Isolation, Molecular Detection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Test of Salmonella Isolates in Broiler Chicken Production System in and Around Adama Town, Central Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Ethiopia is one of the leading countries in having a large chicken population in Africa. However, different constraints are affecting the productivity of the chickens in the country. Salmonellosis is one of the prioritized bacterial diseases affecting poultry in the country and poultry meat is the major source of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. As the result, a cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to July 2021 in purposively selected broiler chicken farms found in and around Adama town with the aim of isolation, molecular detection, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Salmonella from broiler chickens. A total of 380 samples (cloacal swab, n=260; pooled fresh fecal dropping, n=30; pooled litter sample, n= 30; pooled feed sample, n=30; and pooled water swab, n=30) were randomly collected from 6 purposively selected broiler chicken farms. Standard bacteriological techniques were employed to conduct isolation and biochemical test confirmation of Salmonella followed by molecular confirmation using conventional PCR and the drug sensitivity testing was done for 10 antimicrobials by using disk diffusion methods according to CLSI guidelines. Out of the total 380 samples collected, 88 (23.2%) were positive for Salmonella. Based on the potential effects of sample type, the likely hood of isolation of Salmonella was 6.91 times significantly higher in the fecal sample as compared to the other types of samples. A total of 42 representative samples out of 88 (~50%) biochemically positive Salmonella were subjected to molecular detection and 10 (23.8%) of the isolates were positive to S. Enteritidis using the SdfI gene. From the PCR positive S. Enteritidis profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility, the highest resistance (90%) was observed in Ampicillin followed by Tetracycline (80%). Multi antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was recorded in 8(80%) of the isolates; indicating the irrational use of antibiotics in broiler chickens which leads to the potential source for MAR Salmonella infection in both animals and humans. Therefore, improvement of knowledge of farmers and judicious use of antimicrobial and restriction of getting drugs without a prescription is crucial and mandatory. Further, molecular confirmation and sequencing should be done to identify the gene that plays a role in resistance.



Adama, Antimicrobial sensitivity, Broiler chicken farm,, Multi-antimicrobial Resistance, Prevalence, S. Enteritidis