Aflatoxin Levels and Nutrient Content of Commercial Feeds in selected Areas of Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Contamination of feed with aflatoxin (AF) is a major barrier to long-term food safety and security. Ninety-nine commercial feed samples including poultry and dairy compound feed, and "noug cake" were purposively sampled and analyzed using HPLC and NIR, respectively, to determine the AF levels and the nutrient content. The study areas were selected purposively and clustered into three study locations. AF was discovered in more than a quarter (25%) of the feed sample in each of the study locations. Over all the samples, the contamination of AF levels in Addis Ababa and surroundings was alarming, with high positive samples (>80%), prevalence (>60%), and highest individual AF levels reported; the highest levels of TAF (549 µg/kg) and AFB1 (375 µg/kg) found in "noug cake" with all detected samples prevalent are also alarming. AFB1 was found to be prevalent in compound feed intended for layers in Addis Ababa and surroundings, East Shoa, and Southern Ethiopia at 80, 50, and 16.7%; layer growers at 57, 40 and 20%; lactating dairy cows at 57, 33.3, and 37.5%; broiler finishers at 80 and 50%; broiler starters at 100 and 20%; and for “noug cake” at 37.5, 50, and 33.3%, respectively. On the other hand, in Addis Ababa and surroundings or Southern Ethiopia more than a fifth (>20%) of the samples, as well as more than a quarter (25%) of the samples in each of the three study locations, were unfit for the DM and CP standards, respectively. Except for dairy cow compound feed, the mean DM & CP content in feeds fit the Ethiopian standard in each of the study location. No significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean nutrient content, mean AF level and prevalence of AF in feeds was observed among the study locations, except for the mean CF, mean AFB1 and TAF level and prevalence of AFB1 in broiler starter feed; mean TAF level and mean fiber content in layer grower and mean TAF level in layer feed. These variations may be linked to the type, and proportion of ingredients used in feed formulation. Whereas the highest AF level in oilcake may be associated with limited awareness of AF and proper storage. The highest AF level, prevalence, and positive samples in feeds investigated in this study are animal and public health concerns. It could be decided to implement a feed quality and safety control system in the manufacturing plant, proper regulation, training, and more research on AF in feed ingredients are recommended.



Aflatoxin B1, Total Aflatoxin, Nutrient content, commercial feeds