studies and community sensitization to achieve separation of dogs from herds, to do not feeding dogs with raw animal products and provision of hygienic water to animals is recommended.
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    Seroepidemiology and Also Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viral Antigen from Dairy Farms In Holeta Town
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Worku Berhanu; Dr. Haileleul Negussie; Dr. Asamenew Tesfaye
    A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to April 2021 to detect the antigen, investigate seroepidemiology, and associated risk factors bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Holeta town at Walmera district of Ethiopia. A total of 337 sera samples were collected from unvaccinated cattle. The sera samples were subjected to BVDV antibody and antigen detection using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and antigen-capture ELISA test, respectively. In this study, 15.43% (n = 52) and 64.71% (n = 11) overall seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody was observed at individual and herds level, respectively. All antibody-negative serum samples (n =285) were tested for antigen using antigen-capture ELISA, of which 0.35% (n = 1) was found antigen-positive for BVDV.This is the first report of BVDV antigen prevalence (0.35%) in the study areas and Ethiopia. A statistically higher seroprevalence (P = 0.000) of BVDV was observed in cows with a history of abortion 52% (OR: 7.2; 2.98- 16.56), cows with repeated breeder 50% (OR: 6.2, 2.85-13.12), the introduction of new animal to the herd 50% (OR: 6.97;3.01-16.13), animals reared in intensive farms 26.43% (OR: 4.36;0.28-8.32) and parity ≥ 2 24.17% (OR:4.42;1.92-10.14). Additionally, Congenital defects 41.67% (OR: 4.22;1.28-13.86, P=0.017), large herd size 24.22% (OR: 3.36; 1.358.35,P=0.009), adults 23.12% (OR: 3.78;1.63 8.77, P=0.002) and farms used both AI and bull breeding 17.44% (OR: 2.17;0.93-5.03,P=0.070) were identified as potential risk factors and significantly associated with bovine viral diarrhea seropositivity. Seroprevalence of BVDV was not associated with body condition scores and sex at (P>0.05). This study revealed that cattle residing in Holeta town have greater exposure to BVDV infection and varied with reproductive problem, management, and farming system of the animals. The finding has also detected the antigens that helpful to further isolate the dominant genotypes BVDV circulating in the study area
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    Epidemiology and Economic impact of Foot and mouth disease in Domestic ruminants in Western Amhara regional state, North western Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Betelihem Yirdaw; Dr. Yasmin Jibril; Dr. Haileleul Nigusse
    Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects cloven-hoofed animals and causes significant economic losses in the livestock industry. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the western Amhara region of Ethiopia during the period from November 2020 to May 2021 with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of FMD, to identifying circulating serotypes and determines the economic impact of the diseases on domestic ruminants. A total of 389 sera samples and 14 epithelial tissue samples were collected from ruminants. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to determine economic loss associated with FMD. All the serum samples were subjected to a 3ABC enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay to detect antibodies against non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, the overall seroprevalence of FMDV in the domestic ruminants were 4.63% (18/389); (95%; CI: 2.93% - to 7.24%). The seroprevalence of cattle, sheep and goats were 6.38% (12/389), 3.67% (4/389) and 2.17% (2/389) respectively. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the occurrence of FMD was higher in Adet than in Banja (OR= 11.48, p=0.02). The occurrence in the semi-intensive production system was significantly greater than the occurrence in the extensive production system (OR=14.2 and p= 0.001). FMDV was detected using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerize chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a total of 14 active tissue samples taken and serotyping was done using antigen detection sandwich ELISA. FMDV was found in all tissue samples, and serotypes O, A, SAT1, and SAT2 were identified. Questionnaire survey data revealed total economic loss was 5553.21ETB (132.21$USA) per herd and 1124.13ETB (26.76$USA) per individual animal. It was determined that the disease's impact is extremely severe, resulting in massive economic losses. Therefore, it was recommended that further investigations on the epidemiology and economic consequences should be studied to design appropriate control options.
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    Phenotypic, Molecular Detection and Antibiogram Analysis of Aeromonas Hydrophila from Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) And Ready-To- Eat Fish Products in Selected Rift Valley Lakes of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Nebiyu Kassa; Dr. Yitbarek Getachew; Dr. Tesfaye Rufael
    Aeromonas hydrophila is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen that frequently causes disease and mass mortalities among cultured and feral fishes worldwide. In Ethiopia, A. hydrophila outbreak was reported in Sebeta fish ponds and in lake Tana fishery. However, there is no to little information on the molecular, and phenotypical characteristics of A. hydrophila in Ethiopian fisheries. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to May 2021 in selected Ethiopian Rift valley lakes namely Koka, Ziway, Langano and Hawassa Lakes with aim of isolation and determination of phenotypic and genotypic features of A. hydrophila infecting tilapia and fish products in respective towns. A total of 140 samples were collected aseptically from fish (Muscle, Gill, Intestine, Spleen and Kidney) from fish landing sites, market and restaurants from respective towns with purposive sampling methods. Aeromonas selective media (AMB), morphological and biochemical tests were used to isolate and identify A. hydrophila. Accordingly, the pathogen was isolated from 81 (60.45%) of samples. Among the isolates 92.59% expressed virulence trait through β hemolysis on blood agar media with 5% sheep blood. Moreover, 54 strains (66.67%) were further confirmed with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) using ahaI gene specific primers and optimized protocol. The highest (68.51%) were detected from live fish, (24.07%) were from market fish and the lowest (7.4%%) were from RTE. Antibiogram analysis was conducted on ten representative isolates. Accordingly, A. hydrophila isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (100%), chloramphenicol (100%) and ceftriaxone (100%). However, all ten isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin and Penicillin. The present study revealed virulent, Amoxicillin and Penicillin resistant A. hydrophila stains in fish and fish products. Interestingly adhesive (ahaI) gene was detected in majority of the isolates. Moreover, we optimized the first Real time PCR protocol that would be useful for molecular epidemiological studies of A. hydrophila. In conclusion, A. hydrophila strains carrying virulence ahaI gene that were ß-hemolytic and resistant to antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine are circulating in the fishery. The detection of the pathogen in 140 of the sampled fish population is alarming for potential outbreaks and zoonosis. Therefore, further molecular epidemiology of the disease should be studied to establish potential inter host transmission and antibiotic resistance traits. Therefore, raising the public awareness on risk associated with consuming undercooked or raw fish meat is pertinent. Designing prevention and control strategies against A. hydrophila to safeguard the fishery sector is highly recommended.
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    Serological Investigation of Infectious Bursal Disease in Poultry Reared under Backyard Production System In Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Mihret Amajo; Dr. Haileliul Negussie
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2020 to May 2021 to investigate the epidemiology of the infectious bursal disease (IBD). Multistage sampling was implemented to determine the seroprevalence and assess the risk factors of IBD in unvaccinated backyard chickens and describe the distribution of disease concerning different risk factors in the Wolaita zone. A questionnaire survey was also carried out and revealed that various factors affect the occurrence of IBD. From 482 sera samples tested for IBDV antibodies using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA), 236 samples were positive for IBDV antibodies with an overall prevalence of 48.96% (95% CI: 44.52-53.41). A statistically (P< 0.05) higher seroprevalence of IBD was found in exotic breed (n = 112; 57.14%) as compared to local breed (n = 124; 43.35%). Similarly, statistically higher seroprevalence of IBD was recorded in flock sizes ≥ 5 chickens (n = 201; 59.47%) as compared to < 5 chickens (n = 35; 24.3%). Based on the results of multivariable logistic regression the odds of occurrence of IBD was 0.67 times lower in local breeds than exotic breeds and ≥ 5 chickens had 4.33 times higher seropositive than < 5 chickens. There was a statistical association (P<0.05) between the treatment history and death in the flock. This study revealed that IBD was an important and wide speared problem in poultry production. Thus, appropriate biosecurity measures, regular serosurveilance, creating awareness to the owners, and frequent outbreak investigation for selecting appropriate vaccine strain and effective vaccine design and vaccination is important for the control of the disease.
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    Sero-prevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis in ruminants and humans in selected districts of West Shoa zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Wakuma Mitiku; Dr. Teshale Sori; Dr. Getachew Tuli; Mr. Teferi Benti
    A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted in Bako Tibe, Ilu Galan, and Nono districts of the West Shoa zone, from January - May 2021 to estimate the seroprevalence and identify associated risk factors of brucellosis in ruminants and humans, as well as to assess the knowledge and practices of livestock owners towards the disease. A total of 295 blood samples were collected for serological tests from ruminants using a simple random sampling, whereas the districts and kebeles were selected purposively. In addition, 102 human sera were included in the study. Rose Bengal Plate test was used to screen the serum samples, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed as a confirming test. Besides, information was collected on the individual animal and herd-level risk factors using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the prevalence of brucellosis and present the questionnaire survey results. Firth's bias-reduced logistic regression was used to determine the association between the prevalence of brucellosis and the risk factors. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was 3.3 % (95 % CI: 1.73-6.34) by Rose Bengal Plate test and 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.43 -3.67) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent test, of these,1.17% (95 % CI: 0.14 - 4.18) in cattle, 1.63% (95 % CI: 0.04 - 8.7) in sheep and 1.56% (95 % CI: 0.03 - 8.4) in goats. The result of univariable firth's bias-reduced logistic regression analysis indicates that animals with the history of abortion (OR= 26, P= 0.003), species composition (OR= 8, P= 0.023), and retained fetal membrane (OR=9, P=0.034) were found significantly associated with brucellosis. Nevertheless, in the multivariable firth's bias-reduced logistic regression analysis, history of abortion (OR=10.72, 95 % CI: 1.06 -131.26, P = 0.044) and species composition (OR=12.37, 95 % CI:0.98 -155.67, P = 0.03) were statistically significant risk factors of ruminant brucellosis. Four blood clots from seropositive animals were further tested with real-time PCR and the result revealed that all samples were negative for IS711 primers. Similarly, no human sera were found positive for Brucella antibodies. A total of 120 peoples were questioned to evaluate their awareness and practices regarding to brucellosis. Accordingly, most respondents 71.7% did not know brucellosis and 50% of them practices handling animals’ delivery. In conclusion, despite the low figure of brucellosis, the free movement of animals across herds could make it a source of infection for other herds. The study also shows that, despite having some understanding about zoonosis, the community's practices are poor. As a result, seropositivity in animals may suggest that brucellosis poses a public health risk. This necessitates a more detailed epidemiological and genomic assessment to identify the specific Brucella species found in the area's animals and humans.
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    Isolation, Molecular Detection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Test of Salmonella Isolates in Broiler Chicken Production System in and Around Adama Town, Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Yamlaksira Ayalkibet; Hika Waktole
    Ethiopia is one of the leading countries in having a large chicken population in Africa. However, different constraints are affecting the productivity of the chickens in the country. Salmonellosis is one of the prioritized bacterial diseases affecting poultry in the country and poultry meat is the major source of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. As the result, a cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to July 2021 in purposively selected broiler chicken farms found in and around Adama town with the aim of isolation, molecular detection, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Salmonella from broiler chickens. A total of 380 samples (cloacal swab, n=260; pooled fresh fecal dropping, n=30; pooled litter sample, n= 30; pooled feed sample, n=30; and pooled water swab, n=30) were randomly collected from 6 purposively selected broiler chicken farms. Standard bacteriological techniques were employed to conduct isolation and biochemical test confirmation of Salmonella followed by molecular confirmation using conventional PCR and the drug sensitivity testing was done for 10 antimicrobials by using disk diffusion methods according to CLSI guidelines. Out of the total 380 samples collected, 88 (23.2%) were positive for Salmonella. Based on the potential effects of sample type, the likely hood of isolation of Salmonella was 6.91 times significantly higher in the fecal sample as compared to the other types of samples. A total of 42 representative samples out of 88 (~50%) biochemically positive Salmonella were subjected to molecular detection and 10 (23.8%) of the isolates were positive to S. Enteritidis using the SdfI gene. From the PCR positive S. Enteritidis profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility, the highest resistance (90%) was observed in Ampicillin followed by Tetracycline (80%). Multi antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was recorded in 8(80%) of the isolates; indicating the irrational use of antibiotics in broiler chickens which leads to the potential source for MAR Salmonella infection in both animals and humans. Therefore, improvement of knowledge of farmers and judicious use of antimicrobial and restriction of getting drugs without a prescription is crucial and mandatory. Further, molecular confirmation and sequencing should be done to identify the gene that plays a role in resistance.
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    Epidemiology Of Subclinical Hypocalcaemia and its Metabolite Profile In Dairy Cow During Transition Period in and Around Bishoftu Town, East Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Mogos Mekonnin; Dr.Yitbarek Getachew; Dr.Haileleul Nigussie
    In order to sustain the healthy, production and productivity of dairy farm, it’s important to manage and control the metabolic disease of dairy cow in dairy sector. Hypocalcaemia is one of the most important metabolic diseases of dairy cows that cause significant economic loss in the dairy industry. However, more studies have not been conducted in Ethiopia on subclinical hypocalcaemia during transition period. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2021 to June, 2022 in and around the Bishoftu town of East Shewa Zone to know the Epidemiology of subclinical hypocalcaemia and its metabolite profile in dairy cows during the transition period. During the study period, 43 dairy farms were purposively selected based on the willingness of dairy owners. 176 blood samples of dairy cows were sampled from the target population during the study. A semi-structured questionnaire survey was also conducted in parallel to sample collection on dairy farm owners or producers during the study period. The Cobas 6000 electrolyte analyzer at Adama Public Health Research and Referral Laboratory Center was used to measure serum calcium concentrations of sampled dairy cows during transition period. Cows with serum calcium levels < 2.15mmol/L were considered to have subclinical hypocalcaemia, whereas those with serum calcium levels > 2.15mmol/L were considered to have normocalcaemia. The number of dairy cows that were below the threshold point was (n=49) in the study period. The current study revealed that, the prevalence of subclinical hypocalcaemia was 27.8% (CI, 95% = 22% - 35%). The average serum calcium level of sampled dairy cow was 2.174mmol/L (median = 2.21mmol/L), the minimum and maximum value 1.21mmol/L, 2.49mmol/L, respectively. The test of significance association implies that serum calcium concentration was related to breed (local, coef =0.098740, p =0.001), age (coef = -0.042506, p = 0.000137), milk yield (coef = -0.054521, p = 0.042397), feed type (mixed, coef = 0.116441, p=0.002, roughage, coef = 0.091068, p = 0.0049), parity (coef = -0.070485, p = 0.01632) and cow status (pregnant, coef = 0.055772, p = 0.0469). Despite the fact that the farm owner unaware of its presence, the current investigation revealed that subclinical hypocalcaemia is the most prevalent metabolic condition affecting dairy cows in the study area. Therefore, emphasis on host-related and management factors during the transition period is warranted.
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    cart and harness characteristics of draught equids in the oromia region ; the contribution of local cart and harness design to the welfare of working equids
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Abel Legesse; Prof.Teshale Sori
    The study was conducted from November 2021 to May 2022 in three selected towns of Oromia region Bishoftu, Selale, and Shashemene to assess cart and harness characteristics and its contribution of local cart and harness design to the welfare of working equids . A total of 369 equines were examined during the study period, with 244 (66.12 %) horses, 122 (33.06 %) donkeys, and 3 (0.81 %) mules being examined for general attitude, gait, response to spinal contact, presence of shoes, lesions on various parts of the body, hoof and limb conditions, and body condition status. When the proportion of work types was compared to the study region, Bishoftu, Selale, and Shashemene differed. In Bishoftu, 72.88 % use taxis, 19.43 % use transit, and 7.68 % utilize water transportation. A taxi driver, like Bishoftu, was the most frequent type of work in Selale. It was 74.32 %, with goods transport accounting for 21.66 % and water transport accounting for 3.53 %. Cart taxi service is virtually non-existent in the Shashemene area. The bulk of carts were used to transport commodities and water, accounting for 82.84 % and 17.15 %, respectively, of all carts. The study found that 13.11 % of the 122 donkeys were "Very thin," 84.42 % were "Thin," and 2.45 % had "Ideal" physique scores. The condition "Thin" accounted for 53.68 % of the total horse population, followed by "Ideal" condition, which accounted for 23.36 % of the total horse population. The third and last segment was occupied by a very thin body score condition, which accounts for around 22.95 % of the total. From the total sample 75.60% of working equids were found with wound on different body parts in Bishoftu, 67.47% in Selale and 84.55% in Shashemene area because of improper fitting of harness materials. Girth wounds account for the majority of these three major wound results, accounting for 43.90 % of all wounds across the research region. Chest wound 23.30 % and saddle wound 22.49 % took second and third place, respectively. In the current study, we discovered that equines play a significant role as useful animals in both rural and urban communities. Cart and harness features such as unfitted, thinner saddles, use of unbreathable paddings, lameness, wound, overworking, overloading, injuries, and general abuse were common. Further research and appropriate interventions should be explored on the welfare restrictions impeding the optimal use of equines in this critical area.
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    Seroepidemiology of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Isolation of Bovine Herpes Virus-1 from local breed cattle in selected districts of South Omo Zones, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Melkamu Tadesse; Dr. Zerihun Assefa; Dr. Hagose Asegedom; Abebe Garuma(MSc)
    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild bovines and angulates caused by Bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1). It causes a high economic loss in cattle industry worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2022 to May 2023 to determine the seroprevalence of the disease, assess the potential risk factors associated with the disease as well as to isolate the BHV-1 from local breed cattle in the selected districts of the South Omo zone, Ethiopia. A total of 400 blood sera and 24 nasal swaps were collected to determine the seroprevalence and isolation of the virus respectively. Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (C-ELISA) was used to detect antibodies specific to Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BoHV-1). The nasal swap samples were propagated on Madine-Darby Bovine Kidney Epithelial (MDBK, passage 84) cell line, monitored and inspected for the development of cytopathic effects (CPE). Descriptive statistics, chi-square (x2) test, univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the field and laboratory data. An overall individual animal seroprevalence of 81% (324 of 400) and herd-level seroprevalence of 88.29% (83 of 94) were recorded. Out of 24 samples were processed for virus isolation, virus specific cytopathic effects were observed only in 6 (25%) samples. Factors such as herd size (OR= 14.5, p=0.000), movement across a national border (OR=5.2, p=0.005), contact with wild animals (OR=3.99, p=0.005), retained placenta (OR=30.7, p= 0.005), and purchased, gifted or cattle rustling (OR=10.6, p=0.000) were found statistically associated with IBR seropositivity in multivariate analysis. However, abortion, dystocia, still birth, history of respiratory and ocular problem, sex, age, crossing Park and sanctuary boundary, were not found statistically significant. In general, the serological and cell culture results showed that BHV-1 was circulating among the herds in the study area. Given that the current study was limited in time, space and design, further works need to be conducted to generate additional information which helps reduce the transmission and socio-economic impacts of the IBR disease on domestic cattle.
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    Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Its Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile in Beef in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023) Gemechis Tegegn; Dr. Fufa Abunna; Dr. Zerihun Asefa
    Escherichia coli O157:H7 spreads through the consumption of contaminated, raw beef. A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 2022 and June 2023 on 285 samples collected from butcher shops and abattoir to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and assess its antimicrobial susceptibility profile in slaughterhouse and butcher shops in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The 3MTM Molecular Assay Detection E. coli O157 methods were used to detect E. coli O157 using the 3MDS protocol guide. Isolation and identification E. coli O157:H7 was by using Biolog GENIII Microplate system. Over all, the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the abattoir and butcher shops was 6.32% at 95% CI [4.0–9.83] with a higher prevalence in the abattoir (12/150; 8.0%) than butcher shops (6/135; 4.44%). In the abattoir, E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 12 (8%) at 95% CI [4.6, 13.6] samples, 10 (6.67%) from beef carcasses, 1 (0.67%) from workers' hands, and 1 (0.67%) from knife swabs. Animal-related risk factors (sex, age, breed, and body condition score) were not significantly associated with the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in the abattoir. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in butcher shops was 4.44 % at 95% CI [1.99– 9.63], and cutting board swabs (16%), carcasses (1.67%), and knife swabs (4%) were the most common sources. The test statistics association found a significant difference in the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 among sample types from an abattoir and butcher shops (df = 7, p = 0.04). The disc diffusion method used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Eight antimicrobials used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 18 E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Accordingly, E. coli O157:H7 showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, penicillin G, and vancomycin and 94% resistance to ampicillin. Moreover, both streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim showed 100% susceptibility. E. coli O157:H7 was also found to be susceptible to gentamicin and tetracycline (17/18) (94.44%) and 16/18 (88.9%), respectively. In the current study, samples from butcher shops and an abattoir were found to contain the human pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, which is resistant to many antibiotics. Therefore, coordination of efforts is required to minimize or eliminate the dangers that this organism poses at various points in the food chain. These can be prevented primarily by using antibiotics ethically and correctly handling and cooking animal products.
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    Seroepidemiology of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Brucellosis, and Major Reproductive Problems in Commercial and Smallholder Dairy Farms in North Shewa, Central Highlands of Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023) Aweke Engdawork; Haileleul Negussie ( Assoc. Prof); Dr. Demeke Zewde; Abdela Bulbula
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2022 to May 2023 to determine the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine brucellosis, and to identify the major reproductive problems and potential risk factors in commercial and smallholder dairy farms in North Shewa, the central highlands of Ethiopia. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to sample animals from the respective farm types. A total of 511 blood samples were collected from crossbred and local cattle from 142 herds. The serological investigations were conducted using competitive gE-ELISA for IBR, RBPT and CFT for bovine brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence of IBR was 61.84% (95% CI: 57.53-65.97%) at animal level and 85.21% (95% CI: 78.28-90.21%) at the herd level; while the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was 0.98% (95% CI: 0.41-2.34%) at animal level and 3.52% (95% CI: 1.46-8.26%) in the herds based on combined RBPT and CFT tests. The univariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age, breed, parity, history of abortion, retained fetal membrane and ocular/nasal discharges were significantly associated with IBR seropositivity. The final adjusted model for potential risk factors indicated that animals above 6 years old were 9.16 (95% CI: 3.09-27.16; p = 0.000) times at higher risk, while animals with abortion were 4.51 (95% CI: 1.23-16.53; p = 0.019) times and nasal discharges were nearly 3 (95% CI: 1.86-9.31; p = 0.030) times more at risk for IBR seropositivity. The univariable firth’s bias reduced logistic regression analysis indicated that district, age, breed, parity, history of abortion, retained placenta and dystocia were found to be significant factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in dairy cattle. The odds of brucellosis were higher in animals above 6 years old (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 1.71-7.97; p = 0.004), local breeds (OR = 6.2; 95% CI: 2.08-8.21; p = 0.016), and aborted cows (OR = 22.35; 95% CI: 3.90-107.91; p = 0.002). Semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 120 respondents to determine major reproductive problems, and assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of farmers. The most common reproductive problems in dairy herds were repeat breeding (47.5%), anoestrus (44.17%), retained placenta (40%), abortion (32.5%) and dystocia (22.5%). Most of the farmers (55.83%) reported assisting a cow during parturition and 75% of them did not use protective glove or personal protection. The practices of raw milk (26.67%) and raw meat (64.17%) consumption were reported. However, only 14.17% of the respondents were found to have the awareness on zoonotic transmission of brucellosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that IBR was widely distributed in commercial and smallholder dairy farms; whereas, the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was found to be very low among dairy cattle. Therefore, the initiation of vaccination for Bovine Herpes Virus-1 with marker vaccines in Ethiopia, regular herd testing, isolation of animal with predictive signs, and implementation of strict farm biosecurity measures are forwarded to minimize impacts of the diseases on the growing dairy industry, and public health impact of brucellosis.
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    Epidemiology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in small ruminants of Borena Zone, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023) Adem Kumbe; Haileleul Negussie(Assoc. Prof.); Yitbarek Getachew(Assoc. Prof.); Samson Leta (Assoc. Prof.); Gezahegn Alemayehu(PhD)
    A peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a major economic threat to sustainable small ruminant production in the developing world, including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2022 to March 2023 to estimate the epidemiological status of PPR in the small ruminants of the Borena Zone. Moreover, a questionnaire survey and retrospective outbreak data analysis were conducted to complement laboratory and field data. In the present study, districts and households were selected purposively based on small ruminant population, and individual animals were selected randomly. A total of 384 serum samples were collected from sheep and goats and subjected to serological analysis using cELISA. In this study, the seroprevalence in nonvaccinated animal was 32.1% (95% CI: 26.3– 38.3). Multivariable logistic analysis revealed a statistically significant association of PPRV seropositivity to older age (60%, OR = 7.3, 95%CI = 2.7–19.4; P = 0.000), animals of market origin (62.9%, OR = 4, 95%CI = 1.4–11.3; P = 0.00), animals given as gifts (56.3%, OR = 8.3, 95%CI = 2.1-32.6; P = 0.003), poor veterinary service (43.5%, OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.2– 5.7; P = 0.019), and medium flock size (74.2%, OR = 15.4, 95%CI: 3.1–77.3; P = 0.001). In retrospective data from 2018 to 2022, 554 outbreaks and 114,924 deaths of small ruminants were reported in Ethiopia, with 9.6% outbreaks and 0.6% deaths reported from Borena Zone. A total of 81 household heads were interviewed in three districts. The disease was known to locals as "Marareba". Respondents reported that the virus had a detrimental effect by causing mortality in goats (12.3%) and sheep (7.4%), and abortions in goats (22.2%) and sheep (11.1%). However, most respondents (81.5%) lack knowledge about disease transmission, sources and practices facilitating factors including small ruminant sales, cultural festivals, dry seasons, and traditional remedies. The study highlighted the presence of PPR among the sheep and goats in Borena Zone. Lack of awareness on means of transmission, and different social activities might have contributed toa higher presence of the disease in the study population. Therefore, continuing the vaccination effort and community education are recommended to minimize the socioeconomic impact of PPR among the Borena pastoral community.
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    Seroprevalence of Pest Des Petitis Ruminants and its Associations with Potential Risk Factors in Domesticated Small Ruminants, Cattle, Camel in Jijiga and Shinille Zone of Somali Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2009-06) Sime, Teffera; Yilkal, Asfaw
    Cross-sectional study was conducted in Jijiga and Shinille Zones of Somali Regional State from October 2008 to April 2009 to determine seroprevalence and associated risk factors. A multistage sampling was used in pastoral and agropastoralsystem. A total of (n=616) goats, (n=202) sheep, (n=110) cattle and (n=94) camel sera were collected for serological study. questionary survey was conducted in pastoral and agro-pastoral system. The seroprevalence of PPR in goats and sheep was 25.6% and 14.4% in the study area respectively. The seroprevalence was lower in camels and cattle, which was 8.5% and 6.63% respectively. Goats were found to be more susceptible than sheep, which was found to be statistically significant (p=O.OOO). However no significant difference was observed between cattle and camel (P=0.558). Seroprevalence of goats between Shinille Zone (pastoral) and Jijiga Zone (agro-pastoral) production system showed 44.09% and 18.9% in goats, 30.01% and 5.42 in sheep respectively. Sero prevalence increased from 21.7%% to 28.9%%% in goats and from 8.1 %to 20.4%in sheep from young to adults age respectively. There was significant difference between age groups in seroprevalence of both goats (p=0.04) and of sheep (0.013). In case of cattle (p=0.062) and camel (p=0.249) statistically no significance difference was observed between age groups in seroprevalence. Regarding sex, 26.4%, and 25.5% was found in goats (p=0.851), 15.6% and 14% in sheep's 8% and 5 %( p=O. 795) in cattle (p=0.488) and8.2% and 9.5% in camel (p=0.095) in male and female respectively. There was statistically no significant difference between sexes in all species. According to the respondent the number of goats affected by CCPP (Sunbub) and PPR (Kollere) was 32.8%, 21.4% and 25.7%, 14.3% in Shinille and Jijiga Zone respectively. However more goats are affected by GIT parasite in Jijiga (40%) than Shinille zone (21.4%). Regarding susceptibility by age 64.28% and 60.7% of the respondent replied that young goats and sheep were more susceptible than adult animals. However, no response (0%) was made indicating susceptibility of goats and sheep less than 6 months of age. Key words: goat, sheep, cattle, camel, , cELISA, Peste des petits ruminants, Seroprevalence, Risk factors, Jijiga Zone, Shinile Zone.
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    Seroprevalence of Contagiuos Caprine Pleuropnemonia in Borana and Gujilow Lands Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06) Bekele, Tesfaye; Asfaw, Yilkal (PhD)
    A multi tage cr s ti nal erologicul study, que Ii nrHllr survcy and particip I ry apprai al were nducted n c ntagiou caprinc plcuropn umonia ( ' PI' fr m r. 2 07 to pril, 200 orana and uji 10\.\land , .'outh rn i-:.thiopiu. to determin the pn.:valcn of th id ntif) the ri k fact rs for the curren e of the di. ca ' and t a s th p~rception of the c mmunity on PP in parti ular and th r goat di . e in general. t tal f 951 erum sampl 900 from goats and 51 from h ep) were lIe ted and te ted u mg omplem nt Fixati n Te t ( FT). Que tionnaire ur ey were condu ted with 69 rand mly I cted hou ehold . Participatory di ea apprai al wa d ne \\ ith 12 in~ rmant gr up ' in 12 differ nt village th group size varying fr m 5-12 informant and with a t tal f 120 in~ rmant. ut of the 900 goat sera samples te ted 119 (13.2%) w re erop iti\e for PP, giving an overall seroprevalence of 13.2 % (95% I 11.0%-15.4%) in th tudyarea. r pr ",alence of 18.3% (95% 1=14.3%-22.7%), 11.6% (95% 1- 8%-15.2%) and 9.6% (950 /0 I 6. %-12.6% w re recorded in Liban, Teltale and Moyale District, re p ctively. h er pre\alenc rec rded among the district was significantly difD rent (p<0.05). Th r preval nc re orded in iban district was significantly different from that of Moyal Di trict (p<0.05). M r \ er, ut of 1 sheep samples tested, 3 (5.9%) wer eropo iti e. tati tical anal) i limed ri k fa tor howed that the roprevalence ob erved in ag gr up . fl ck ize gr up and di tan fr m et rinary service ntre were found t b ignificantl differ nt (p
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    Epidemiology and Economic Importance of Fasciolosis of Domestic Ruminants in Selecied Sites of Tigray Regional State, Norther" Ethiopia .
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06) Legesse, Gebru; Abdella, Mehammed(PhD)
    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence, assess risk factors associated with fasciolosis and evaluate economic los'>e'> in f()ur selected areas or Tigray Regional State. during September 2007 to May 2()()~ A total of 1736 domestic ruminants comprising of 1015 cattle, 526 sheep, 167 goats and 28 camel were subjected to coprological investigation and 236 slaugrltered animals were included for post mortem survey. Based on coprological investigation the ovt-;-ull prevalence uf fasciolo~is was 25.3%" 35.7%, II A'Yo an':l 3.6% in cattle, sheep, goats and camels, respectively. In the slaughterhouses survey the prevalence of fasciolosis was 33.1 %. 37.2%, and 17.6% in cattle, sheep and goats. respectively. I ligh prevalence was recorded in sheep (37.2%) and lowest in goats (17.6%). Statistical significant differences was observed in prevalence among the species (p<0.05) using coproscopy. Fasciola hepatica was dominant in the highlands while the dominant species in the midland and lowland was F gigantica Differences in agroecology, season, body condition and age \vere shown to have associations with prevalence while no significant association was obse[\·ed between sexes of animals. Species of animals. season, age and agro-ecology were knov.n to be among important risk factors associated with fasciolosis. The direct and indirect economic loss incurred due to fasciolosis in the study area \\as estimated to be 268,536.21 Ethiopian Birr. Out of the total incurred losses, 86.3% \vas in cattle. The present study revealed that infection of domestic ruminants by Fasciola species 'Aas attributed by the presence of favorable em·ironment for the abundance of intermediate host and the parasite, hence requiring immediate strategic intervention against the disease. Key words: Ruminants, Epidemiology, Preyalence. Fasciola species, Coproscopy. \
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    Study on Mycobacterium Bovis Busing Conventional and Molecular Methods in Cattle Slaughtered in Kombolcha Elfora Meat Processing Plant
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06-20) Desta, Fekadu; Yilkal, Asefaw (ph.D)
    Across Sectional Study was conducted on 1138 head of Cattle of kombolcha Elfora Meeat Processing Plant South Wello Administrative Zone
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    Seroepidemiological Investigations of Camel Brucellosis and Community Perception in Selected Districts of Borana Zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia
    (2021-06) Aden, Giro; Dr. Teshale sori
    Understanding the epidemiology and natural history of camel brucellosis is crucial for control. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two selected districts of Borana Pastoral setting, Southern Ethiopia from November 2020 to April 2021 to estimate sero-prevalence and assess associated risk factors of camel brucellosis. A total of 315 blood samples were collected from camels older than 6 months in Arero and Elwoye districts. The collected serum samples were screened using Rose Bengal plate test and positive samples were confirmed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between potential risk factors and sero-prevalence was computed using multivariable logistic regression and chi-square tests. Out of the total of 315 serum samples screened by Rose Bengal plate test 29 (9.21 %; 95 % CI: 6.25 – 12.95) were positive for brucellosis, of which 9 (2.86 %; 95 % CI: 13.15 – 53.54) were confirmed to be positive using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The statistical analysis showed that female camels which had history of abortion were more likely to be seropsotive than those which did not have abortion history (χ2=5.51; p=0.014 and OR=6.2; 95 % CI=1.08 -35.86). Camels tested from large herd size were more at risk of acquiring brucellosis than those from small herd size (χ2=9.02; p=0.0027and OR=17.04; 95% CI=1.77-164.04). The prevalence was higher (3.17 %; 95 % CI: 0.87 – 7.93) in Elwoye district than in Arero (2.65 %; 95 % CI: 0.86 – 6.07) although the difference was not statistically significant. The results of questionnaires revealed that 33 (73.33 %) of the respondents knew the brucellosis. Most of the animal herders had greater knowledge about the brucellosis than other participants of the study, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The major signs of brucellosis recognized by the pastoralists include: abortion, retain placenta and stillbirth with 100%, 81.82% and 66.67%, respectively. The majority of the pastoralists interviewed (27; 81.82 %) were not aware about brucellosis being transmitted from domestic animals to humans. Although the prevalence of brucellosis observed in this in camels is low, the lack of control and prevention programs could make it a public health threat for the pastoral community.
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    Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Prospective Study of Bovine Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis in Peri Urban and Urban Dairy Production Systems in the Addis Ababa Region, Ethiopia
    (AAU, 1998-01) Simukai Bishi, Alee; Zessin (Prof); Zerihun, Ademe (PhD)
    This study was conducted to establish the prevalence and incidence of clinical and subclinical Mastitis in peri-urban and urban dmry production systems in and around Addis Ababa and Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. A questionnaire survey was also conducted to gain an insight in to the farming systems in operation, and to study some management and social factors that may have an influence on the occurrence of mastitis. The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of intensification (farm size in particular) on the Occurrence o f mastitis.
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    Current Epidemiological Situation of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Limu Shay Tsetse Controlled Area of Upper Didessa Valley
    (AAU, 2004-06) Regassa, Feyesa; Abebe, Getachew (Prof)
    Trypanosomosis is one of the most devastating diseases which afflict both people and animals in Africa. The Ethiopian government is placing a great emphasis on tsetse control activities. The control program must fit into the rural development policy of the country and monitoring and impact assessment of the control programs is equally important. The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis with regards to changes in tsetse density and to assess the socio-economic impact of tsetse control in Limu Shay tsetse controlled area of the upper Didessa valley. The impact of tsetse control in Limu Shay was assessed by comparison with the tsetse infested (Didessa) area. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March 2004 and comprised of cross sectional study on the disease and its ector tsetse fly questionnaire and collection of the recorded data for socioeconomic impact assessment. The pre alence study was carried out on 810 randomly selected cattle using the dark ground! phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT). A total of 180 monoconical traps were deployed along the identified localities and suitable tsetse habitats (1300-1525 meters abo e sea level) to determine the mean catch and tsetse apparent densities. A total of 180 family heads were interviewed by using standard questionnaire particularly with questions co ering issues on Ii estock and crop production and together with the socio economic data from secondary sources were used to assess the socio-economic impact of tsetse control. Survey results in the tsetse controlled area showed 7.9% pre alence of trypanosome infection in cattle with a erage packed red cell volume (FCV) of 25%. In the tsetse infested area the pre alence and a erage PCV were 27.16% and 22.85% respecti ely. Similarly comparison of the tsetse infested area with the tsetse infested area showed 71 % reduction in trypanosome pre alence and 9.51 % increase in PCV values. The observed differences were statistically significQ.nt for pre alence (95% CI= 0.1490- 0.202' P< 0.001 and PCV (%) (95% CI= 23.623- 24.2387' P < 0.001). Tsetse fly mean catch between the tsetse controlled (mean=4.03) and the tsetse infested (mean=10.68 areas differed significantly (P< 0.05) with 62.4% reduction in the tsetse apparent density in the controlled area. 0 G. m. submorsitans was found in the tsetse controlled area but the apparent density 1.34 fly per trap per day in the controlled area 2.05 fly per trap per day in the infested area was reduced by 35% for G. tachinoides. The questionnaire survey result indicated that the cal ing rate was increased by 35.3%. The a erage age at first calving (42 months the a erage cal ing interval 20.04 months) and abortion rate (16.1 %) were also reduced by XIII 1l.5% 5.5 month 13.6% 3 months and 39% respecti ely in the controlled area a compared to the tsetse infested area. Mortality rate in the herds of controlled 7.9% area ho\-, ed 2% reduction a compared to the infested 29.1 % area. The differences ob erved benveen the tv 0 area were tatistically significant. Likewi e analysis of the data re ealed an increa e by 0% in average daily milk yield per co 1.67liters an increa e by 120% in a erage lactation yield 350 kg and decrease in the a erage use of trypanocidal drugs treatments of per animal per ear from 7.16 treatment in the infested area to 0.19 in the tsetse ontrolled area. Con, er el there wa a reduction by 40% and 90% for the producti e offtake rate ale and slaughter rate and purchase rate respecti ely in the controlled area a compared to the infe ted area. B comparison with the infested area oxen in the controlled area \.vere 0% and 31 % more efficient in the a erage work hour per day and in the a erage area culti" ated per 0 re pecti el . Anal is of the econdary source data howed that the number of cattle and draught oxen has increased b 323% and b 260% re pecti el 0 er 15 ear ben, een 19 and 2003. The increase in animal traction has in tum brought about change in culti ation practice with ubsequent increase in a erage area ploughed under animal traction b almo t 00% increa e and an a erage area cultivated per hou ehold b 00%. The a erage cultivated land per hou e hold increased b 1 5% a compared to the infe ted area. Be ide the population growth in the controlled area between 19 and 2003 " 'a found to be rapid at .2% annual growth rate. Based on the re ults of the pre ent tud it \-vas concluded that a reduction in trypano orne prevalence in cattle as ociated "',lith reduction In et e densitie and the di appearan e of G. m. submor itan a a re ult of t etse control improyed the ocio-economic activitie of the people in the tudy area.