Animal Production

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    Comparative studies on performance and carcass traits of Naked Neck, Normal-Feathered, Tetra-H Chicken genotypes, and their crossbreeds in Southwest Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Abiyu Tadele; Dr. Gebreyohannes Berhane; Dr. Wondmeneh Esatu
    This study consisted of two independent experiments carried out in Southwest region, Ethiopia. In the first experiment the effect of genotype on fertility and hatchability, growth performance, and carcass traits were assessed from the naked-neck, normal-feathered, and Tetra H chicken genotypes. For this study, a total of 135 day-old chicks, with 45 chicks from each genotype, were divided into 9 replicates (15 chicks per replicate) in a completely randomized design. The chicks were fed the same commercial starter, grower, and layer ration for 40 weeks. Data collection for growth, fertility, hatchability, morphometric, and carcass traits took place during the first 18 weeks of age, while the reproductive and productive performances and egg quality traits were evaluated between weeks 20 and 40. Statistical analysis using SAS software and one-way analysis of variance were employed to analyze the data. In the second experiment, the effect of genotype and addition of phytolacca dodecandra (Endod) up to 2g/kg on growth performance, carcass traits, blood profiles, and breast meat quality were evaluated during 18 weeks of age. In this experiment, a total of 360 unsexed chicks were assigned into nine groups with 40 chicks in each group, and each group was replicated four times with 10 chicks in each replicate. The study employed a 3 × 3 factorial design, consisting of three genotypes and three diets, namely standard commercial ration/control (C), phytolacca dodecandra 1g/kg (C+1), and phytolacca dodecandra 2g/kg (C+2). The data were analyzed using the general linear model in R, a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted. The Tukey standard range test was used to compare means, with a significance level of (P < 0.05). The results showed that daily feed intake, daily weight gain, and final body weight of the Tetra H genotype were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the naked-neck and normal-feathered. The feed conversion ratio of the Tetra H genotype (3.76) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the naked-neck (5.6) and normal-feathered (6.1) genotypes, indicating the Tetra H was better in feed conversion efficiency. The Tetra H genotype had significantly higher body length, chest width, keel bone length and carcass traits such as carcass weight, breast, drumstick, and thigh muscle than the naked-neck and normal-feathered genotypes. The reproductive and productive performance traits indicate that the Tetra H hen exhibited significantly superior body weight, feed consumption, hen-housed egg production, egg mass, and a lower (better) feed conversion ratio compared to the other genotypes. The egg quality traits indicated the Tetra H genotype demonstrated better characteristics except for yolk width and color. In the second experiment, the results showed that diet and genotype*diet interactions significantly influenced performance parameters, with the 1g/kg Endod supplementation demonstrating better results compared to the other. Genotype also affected dressing percentage and various carcass components, with the naked-neck * Tetra H cross showing higher values. Supplementation improved dressing percentage and breast muscle compared to the control. Blood parameters were significantly influenced by genotype, diet, and their interaction. It increased protein levels and reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Incorporating 1g/kg of phytolacca dodecandra (Endod) into the diet improved protein content and reduced fat content in the breast muscles. Thus, these findings contribute to the advancement of more efficient breeding programs for these chicken genotypes by providing valuable insights into their performance and egg quality. The study concluded that the Tetra H genotype is ideal for meat production due to its superior growth performance, body size, carcass traits, and feed conversion efficiency. The indigenous genotypes exhibited better fertility, hatchability, and livability. Adding up to 2g/kg phytolacca dodecandra (Endod) to chicken feed can enhance performance, carcass traits, blood profiles, and breast meat protein levels. Further investigations are recommended to confirm cross-breeding and adaptation of those genotypes in various agroecologies. Assessing Endod effects on various chicken genotypes, optimum dosage, and duration, evaluating consumer health and economic efficiency, and exploring underlying mechanisms are recommended.
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    Urban Dairy Production Practices and Analysis of Feed and Milk Quality and Safety Across Varied Value Chains Actors in Oromia Special Zone Surrounding Finfinne, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022) Jalel Fikadu; Prof. Berhan Tamir; Dr. Ulfina Galmesa; Dr.Kefana Effa
    The study was conducted in Burayu, Sululta and Sebata twons of Oromia special zone surrounding Finfinne, Ethiopia, to assess urban dairy production practices and analysis of feed and milk quality and safety across varied value chains actors. A total of 90 urban dairy producers, 30 from each town who at least own 10 dairy cows were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed individually using the survey questionnaire and for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) and aflatoxineM1 (AFM1) analysis feed and milk sample were collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For physico-chemical and microbial quality analysis of milk, 30 milk samples from each urban, 10 from farm, 10 from milk collectors, and 10 from the cafeteria were used. The General Linear Model (GLM) was used for variance analyses of data. For the survey study, 48% and 52% of the interviewed dairy farm owners were female and male respectively. The major sources of feed were feed that mixed at home (75.6%) and few purchased feed and mixture with home-mixed feed (24.4%). The average age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were 2.26±.05years 20.8 ± 0.05 months and 161.76±34.80 days respectively. The milk and feed aflatoxin analysis indicate that the occurrence of aflatoxinM1 in all samples of milk was ranged from 0.02ppb to 0.08ppbL. Overall, 64 (71.1%) out of the total of 90 milk samples contained less than or equals to 0.05 ppb of aflatoxin M1. Moreover, 26(28.9%) milk samples contained more than 0.05 ppb. Overall, out of a total of 90 feed samples collected, about 66 (73.3%) contained aflatoxinB1 at a level less than or equal to 20 ppb. Likewise 34 (26.7%) of the feed samples contained AFB1 at a level exceeding 20 ppb. The Linear regression model indicated significant associations between the presence of AFB1 in the feed and the levels of presence of AFM1 in milk. It was learnt from the result that percentage of added water, PH, and Specific gravity in milk were significantly different (P<0.05) between the study town, but the titratable acidity and freezing point was not significant among the study towns. All the physical parameters of milk quality obtained from farms, milk collectors, and cafeterias were significantly different (p<0.05). The overall mean result of protein, lactose, and fat were significantly different (p<0.05) between towns but the difference in TS, solid not fat and ash percentage were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Except for ash, all the chemical compositions of milk were significantly different (p<0.05) among the value chain actors. The overall mean ± SE values of coliform counts log10cfu/ml of raw milk from Burayu, Sabeta and Sululta towns were, 3.31±0.0.055, 5.85±0.467 and 5.12±0.34 respectively. There was no statistical significant difference (p>0.05) between overall mean coliform count (CC) of Sebata and Sululta towns. However, significant difference was observed between mean coliform count (CC) of Burayu, and others two towns’ milk samples. The coliform result obtained from value chain actors showed, no significant difference (P>0.05) among the milk collectors and cafeteria, however there were significant difference (p<0.05) between milk producer and milk collectors, as well as milk producer and cafeteria. The finding of total bacteria count in study towns showed significant difference (p<0.05) between Burayu and the rest two towns, however there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) among Sebeta and Sululta towns. The result of total bacteria count among milk value chain actors revealed significant difference (P<0.05) of raw milk between farm and other value chain actors but there is no statistical significant difference between milk collectors and cafeteria. Laboratory analysis of yeast and mold was non-significant (P>0.05) between the urban study area, likewise it was non-significant (P>0.05) among the value chain actors. The level of aflatoxin pollution found during this study in milk, and feed ought to prompt action to spot appropriate interventions. The current findings strongly call for hygienic feed production and storage system in order to minimize aflatoxinM1 contents in the milk. Furthermore, physico-chemical property and microbial quality of milk sample obtained from farm fulfill the minimum requirement of Ethiopia milk quality standard. However, when it comes to milk collectors and cafeterias, the physico-chemical content was below the limits of Ethiopian milk quality standard. Furthermore, the average numbers of microbial load were above the limit set by the Ethiopia milk quality standard, certainly indicating that there were milk adulterations along the value chain actors from farm to consumers. The finding of this study provided recent information on milk aflatoxin, physico-chemical and microbial quality from farm to the cafeteria which can be an important input for regulatory bodies of Ethiopia. High price of feeds, shortage of land, unavailability of dairy cow/heifer in time, feed quality, unavailability of feed in nearby area, diseases and lack of access to credit and inadequate training were among the major constraint of dairy production that need urgent intervention to utilize the untapped resources in the study area.
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    Determining an Optimum Combination of Metabolizeable Energy and Crude Protein Levels for DZ-White Chickens
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Tewodros Fekadu; Dr. Gebreyohannes Berhane; Dr. Mammo Mengesha
    A feeding trial was conducted to determine an optimum combination of metabolizeable energy (ME, kcal/kg) and crude protein (% CP) levels for the DZ-White chicken strain at Debre-Zeit Agricultural Research Center (DZARC). The experiment had four phases: starter (0-8 wks), grower (9-14 wks), pullet (15-19 wks) and layer (20-35 wks). The experimental diets were formulated containing leveled proteins for starters (19, 18 or 17% CP), for growers (18, 17 or 16% CP), pullets (17, 16 or 15% CP) and layers (14.5, 15.5 or 16.5% CP). Metabolizeable energy (ME) was also leveled while formulating the above experimental diets for both starters and growers (2900, 2750 or 2600 kcal/kg DM), and for both pullets and layers (2850, 2750 or 2650 kcal/kg). A total of 1260 un-sexed one-day old DZ-white chicks were randomly allocated to the nine dietary treatments, with 3*3 factorial arrangements, in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Chemical compositions of feed ingredients were analyzed and body weight (BW), feed intake, egg production, hatchability, fertility and egg quality parameters were recorded. The results indicated that dietary treatments with varied levels of ME and CP showed a significant (P <0.05) effect on feed intake of chickens at the starter phase, but not at grower and pullet phases. The Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight gain (BWG) of chickens were significantly (P <0.05) influenced by dietary proteins and energy in all experimental phases. FCR and BWG were increased in diets containing high levels of crude protein and ME. There was a significant (P <0.05) difference between birds on the total and percentage of hen-day egg production due to the leveled CP and ME in diets. No significant (P >0.05) effect was detected among the dietary treatments (CP, ME and their interaction) on hatchability, fertility and most egg quality parameters. From this study it can be concluded that for maximum growth and good FCR DZ-White chickens need a diet with higher levels of protein and energy (19% CP in starter and 18% CP in grower phases each with 2900 kcal/kg of ME). It is certainly suggested to economically feed the DZ-white chickens with a layer diet, containing 15.5% CP and 2750 kcal/kg of ME.
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    Effects of Feeding Urea-Molasses, Urea-Lime and Effective Micro-organism Treated Wheat Straw Basal Diets on Feed Intake and Growth Performance of Weaned Friesian-Borana Female Calves at Holetta Research Center, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Kedir Mohammed; Prof. Berhan Tamir; Dr. Getu Kitaw
    The study was carried out at Holetta Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the effects of urea-molasses, urea-lime and effective micro-organisms treatments on wheat straw quality parameters, and feed intake and apparent digestibility, growth performance and total feed cost of crossbred calves (3/4 Friesian X Borana). A completely randomized design was used for the laboratory trial. The randomized complete block design was employed to conduct the feeding and digestibility trial for over a total period of 104 experimental days. The dietary treatments were: - untreated wheat straw (T1), wheat straw treated with urea-molasses (T2), Urea-lime (T3) and activated effective micro-organism (T4). The result from the laboratory trial indicated that treatment options affected (P<0.05) the proximate, detergent and in vitro digestibility fractions with the highest crude protein (CP%) content being recorded for (T2 = 6.31%) followed by (T3 =4.88%). The values of NDF and ADF were reduced by effective microbial and urea-molasses treatment options. The highest (P<0.001) daily DM intake were recorded for calves that were receiving dietary T3 (3.7 kg/head) and T4 (3.5 kg/head) than those receiving T2 (3.1 kg/head) and the control diet T1 (3.02 kg/head). Apparent dry matter and nutrient digestibility of the experimental calves fed treated straw were found to be highest (P<0.01) when compared to calves that were maintained on the control diet. Average daily gain of calves was significantly highest (p<0.001) for calves in T3 (422.7 g/d) and T4 (391 g/d) groups than those in T2 (281.7 g/d) and T1 (204.3 g/d) groups. Feed conversion ratios was observed to be higher (P<0.01) for calves in T3 (8.8 g feed/ each g gained) and T4 (9.4 g feed /each g gained) groups than those on the control diets (15.1 g feed /each g gained). The total feed cost of calves maintained on the treated straw-based diets was significantly (p<0.001) higher than those on the control diet. The ratio of total feed cost to the live weight gain of calves were significant (P<0.05) higher for T1 (110.8 birr/each kg gained) and T2 (109.6 birr/each kg gained) as compared to T4 (82.5 birr/each kg gained) and T3 (76.7 birr/each kg gained). Hence, it could be concluded that treating wheat straw using urea-molasses, urea-lime and EM could improve its nutritional values, improve growth performance cost-effectively when fed to crossbreed calves with concentrate supplemented at the rate of 1.2% of the calves’ fortnightly weight changes. However, to draw valid conclusion further research needs to conduct to identify the optimum level of lime in the urea-lime combinations used for the crop residues treatment.
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    Evaluation of Reciprocal Crosses of Improved Horro Chicken with Koekoek and Kuroiler Chicken Breeds
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Shambel Taye; Prof. Gebeyehu Goshu; Dr. Solomon Abegaz
    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of exotic dual purpose chicken breed (Koekoek and Kurioler) crosses with an improved Horro chicken under reciprocal mating. The experiment was carried on seven genotypes, including three pure lines (H), (K), (Ku) and their direct (KxH), (Ku x H) and reciprocal crosses (H x K) and (H x Ku). A total of 446-day-old chicks from the seven genotypes were distributed randomly between pens with three replications using a completely randomized design. Data on body weight at hatch (DO), 4, 8,12,16 and 20 weeks of age, body weight gains, feed conversion ratio, egg fertility and hatchability in %, age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg, egg production until 40 weeks of age, egg quality and mortality were observed during the experimental period. Crossbreeding effects were estimated using the information on mode of inheritance of chosen traits to select potential cross combination for development of a synthetic breed. The result showed that highest (P< 0.05) mean body weight and body weight gain was recorded in crossbred chicken HxKu followed by Ku×H, and purebred Kuroiler at 8- and 12-weeks age. Moreover, genotype had significant effect on most egg production traits studied. Older age at first egg was recorded in improved Horro (156) followed by crossbred Hx K (150.33) whereas the lowest number of days for AFE was recorded for crossbred HxKu (135) followed by KxH (136.67) and Ku x H (139.33). In comparing crossbred, the heaviest body weight at first egg was registered for crossbred pullet Hx Ku (2448 g) followed by Ku x H (2372.33 g) whereas the lowest body weight was recorded for K x H (1726.33 g) followed by Hx K (1777.78 g) crossbred pullet. In comparing all the genotypes, HxKu crossbred hen showed superior (P<0.05) performance in HHEP, HDEP, egg number except egg mass. However, egg weight was higher for Kuroiler, Ku×H and H×K with comparable values but lowest egg weight was registered for improved Horro chickens. The estimates of the direct additive (Ae) and heterosis effects (He) for body weight were significantly (P<0.05) positive at most of studied age for both crosses. The present study showed that exotic gene of the Kuroiler and Koekoek chicken breeds had attributed a significant role in the improvement of improved Horro chicken. From this study it can be recommended that crossbred hens sired by improved Horro (H x Ku) for growth and egg production potential in the forthcoming synthetic breed development program. However, more research is needed in the areas of morphometric traits characterization, carcass characteristics evaluation, alertness score trait examination, and genotype adaptation.
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    On Farm and On Station Fertility Status of Dairy Herds in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Gemeda Tuntuna; Prof. Gebeyehu Goshu; Dr. Ulfina Galmessa
    The on-station part of the current study was conducted at Holeta research center dairy farm to determine fertility and productive traits of dairy cattle. The dataset between 1976 and 2019 on fertility and productive traits (n=30975) were investigated and analyzed using the GLM analysis procedure of SAS 2008 software to determine the fixed effects of genetic group, year, season and parity. The fixed effect genetic group and year cause significant (P<0.0001) difference in all fertility and lactation performance. Similarly, the parity of cows had a highly(p<0.0001) influence on fertility and productive traits except NSC. The productive traits like daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation milk yield were sensitive to seasonal variation. The overall least squares mean for age at first service, age at first calving, calving interval, days open, number of services per conception were 29.98 ± 10.23 months, 39.16 ± 8.58 months, 496.24 ± 42.19 days, 216.81 ± 41.72 days, 1.85 ± 1.37and daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation milk yield 4.86 ± 1.63 liters, 287.77 ± 92.81 days and 1488.23 ± 70.14 liters. The on-farm part of this study was conducted in three districts of West Shoa Zone of Oromia regional state initiated to assess fertility status of dairy herds and possible cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Data were collected using semi structured questionnaire survey. A total of 180 dairy producers (60 household from each) were randomly selected for individual interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences software version 26. The survey results showed that higher education was the highest educational level from Ambo woreda, and the age group of the respondents ranged from 20 to 79 years. The primary feeding system practiced was combination feeding with 53.3%, 56.7% and 45%, respectively, in Walmera, Adea Berga and Ambo. The main breeding system dairy producers utilized was both Artificial insemination and natural mating (70%, 60% and 46.7%), respectively, in Walmera, Adea Berga and Ambo. The mean shortest age at first service and age at first calving for local and crossbred, respectively, were 47.9 ± 9.8 and 19.9 ± 5.8 months and 56.9 ± 9.8 and 28.9 ± 5.8 months from Adea Berga and Ambo. The number of services per conception was 2.5 for local cows and 1.8 for crossbred cows. The higher mean (±SD) of daily milk yields were 2.2 ± 1.3 and 11.2 ± 4.5 liters, respectively, in Adea Berga for Local and crossbred cows. The mean (±SD) shortest calving intervals was 20.3 ± 7.0 and 13.1 ± 1.9 for local and crossbred cows.
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    Effects of Cutting Interval on Morphological Parameters, Biomass Yield and Chemical Composition of Para (Brachairia muticastapf), Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grasses Grown under Irrigation Condition
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Tobiyaw Tsegaye; Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu; Dr. Yeshambel Mekuriyaw
    Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia are mainly obtained from natural pasture and crop residues. This study was aimed to study the effects of cutting interval on plant height, number of tillers per plant, number of leaves per plant and leaf to stem ratio of the grasses, and to study the effects of cutting interval on dry matter yield and chemical composition of the grasses under irrigation condition at Mecha, Ethiopia; with three kinds of grasses namely Para (Brachiaria mutica Stapf.), Napier (Pennisetum purpureum), and Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) at three harvesting dates (60, 90,120). The experimental design was RCBD (Random Complete Block Design) with three replications giving a total of nine plots. The area of each unit plot was three m x four m and plant to plant distance and row to row distance was 0.5m. Data on morphological parameters of the grasses were recorded at each harvesting dates. The grasses were first harvested after 60 days of regrowth; second and third harvests were done after consecutive 30 days of re-growth. All harvested data were laid open to GLM ANOVA procedures of SAS version 9.0. Based on the data collected, harvesting age was significantly affected the morphological parameters of the grasses; Plant height (PH), the number of tillers per plant (NTPP), and the number of leaves per plant (NLPP) were increased with increasing harvesting age, whereas cutting interval showed a non-significant effect on a leaf to stem ratio (LSR) of the grasses. Although cutting interval had a significant effect on dry matter yield (DMY), ash content, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin content of the grasses. It was concluded that Napier grass produces a higher forage yield among the three grasses and longer harvesting intervals result in increased forage yield and decrease nutrient composition in all the studied grasses. Further research is needed to be conducted over much longer periods to determine to what extent these findings relate to performance over the life of a permanent pasture.
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    Appraisal of Biosecurity and Occurrence of Salmonella in Selected Small and Medium Scale Chicken Farms At Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Tsedal Muluneh; Prof.Gebreyohannes Berhane; Hika Waktole; Dr. Tadesse Eguale
    Biosecurity is believed to have the ability to improve production and ensuring the safety of chicken products through minimizing pathogenic infections such as salmonellosis in poultry. The aim of this study was to assess biosecurity measures and investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in small and medium scale poultry farms at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data and poultry house related samples. A total of 56 farms were addressed through the questionnaire survey by using KoBoCollec data collection tool and again a total of 391 biological samples (223 fecal droppings, 56 drinking water, 56 feed, and 56, floor swabs) were collected and analyzed for Salmonella Spp. following standard laboratory techniques. The questionnaire responses data were analyzed through descriptive data analysis and then biosecurity scoring system was developed to result ten basic biosecurity components. Multiple response analysis (MRA) was conducted to determine adoption level of each biosecurity components above mean score (“good”) across total assessed farms. The results showed that biosecurity in feed and water management and also in infrastructure of the farms were implemented in 87.5% and 76.8% respectively, while farm entry restrictions and farm relative location were slacked (16.1% and 3.6%, respectively). The adoption level of disease management practices were 64.3% and 48.3% of farms implemented cleaning and disinfection practices above mean score. Salmonella was identified in 15 (26.8%) of the farms and 22 (5.6%) of the samples. Occurrence of Salmonella was higher in small scale poultry farms (21.4%), deep litter farms (21.4%), farms containing layers (25%) and all from Bovans brown breeds. Farms with score of “Bad” were found to exhibit high number Salmonella comparing to farms implement biosecurity components as good. This signposted the benefits of applying biosecurity measures in poultry production to eliminate consequences of production loss and zoonosis due to bacterial infections such as salmonellosis.
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    Biomass Yield and Nutritive Value of Desho (Pennisetum Glaucifolium) Grass as Affected by Forage Stand Height under Central Highland Condition of Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Hailegabriel Ajema; Prof. Gebreyohannes Berhane; Dr. Gezehagn Kebede
    The study was conducted to evaluate biomass yield and nutritive value of Desho (Pennisetum glaucifolium) grass as affected by forage stand height under central highland condition of Ethiopia. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Cutting heights considered were 50cm, 60cm, 70cm, 80cm, 90cm, 100cm, 110cm and 120cm respectively. The combined analysis result shows the number of leaves per plant, number of nodes per plant, leaf length, internode length and dry matter yield were affected by cutting height(P<0.001). The highest number of leaves per plant was recorded for cutting height of 120cm with a mean of 8.15 followed by 100cm (7.20). The highest mean total dry matter yield were recorded for cutting height of 120cm (20.13t/ha), 110cm (18.22t/ha) and 100cm (18.18t/ha). All chemical analysis parameters (Ash, CP, NDF, ADL, IVDMD, OMD, and ME) tested for quality of Desho grass showed significantly affected by cutting heights (P<0.001), with DM and ADF at (P<0.05). CP% decreased as cutting height extended from 12.16-8.54% at 50cm-120cm cutting. Fiber contents showed an increasing trend with extended cutting height, except for late cutting (110cm and 120cm) of ADF% and recorded mean values of (73.5% NDF, 41.38% ADF, and 4.52% ADL. IVDMD, OMD, and ME, recorded 66.75%, 62.58%, and 10.01MJ respectively. Taking into consideration the mean values of agronomic parameters, yield, and nutritional quality, demonstrates that cutting Desho grass at 100 is recommended and it’s the good harvesting height of Desho grass at Holetta.
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    Evaluation of the Feeding Value of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicken
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Hana Tadesse; Prof.Gebreyohannes Berhane; Dr.Etalem Tesfaye
    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) on the feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Cobb-500 chickens at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center (DZARC). The experiment was conducted for 56 days. The experimental diets were formulated containing (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) sorghum variety Melkam (SVM) for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. A total of 210 un-sexed day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments. Chemical compositions of feed ingredients were analyzed and body weight (BW), feed intake, carcass characteristics, meat quality parameters and mortality rate were measured and recorded. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and BW changes were calculated from feed intake and BW. The results indicated that inclusion of SVM in to the broiler diet didn’t bring a significant change on the feed intake, BW gain and FCR of chickens in the starter phase (0-21 days of age). However, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among the treatments in FCR, average daily BW gain (ADG) and BW change of broiler chickens in the finisher phase (22-56 days of age). The FCR and BW change were increased in a diet containing high level (40 and 50%) of SVM. The carcass yield, weight of vital organs and cut up parts of broiler chicken did not differ (P>0.05) significantly due to variations of sorghum level in the diet. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference among all the treatment groups in economic analysis. There was significant (P<0.05) difference in net income (NI) between treatments, and the highest net profit per bird was found on a broiler diet containing 50% SVM. From this study it can be concluded that SVM could be economically and safely included in to the broiler diets up to 50% as alternative energy source to maize
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    Camel Production Practices, Processing And Marketing Along With Its Blended Cheese With Bovine Milk In Borena and Guji Zones, Oromia, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Abebe Gemechu; Prof. Gebeyehu Goshu; Dr. Balako Gumi
    The current study was conducted on camel milk production practices, processing and marketing along with it blended cheese with bovine milk with the objective of assessing camel milk handling, utilization, processing practice, marketing in selected districts of Borena, East Guji, and West Guji Zone, and evaluating the impact of milk blend on physico- chemical composition of milk and cheese, sensory attributes, time of coagulation and cheese yield. For the purpose of gathering data, 160 respondents from four Zones districts were chosen. The administration of a cross-sectional survey design was used to acquire primary data using deliberate sampling strategies. The majority of participants in the data collection were between the ages of 40 and 50 (41.2%), with a mean family size of five person and camel ownership (13head of the camel). Male respondents made up 45% of the total respondents, while female respondents made up 55% of the group. The majority of respondents (51.3%) could not read or write. In the current study, the overall ranges of milk production (4-13 liters per day), caving interval (12-68 months), milking duration per day (2-4), and lactation length (6-24 months). The traditional methods of preservation utilized by the Borana and Guji communities were washing and smoking the vessels (100%), storing milk in a frigid/cold/ environment (78.75%), and boiling (27.5%). nother activity they have been performing is combining camel milk with cow or goat milk (15.00%) and turning it into sour milk (chuuchee) (94.36%). The traditional containers used for milking and storage by smoking with various plant components include the sorora, gorfa, okole, and plastic jug. Camel milk has been utilized in the areas to cure coughing (60.6), uterine contractions in women (65.5%), malaria (73.1%), and constipation (68.1%). A major obstacle and problem in the districts, meanwhile, has been the spread of understanding about camel dairy processing and development. To reduce the effect of lactation stage on milk composition, a sample of milk was Obtained from pastoral communities of Gomole district in the Borena zone using stratified sampling rocedures. The cheese was made using a starter culture (Thermophilic culture STI- 12) and camel chymosin with a blend of camel and cow milk. Prior to the creation of the cheese, the chemical composition of the milk used was examined. Cheese's physicochemical characteristics were also assessed. When compared to the other milk a sample, the yield of cheese made from 100% camel milk (T1) was considerably lower (P <0.05). Higher values were seen in treatments that combined 25% camel milk with 75% cow milk and 100% cow milk, significantly (P<0.05). When compared to the other milk samples under treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, pure camel milk (T1) coagulated in significantly longer (P<0.05) time (210 minutes), but pure cow milk (T5) coagulated in significantly shorter (P<0.05) time (95.67 minutes). In all of the study's treatments, there were significant variations in the physico-chemical composition of raw milk (p 0.05), in TS, TA, Fat and Ash. Cheese may demonstrate the effects of the camel blend if protein, fat, totals solids, and ash content improved significantly (p<0.05). The significance (p<0.05) boost in cheese's protein, fat, total solids, and ash content could indicate how camel milk has influenced cheese production. Diseases, occasionally appearances of dough and bush encroachment are the critical problems in camel milk production in the area. The combination of camel milk with cow milk brought the significant improvement in physicochemical properties of cheese, coagulation time and efficiency cheese recovery from camel milk. Also the present of cow milk in blend made the cheese to have a great sound in overall acceptances of the cheese. However, to obtain a cheese of camel milk with a good curd, fifty and more percentages of cow milk should be mixed.
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    Aflatoxin Levels and Nutrient Content of Commercial Feeds in selected Areas of Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Alemayehu Belete; Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu_
    Contamination of feed with aflatoxin (AF) is a major barrier to long-term food safety and security. Ninety-nine commercial feed samples including poultry and dairy compound feed, and "noug cake" were purposively sampled and analyzed using HPLC and NIR, respectively, to determine the AF levels and the nutrient content. The study areas were selected purposively and clustered into three study locations. AF was discovered in more than a quarter (25%) of the feed sample in each of the study locations. Over all the samples, the contamination of AF levels in Addis Ababa and surroundings was alarming, with high positive samples (>80%), prevalence (>60%), and highest individual AF levels reported; the highest levels of TAF (549 µg/kg) and AFB1 (375 µg/kg) found in "noug cake" with all detected samples prevalent are also alarming. AFB1 was found to be prevalent in compound feed intended for layers in Addis Ababa and surroundings, East Shoa, and Southern Ethiopia at 80, 50, and 16.7%; layer growers at 57, 40 and 20%; lactating dairy cows at 57, 33.3, and 37.5%; broiler finishers at 80 and 50%; broiler starters at 100 and 20%; and for “noug cake” at 37.5, 50, and 33.3%, respectively. On the other hand, in Addis Ababa and surroundings or Southern Ethiopia more than a fifth (>20%) of the samples, as well as more than a quarter (25%) of the samples in each of the three study locations, were unfit for the DM and CP standards, respectively. Except for dairy cow compound feed, the mean DM & CP content in feeds fit the Ethiopian standard in each of the study location. No significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean nutrient content, mean AF level and prevalence of AF in feeds was observed among the study locations, except for the mean CF, mean AFB1 and TAF level and prevalence of AFB1 in broiler starter feed; mean TAF level and mean fiber content in layer grower and mean TAF level in layer feed. These variations may be linked to the type, and proportion of ingredients used in feed formulation. Whereas the highest AF level in oilcake may be associated with limited awareness of AF and proper storage. The highest AF level, prevalence, and positive samples in feeds investigated in this study are animal and public health concerns. It could be decided to implement a feed quality and safety control system in the manufacturing plant, proper regulation, training, and more research on AF in feed ingredients are recommended.
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    Assessment of operational facilities and hygienic practices of selected abattoirs and butcher shops in Eastern Shewa zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Awol Assen; Dr. Bedaso Mammo
    Most meat-borne bacterial outbreaks are usually attributed to contamination of the meat supply chain due to poor handling practices and incomplete operational facilities. Foodborne diseases (FBD) continue to pose significant public health, economic, and social burden around the world. As a main part of meat supply chain, investigations of risky hygienic practices and operational facilities on abattoirs and butcher shops are low in Eastern Showa Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study carried out in abattoirs and butcher shops found at Bishoftu, Mojo, and Adama towns from December 2021 to May 2022, to assess the hygienic practices of meat handlers and the operational facilities in the area. Three municipal abattoirs and two hundred thirty six butcher shops were selected for the assessment. And a total of 286 respondents (n=50, from abattoirs and n=236, from butcher shops) were interviewed face to face with observational checklists employed to assess operational facilities and hygienic practices of the meat handlers. Inadequate operational facilities and poor conditions of abattoirs (Bishoftu, Adama and Mojo) were observed in all the study areas. Particularly, the municipal abattoir in Bishoftu town was less equipped with facilities and located between residential and industry. In this abattoir slaughtering process was conducted on floor. Still municipal abattoirs in Mojo and Adama towns were also not in a condition to ensure production of safe meat. With regard to hygienic practices of meat handlers in butcher shops and abattoirs, 64% of them had a poor practices. A multivariable and univariable logistic regression in this study indicated trained meat handlers from abattoirs (n=15, 95% CI=1.203-15.605), and from butcher shops (n= 41, 95% CI=1.21-4.79) were 4 times and 2 times more likely to be involved in good meat handling practices respectively. Unhygienic practices and insufficient facilities in the abattoirs and butcher shops identified in this study, might predispose consumers to meat-borne diseases and potential public health risks. Therefore, awareness creation on hygienic practices of meat handlers and improving operational facilities standard are essential for production of safe meat and to reduce meat borne pathogens in meat supply chain
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    Phenotypic Characterization and On-Station Evaluation of Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Getachew Bekele; Prof. Gebeyehu Goshu; Dr. Wondmeneh Esatu; Prof. Aberra Melesse; Dr. Tadelle Dessie
    This study was conducted in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia, to characterize the phenotypic and on-station evaluation of indigenous chicken ecotypes. Four districts were purposively selected from 13 districts of the regional state namely: Abobo (Ab), Gambella Ketema Zuria (GKz), Itang (It), and Lare (La). A total of 384 households (96 households from each district) keeping indigenous chicken strains were randomly sampled for interview. Cross-sectional and retrospective types of studies were conducted to collect data using the questionnaire. On-farm observations, on-station evaluation, and laboratory analysis were also conducted on the relevant data. moreover, phenotypic characterizations of both qualitative and quantitative traits of local chicken populations was conducted on 600 indigenous chickens of both sexes with 150 chickens (50 males and 100 females) from each district on chickens with approximately six months and above were collected following the FAO’s descriptor list for chicken genetic resources. A total of 880 eggs (220 eggs from each district) were collected and incubated using the artificial incubator. A total of 120 eggs (30 eggs from each district) which was collected from households were used to egg quality investigation. A total of 649 indigenous chicken ecotypes of four (4) namely Abobo (181), Gambella Ketema Zuria (169), Itang (151), and Lare (148) were hatched and kept at the on-station for growth, egg production performance, and carcasses evaluation by using complete randomized design arrangement. Thirty-two matured live chickens (4 males and 4 females from each chicken strains) indigenous chicken strains were taken at random for nutritive value investigation. The meat color and pH measurement parameters were obtained using a digital colorimeter. All data collected was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.3. The results were expressed as LSM ± SE. All statements of statistical differences in quantitative data were based on p < 0.05. The survey results indicated that, the overall mean of the flock size per household in the study area was 13.59 and the overall number of hens, cocks, cockerels, pullets, and chicks in the study areas was 4.89 ± 0.06, 1.72 ± 0.05, 1.52 ± 0.01, 2.01 ± 0.02, and 3.44 ± 0.09,respectively. According to the current study, the mean age at first egg was significantly (P<0.05) different among the study districts. The normal feather distribution observed in the chicken populations was dominantly 88.67 %, 94 %, 90 % and 92.67 % in Abobo, Gambella Ketema Zuria, Itang and Lare districts, respectively. The overall mean body weight of adult males and females was 1.38 kg ± 0.02 and 1.16 kg ± 0.04, respectively. The mean values of egg weight and shell thickness were 39.15 g and 0.28mm, respectively. The overall mean value of the egg fertility was 83.64 %. The overall mean value of the day-old body weight was 26.55g ± 0.24g. The final overall mean body weight for on-station of adult males and females chicken strains was 1187g ± 0.25, and 1094g ± 0.24, respectively. The overall mean of the dressing percentage was male (69.06) and female (69.27).The male (49.25 ± 0.28) breast meat had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter score (L*) than the female (48.65 ± 0.45). The crude protein (CP) contents of breast meat were significantly higher than those of the thigh and drumstick meat part at (p<0.05). It is recommended that a further molecular characterization should be used to back up the present findings and determine genetic variation within and among the chicken strains. Finally, genetic differences should be considered to develop effective utilization and conservation strategies of programs. From the nutritive value of chicken’s meat, since the protein content is very crucial for human diet it is better to eat the meat which was produced from the breast meat part of chickens.
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    Semen Quality, Fertility and Hatchability of in Vitro Liquid and Cryopreserved Semen Using Commercial and Homemade Extenders from Indigenous Horro Chicken Breed
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Tarekegn Getachew; Prof. Gebeyehu Goshu; Prof. Alemayehu Lemma
    Short-term storage and cryopreservation of poultry semen represents an important strategy for breeding and in vitro conservation of the genetic material of chicken populations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality, fertility and hatchability of liquid stored and cryopreserved semen from Horro chicken using homemade tris-based extender and commercial extender. Furthermore, the economic benefits of artificial insemination were also evaluated for commercial broiler breeder farming. A total of 30 roosters and 160 adult hens were used for semen collection, and artificial insemination, respectively. Pooled semen samples were divided into three groups: Semen without extender; Semen diluted with homemade extender and Semen diluted with commercial extender. Semen was either liquid stored or cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for shorter and longer-term storage, respectively. Changes in spermatozoa motility, in vitro viability, and morphology were evaluated in cryopreserved semen, and fresh diluted semen (1:4 v/v semen to extender) after 4hr, 8hr, 12hr, and 24hr storage at 4°C. Meta analysis on the effects of Glycerol and DMF as cryoprotectants in cryopreservation of chicken semen was conducted. Data was collected from electronic databases. Relevant data was extracted from studies such as sample size, breed, cryoprotectant used, post-thaw sperm quality and fertility. Data was presented using forest plots. Fresh semen collected from Horro chicken breed in this study was moderately viscous, milky, pH of 7.2 with 5.5x109 spermatozoa per ml of semen. The average ejaculate volume was 0.36 ml. There was a significant influence of temporary storage and cryopreservation on mass motility, morphological abnormality (with high incidence of the bent tail), and viability. Semen stored using BPSE for 4 hours significantly (P<0.05) found to be suitable for short-term storage of semen collected from Horro chicken breed with progressive sperm motility (87.0 ± 1.22) and %live sperm (83.6 ± 1.63a). There was significant decline observed in all sperm quality attributes in increasing storage duration. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in progressive sperm motility, mass motility, and in vitro viability between commercial and homemade extenders in cryopreserved semen. However, no significant difference was observed in mass motility across the extenders in cryopreserved semen collected from Horro Chicken breed. The commercial ASD extender was significantly (P<0.05) found to be the most suitable regarding the proportion of morphologically normal sperm (64.25 ± 0.91) and in vitro viability rate of cryopreserved sperm samples. There were no significant differences across all treatments in terms of fertility and hatchability rate. Results from meta-analysis show that, the highest result has been recorded in diluent prepared by Mehdipour et al., 2020a using 3.8% DMF in lake extender in Ross chicken breed (71.1 ± 2.01). The results showed locally prepared tris-egg yolk-based extender could be a suitable extender for short-term storage and cryopreservation of chicken sperm regarding the sperm quality attributes and fertility. Further studies are suggested to improve fertility and hatchability.
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    Effects of Dietary Garlic (Allium sativum), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and Their Combination on Growth, Carcass Yield and Gut Microbial Population of Broiler Chicken
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Israel Yakob; Prof. Birhan Tamir
    The study targeted evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum L.), thyme (thymus vulgaric) powders and their mixtures in broiler diets on growth performance, carcass yield and gut microbial population. The experimental trial was conducted using 156 unsexed day-old broiler chicks of cobb500 breed which were divided into four treatment groups. Each treatment had a total of 39 chicks with three replicates and each replicate containing 13 chicks in completely randomized design. The treatments groups were diet containing 1% garlic powder (T1), 1% thyme powder (T2), 0.5% garlic + 0.5% thyme mixture powder (T3) and control group only basal diet (T4). Daily feed refusal, weekly body weight gain (BWG), carcass yield and fecal microbial counts were measured. The study showed that inclusion of 1% of garlic in the diet chicks had lower feed intake (1060.4g) during the grower phase followed by the control group (1063.05g), while higher feed intake was from 1% of thyme (1072.8g) followed by combination group (1070.9g). The results also showed that there was significantly lower feed intake (996.1g) for finisher phase and the entire period (2332.7g) for 1% thyme group. There was a higher feed intake (1716.1g) for 1% garlic and combined group (3055.0g) in the finisher phase and overall period, respectively. However, average final body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass yield were not significantly improved by inclusion of dietary treatments compared to the control. Also, E. coli and lactobacillus count in the gut of broilers did not show any significant difference among treatment groups. The economic analysis revealed, highest profitability was acquired from herbal treatments than the control with sole garlic and thyme treatments showing a higher positive impact on the profitability of broiler production. The study also showed that addition of phytobiotic additives had a favorable impact on the quality of broiler meat, as demonstrated in the sensory taste. Therefore, it can be concluded that incorporating garlic and thyme into the diet of broiler chickens can yield a higher economic advantage and increase the quality of broiler meat.
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    Assessing and Evaluating Honey Quality at Different Market Points in Adama District and Adama Town, Oromia, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Melaku Bekele; Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu; Dr. Zewdu Ararso
    The study was conducted to assess and evaluate the quality of honey produced in Adama District and Adama Town at different market points. Factors that affect honey quality and the botanical origins of honey produced and marketed in the areas were assessed at different market points. For this purpose, a total of 105 respondents were interviewed. Moreover, a total of 23 honey samples were collected from beekeepers and different market points and used for quality analyses. The results of the survey showed that honey quality deterioration starts at harvesting time, like the use of too much smoke, harvesting unripe honey, and improper harvesting and storing materials. In addition, the low volume of honey production compared to the demand for honey in the areas had its own contribution to adulterating honey using different adulterants, which affected the quality of the honey in the areas. According to the survey result, the major act of adulterating honey has been performed at the street honey sellers’ market point. Most of the quick test results showed that honey sold at most of the market points has quality problems that vary among the market points. The seriousness of the problem is relatively pronounced at the street market and minimarket levels. The ash content, free acidity, and pH value of all honey samples were found to be within the limits of the national standards. Except for the honey samples collected from street (24.62±0.67), minimarkets (23.23±0.58) and retailers (22.60±0.58) the moisture contents of the honey samples were within the national standards. The fructose and glucose contents of the samples were within the ranges of the national standards, whereas none of the samples met the national sucrose content standard. High sucrose content was observed in the samples obtained from retailers (32.23±1.78%) and the street 31.90±2.06%) market points. In general, the results of this study indicated that there is an overall honey quality problem in the sampled area. However, the level of the problem is more inclined towards the street and minimarket areas. Thus, honey market legislation is needed in the area in particular and in the country in general to protect honey consumers and other stockholders involved in the honey market value chain.
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    Assessment and Options for Improvement of Biosecurity Practices in Poultry Production Sectors of Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Mensur Sabir; Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu; Hika Waktole (Assoc. Prof.)
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2022 to May 2023 to determine poultry biosecurity measures, investigate existing policies and guidelines concerning biosecurity practices, and thereby suggest possible improvement strategies of biosecurity practices in the poultry sector of central Ethiopia. As part of the assessment of biosecurity practices, a total of 82 farms (Adama = 32, Bishoftu = 30, and Modjo = 20) were selected using the purposive sampling method, and data were collected using a Biocheck UGent data. The information were also collected from 13 feed processing plants, 4 Chicken slaughter house,13 live poultry markets, stakeholders and government offices. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. Thus the results showed that the mean overall biosecurity score of farms was 56.39%.whereas the average external and internal biosecurity scores were 49.41% and 72.67%, respectively. From the external biosecurity scores, visitors and farmworkers had the highest point of (93.3%), and feed and water supply (28.2%) had the lowest scores. From the internal biosecurity score, cleaning and disinfection had the highest score (78.59%), and materials and measures between compartments had the lowest score. The study site (p = 0.033) and capacity of the farm (p = 0.000) had a significant association with biosecurity status. Sources of day-old chicks (p = 0.000) significantly depends on the study site. Only 61.53% of the feed processing plants had updated biosecurity plans. However the worst case in the live poultry market using common equipment of (100.0%).Nationally, our country has no legal basis for the implementation of biosecurity measures in veterinary legislation in guidelines, rules, policies and proclamations. Significant variations in the biosecurity scores and a lack of legal basis for biosecurity adoption are highly require options of improvements by making awareness, guideline rules, policies and proclamations and enforcing their implementation.
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    Assessing and Evaluating Honey Quality at Different Market Points in Adama District and Adama Town, Oromia, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023) Melaku Bekele; Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu; Dr. Zewdu Ararso;
    The study was conducted to assess and evaluate the quality of honey produced in Adama District and Adama Town at different market points. Factors that affect honey quality and the botanical origins of honey produced and marketed in the areas were assessed at different market points. For this purpose, a total of 105 respondents were interviewed. Moreover, a total of 23 honey samples were collected from beekeepers and different market points and used for quality analyses. The results of the survey showed that honey quality deterioration starts at harvesting time, like the use of too much smoke, harvesting unripe honey, and improper harvesting and storing materials. In addition, the low volume of honey production compared to the demand for honey in the areas had its own contribution to adulterating honey using different adulterants, which affected the quality of the honey in the areas. According to the survey result, the major act of adulterating honey has been performed at the street honey sellers’ market point. Most of the quick test results showed that honey sold at most of the market points has quality problems that vary among the market points. The seriousness of the problem is relatively pronounced at the street market and minimarket levels. The ash content, free acidity, and pH value of all honey samples were found to be within the limits of the national standards. Except for the honey samples collected from street (24.62±0.67), minimarkets (23.23±0.58) and retailers (22.60±0.58) the moisture contents of the honey samples were within the national standards. The fructose and glucose contents of the samples were within the ranges of the national standards, whereas none of the samples met the national sucrose content standard. High sucrose content was observed in the samples obtained from retailers (32.23±1.78%) and the street (31.90±2.06%) market points. In general, the results of this study indicated that there is an overall honey quality problem in the sampled area. However, the level of the problem is more inclined towards the street and minimarket areas. Thus, honey market legislation is needed in the area in particular and in the country in general to protect honey consumers and other stockholders involved in the honey market value chain
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    Effect of Partial Replacement of Fishmeal with Duckweed (Lemna Spp.) Meal on The Growth Performance of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus L.) in Tanks
    (Addis Abeba University, 2023) Ayantu Getachew; Prof.Gebreyohannes Berhane; Zenebe Tadesse; Dawit Addisu
    One of the most essential components for optimum productivity in the aquaculture sector is the availability of quality fish feed. Fish meal is one of the most commonly used ingredients as a source of protein for fish feed. However, it is very expensive and is not easily available on the market. The present study therefore aims to determine the impact of partially replacing fishmeal with duckweed (Lemna spp.) on the growth performance of juvenile Nile tilapia (O. niloticus L.) in tanks. The feeding experiment was conducted from January to April 2023 at the National Fisheries and Other Aquatic Life Research Center (NFALRC), Sebeta, Ethiopia. The growth experiment was run in triplicate tanks in a greenhouse using three treatment diets with different inclusions of duckweed (DW) and one control diet. All four test diets were iso-nitrogenous (34.1–34.9% crude protein), including the control. Duckweed was added to three test diets at rates of 10% DW (T2), 20% DW (T3), and 30% DW (T4), replacing fishmeal, while the control diet (T1) had no duckweed at all. Using a complete randomized design, 360 O. niloticus were stocked in four treatments, each in three replicates. Stocked fish were acclimatized in tanks for two weeks before the start of the actual experiment. The results of the study showed that fish fed with 10% DW (T2) and 20% DW (T3) showed a better growth rate than the others. This indicated that increasing the amount of duckweed replacing fishmeal in the diet had a significantly (P < 0.05) better growth of juvenile O. niloticus up to 20% inclusion of duckweed. The tissue proximate composition of fish fed with 10% DW (T2) and 20% DW (T3) was found to be better than the other groups. From an economic view, 30% DW (T4) showed the lowest incidence cost (77.04) and had a higher profit index (0.57) followed by 20% DW(T3) with (77.82) incidence cost and profit index (0.51). This might be due to the higher inclusion the cheap duckweed replacing the most expensive fishmeal in the diet. In conclusion, a diet up to 20% inclusion rate of DW replacing fishmeal is suitable for juvenile Nile tilapia without affecting the growth of the fish.