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    Existing Status of Informal Settlement in Addis Ababa: The Case of Kolfe Keraniyo and Nifas Silk Lafto Sub Cityv
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07-01) Nasise Shafi; Taye Negussie (PhD)
    In many developing countries like Ethiopia unemployment, poverty, poor living condition, lack ofgood governance are the major factors for the people to hold land informally. In the case ofAddis Ababa people occupy land both in the inner city and periphery areas but nowadays peoplemore prefer the peripheral area because in such areas it’s easy to hold land without thepermission of government official by dealing with land brokers and land speculators.The mainobjective of the study was to assess the current statues of informal settlement by looking up theirpattern and extent in kolfekeraniyo and Nifas silk lafto sub city. The research employedqualitative approach by using in depth interview, focus group discussion, observation and keyinformant interview as method of data collection. Informal settlers in the study area suffer frominadequate living conditions like lack of access to basic service and poor housing condition.Current political satiation also play great role in the expansion of informal settlement. Thefinding indicates that the number of informal settlement has been increasing at alarming ratefrom time to time this is due to unaffordable land price, unemployment, people perception ofland as means of making profit and poor urban land management system corrupt bureaucrat areamong the factors. In order to control the expansion of informal settlement government shouldformulate and implement clear and inclusive urban land holding policy. Key word: informal settlement; informal settler; natures of informal settlement
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    Perceived Contribution of Urban Productive Safety Net Program to Graduated Household’s Livelihood Security the Case of Gullele Sub-City, Woreda 7, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-07-01) Yehuala Getahun; Woldeab Teshomc (Dr.)
    This study aimed to assess the perceived contribution of urban productive safety net program to graduated households' livelihood security in the case of Gullele sub-city, woreda 7, Addis Ababa. A mixed-methods research approach was applied to conduct this study. And to address the objectives of this study, a cross-sectional research design was employed. To collect data for the present study both probability and non-probability sampling methods were used. A purposive sampling technique from the non-probability sampling method was used to select key informant interviewees, whereas a simple random sampling technique from the probability sampling method was used to select respondents to the survey. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 301 sample respondents, and 276 of them were filled out completely and used for analysis. Whereas, for interview purposes semi-structured questions were prepared and sixteen key informants participated. Self-administered questionnaires and interviews from primary data sources, reports, an extensive review of related literature from journal articles, and published and unpublished theses from secondary data sources were used to collect data for this study. The collected quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using SPSS version 2020 and then qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Based on the finding of the study, UPSNP perceived by respondent as it has not contributed for most of graduated beneficiaries HHs to have secured livelihood opportunities. As result most of the UPSNP-graduated beneficiaries failed to have secured livelihood due to the spread of COVID-19 pandemic and having low financial capital, lack of loan service and work place, the last cause was supervision and support from woreda was not continou when they graduated from this program.
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    Perceptions and Experiences of Farmers` on Farmer Training Center Based Agricultural Extension Services In Antsokia Gemza Woreda, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Regional State:
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-11-01) Bizuye Kokobe; Abeje Berhanu (Dr.)
    The main objective of this study is to investigate farmers’ perceptions and experiences regarding farmer training centers (FTCs) and the extension services provided in these centers focusing on Antsokiya Gemza Woreda North Shewa Zone, Amhara region. A ddescriptive survey research design with a mixed research approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative sample consisted of 148 farmers and 12 development agents drawn from 4 FTCs covered by the study. In addition, 6 key informant interviews were conducted with woreda agricultural extension officers and kebele chairpersons selected from the sampled FTCs through purposive selection of the informants. The techniques of data collection for the study included questionnaire, qualitative interview guides and observation and four FGD groups’ checklists. The findings of the study indicated that most of the FTCs in the Woreda do not fulfill the basic requirements to serve as centers for farmers’ training, knowledge generation and dissemination and as sources of improved farm management practices. The result of the study further revealed training programs often lack adequate preparation and readiness, as there was no any standardized modular training provided for the farmers. The result of the study further showed that the FTCs did not provide the necessary improved agricultural extension services like new irrigation system livestock improved mechanism and did not help the farmers improve their welfare by increasing productivity. Moreover, the study found that lack of infrastructural facilities and materials, inadequacy of practical training, budget constraints, low community participation and lack of support from concerned stakeholders were the major obstacles hindering the implementation of FTC-based agricultural extension program. To improve FTCs performance, it is essential that FTCs should be strengthened in terms of trained manpower, adequate infrastructure, training facilities, and materials.
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    Urbanism and living conditions in Debre Markos town
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-11) Desyalew, Kasahun; Admassie Ph d, Yeraswork
    Urbanization has become a major global phenomenon and rhe de~'liny of our planet. This process is highly facilitated by population growlh. technological and injrastrucillral progress. I, has a strong potential to bring profound changes in the entire living condition of residents both posillvely and negatively although the former by far Ollt ways the later. This paper analyzes 'he stale of urbanism and living condition of residents in Dcbre Markos /oll'n; the capillJ/ of Eastern Cojjom Zone of Amhara regional sla/e. The general objective of fhis study is /0 assess fhe socio economic and housing siluOlion of residents oj Debre Markos tOWI1. A cross-sectiollal srudy design was used. 71lc stlldy employed both quantitative and quolillllive research methods, flamely household survey, in-depth interviews, key informant interview and observation. A 10tal of 38./ sample household heads were se/ected through systematic random sampling for Ihe sun'ey. On lOp of this in deplh inlerview was employed with 8 resideflls and one key informam from town adminislratiOlf office. The findings revealed thai in Ihe past few years the town has wilnessed a tremendous spalial expansion as a result of the hOI/sing demand created by the growing populalion. 11 has also shown a significant improvement in terms of infrastructure and small and micro enterprise developments. Service providers are mushrooming and the cons/ruction seClOr is in progress. The town is characterized by significant homogeneity in terms of language and religion indicating the fact that it isfarfrom being a cosmopolitan center. Local social organizations are negatively influenced by the urbanization process. Regarding 011111101 income 11I0S/ of the respondents are found 10 be 101l'-income urban households. 11 also revealed that the mojorily of households had access to an improved source of drinking water. /n terms of quality, the large majority of houses are of substandard class thai is mainly buill out of wood and mud maleria/s. Unemployment, absence of publiC places and inappropriale sonitalion and waste mwwgemenl are identified as challenges for the de\'elopmenl of the town as a growing urban cemer. The silldy recommended the need to imprm'e the environmemo! and physical conditions of the area through public participation and further strengthening of Ihe role of micro sand small scale enterprises to create employment opportunities.
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    Beliefs and Practices of Traditional Medicine among Women in Reproductive Health Care: A study in Damot Woyde Woreda, Wolaytta Zone
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-05) Paulos, Yared; Murugan (PhD), P.
    This study has been conducted with the major arm of investigating the beliefs and practices of traditional medicine in reproductive health care by emphasizing on rural areas. The reproductive health issues covered in this study are: prenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, birth spacing service, abortion and STDs. In order to investigate the beliefs and practices, this study has employed a crosss ectional qualitative approach; and the data are collected by making use of in-depth interviews, FGDs and key -informant interviews. The study subjects were selected purposively with the help of health extension workers of each kebeles. Sixteen in-depth interviews with practitioners of traditional medicine; twenty-two and sixteen in-depth interviews with married and unmarried women in reproductive age, resp ectively; two FGDs consis ting of seven participants and two consisting of six participants with married and unmarried women (two with each of them); key informant interviews with health extension workers, a midwife in Badessaa health center, two senior citizens who are knowledgeable about the practice of reproductive health in the area, have been conducted to collect the primary data. Prenatal care, delivery care, abortion serVlce and treatment of STDs are among the major services that the rural women get from traditional medicine practitioners in relation to reproductive health; whereas birth spacing/control and postnatal care serVlces are among the services that are not as such significant. None of the reprodu ctive health problems is believed to be caused by supernatural forcers). And the practice of traditional medicine is not accompanied by the belief that the issues should be addressed by the practitioners because they are caused by the forces. Besides, it is widely believed that the knowledge that the practitioners have is learned from their parents, than being given by supernatural forcers). Practitioners known as TBA; TBA and wogesha; TBA and herbalist; TBA, herbalis t and wogesha; herbalist; and herbalist and wogesha are the practitioners who are engaged in provis ion of the reproductive health services. Traditional medicine and its practitioners have decisive place in the provision of reproductive health services in the rural areas.
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    Situational Analysis of Orphans and Their Vulnerability: the Case of Woldiya Town, Northern Wollo
    (Addis Ababa University, 2011-05) Tirfie, Ashenafi; Berhan, Abeje
    This study attempts to explore the cause for the presence orphans, the problems of orphans and the efforts made by caregivers, government, non-governmental as well as community based organization in Woldiya woreda of North Wollo. it also assesses orphans' relation to caregivers and their experience in attempt to cope with/survive the problems. Integrated model of resilience was employed as a conceptual fram ework to address the research problems.
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    Traditional Beliefs and Practices towards Infant Care and Asociated Health Impacts: A study in Finoteselam, west Gojjam
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Alifnur, Mebratu
    Maintaining sound health and weI/being is the prime concern ojparenting el'erYlI'here. Bllt the 1'(>01 health situation of inionts in Finoteselam is one among the worst in the COlll7tl")'. Morbidity and injury remain high in this age group due to the inappropriate and less qualitv care prol'/ded to in/(lI1t.s', This stU(~V was designed to understand iJ?iunt care beliejs' and practices that have an /1I/jJact on health il1 Finoteselam. Cultural heliej\' and practices associated to feeding, health lIf(magelllent, p,sychosocial care, and hygiene care have an extensive impact on this regard The studl employed qualitative method. It was conducled using an interview data (l.JO lactating mol hers (whose surviving baby aged belween .J I day and 12 month) and 6 volunlary health workers il1 addition 10 focus group results with heterogeneous group of participants (elderly WOlllen, TBAs, herbalists and faith healers) frol11 both urban and rural kebeles of Finoteseloll/. The collected data through interviews and FGDsji'om February 08 to March22 lVas thell/ot/coll}' (//wlv::ed fhe result cl analysis showed Ihat a number of infallt care related beliefs' and practices ajfect injl.lI/t heallh in Finoteselam both in urban and rural kebeles. While SOl1le of them have no known destructive elfect, others are found to be dangerous to health. Ifealth damaging beliejv alld practices include those which restrict exclusive breastfeeding (beliejs' such as breast milk II1suflicienC\', fear ofabdol71inal pain and thirst on babies in feeding sole breastmilk) , behaviors ofleedillg illfants wilh less nutritious food items, beliefs which delay or hasten the timing in the introduction of complementary foods, behaviors that endanger personal, domestic and environmental hvgiene (such as open defecation and urination, absence of water treatmel7l at hOllie, lack o/.fi'equent hand washing and bathing) , customs which result in misconstruction of the caules of infant health prohlems (beliej\' on supernatural and spiritual/orees) and diseases ,specific belief.\· that initiate unfilling or delayed care seeking
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    Impacts of Rural Physical Infrastructural Expansion on the Livelihood Situation of Rural People: The Case of Machakel Woreda, East Gojjam Zone
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-11) Kassie, Aschale; Birhanu (Phd), Abeje
    The aim of this study ;s to analyze (he im/xICb' of physical rural ilifrastructural expansion on the livelihood contexts of rllral people wilh por/ieu/ar reference 10 rural people of Mac/Ulkel Woreda, ElIsl Gojjam zone of AmhoT(l regional stale. The study employed bOlh ql/ll/illltive and quantilalive research approaches. Different loa's of daw col/eelion were lri(mgu/ated. Results of the sllldy lIrc there/ore: based on in-deplh household and key informant interviews, focus group disclissions. field ohservalions lind household survey. So as 10 broadly analyze lhe issue under study, related literatures have been critically reviewed and !)lIS[(linable rura/livelihoods approach as an analylicallool has been lIsed The study show~' thai fhe government expansion of physical infrastructures in to rural area.~ has enabled rural people diversffy their income sources through engagement in variety of livelihood activities. People have created new livelihood activities helped by newly expanded physical infrllstructures. Rural peoples' access to livelihood assets in the study area was found to have been improved (md people acquired several kinds of assets Fam the time of physical infrastrucl/lral eXlxmsion onwards. 711e slUdy also found Ihat physical infrastructural expansion contributed a lot in the redllclion of poverty in rural areas in a number of ways. I) Rural people are able to widen Iheir income sources thereby gelling betler income. As people engaged in new income generating activities, they could eam good incomes which enabled Ihem satisfy Iheir basic needs. save cash money and reserve in kind, pursue further livelihood aclivities. cover cosls of services (such as hea1lh expemes), and so on. 2) Physical infrastruclllres also contributed 10 the health status of rural people. Pure drink water and rural roads as pre· requisites for health posts are essential for healthy and productive rllral man power. 3) Physical infrastructures are also imporlOnt jor raised awareness and good educational profile ofrllral people in the study area. The study idenlified both negative and positive impacts of physical infrastrllclural expansion on the social life of the people in the rural area. These impacls were on social networks and institutions, on the relationship among rllral people themselves and on the relationship between rural people and surrounding urban residents. For instance, the unbalanced distrib ution of physical inFaslructure across rural localities created inter and intra.kebele di~placemenls, that in tlll"/1 affe,:ts peoples 'involvement in the social organizations of idir, iquib and mahiber. Rural people created and slrengthen their ties, though some others' relationship was disrupted during and after the expansion of infrastructure. The social relationship between rllral people of the study area and sUl'I'olllu/ing lIrban dwellers was also found to be facilitated.
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    Living in a Serodiscordant Relationship: Knowledge, Challenges, and Coping Strategies among HIV Discordant Couples in Addis Ababa
    (AAU, 2011-05) Tadesse, Daniel; Tadele, Getnet. PhD
    Background: HIV discordant couples, where the male and female have different HIV test results, are the largest at-risk group for transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Research in 12 countries in eastern and southern Africa shows that prevalence of discordant couples is high. ranging bel1Veen 36% and 85% (UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic: 2010).So far. most studies on discordant couples emphasized on the bio-medical aspect of the couples 'with onlyfew oj'them concerned with hovlI the couples managed the discordance. The present study shaded light on the pS,vcho-social aspect qfliving in discordant relationshljJ. Aims: The major aim of this study was to explore the experiences of HIV discordant couples in a steady relationship. Methods: A qualitative approach was utitized to achieve the o~iective of this study. Twenty two in-depth interviews were conducted with discordant couples and with an intention to elaborate in more detail the experiences of discordant couples; two oral histOlY case studies were conducted. These two cases were selectedfrom the in-depth interviews as they were found to be exemplary cases reflecting the communalities among discordant couples. Further, ten in-depth interviews were carried with key informants in order to assess health professionals' and counselors' explanation for HIV discordance and their experience with discordant couples. The samples were drawn using purposive sampling. The data were analyzed using the successive approximat ion approach. Findings: The study revealed that there were widespread misconceptions about J-/IV discordance among both HIV discordant couples and key informants (health care providers and counselors). These misconceptions in turn made HIV discordant couples to engage in risky sexual behaviors. HIV discordant couples experienced varieties of psycho-social problems such as fear of infecting and being infected, blame, neglect, guilt, and uncertainty. The couples also faced challenges regarding their sexual life like exhaustion with condom use, reduction in sexual desire and pleasure, reduction infrequency of sex and alteration in reproductive plan. Safer sex, coitus interrupts, non-penetrative sex, abstinence, communication, disclosure, silence, secrecy, cooperation, and religion were found to be the coping strategies of the couples. Finally, it was found that for some couples the presence of HIV did not bring any change in their relationship. Conclusion: Commonly, it might be assumed that at least the negative partner in HIV discordant re lationship makes every effort to avoid infection. But, the .findings oj' the present study confirmed that this is a mere speculation that significant number of informants failed to employ any preventive strategies and if any some of them were found to be ineffective like, coitus interrupts. Several factors which operate at different levels may contribute to such risk taking behavior indicating the utility of an integrated model to understand individuals ' health behavior. The extensive misconceptions about HIV discordance and ineffective coping strategies utilized by the informants suggesT the needfor micro, mezzo, and macro level interventions
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    The Predicaments of Ethiopian Forced Return Migrants from Saudi Arabia
    (AAU, 2004-11) Tafesse, Medareshaw; Tadele, Getnet. PhD
    The large –scale return of Ethiopian migrants from Saudi Arabia is an example of a group of forced return migrants that were less prepared for their return.Most of the returnees had shown no desire to return to Ethiopia until the Saudi security forces began the crackdown
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    The Buda:Belief System, Marginalization,and Traditional Healing Practices in Central Tigray
    (AAU, 2012-11) Birhane, Mulugeta; Murugan, P. PhD
    Research studies have shown that many traditional beliefs have faded out in the face of modernity and science. Yet. Africa is still home of many strange beliefs. There are a lot of traditional beliefs like witcheraft. Sorcery that seem to have stood the test of modernity. The belief in the evil eye is one of those beliefs. This study is about evil eye. Locally called Buda or Tebib.belief among people of central Tigray. Ethiopia.
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    Socio-cultural Context of Youth Sexuality and Related Health Issues among College Students in Nekemte Town
    (AAU, 2013-03) Gemeda, Tolessa; Teshome, Woldeab(PHD
    Youth sexual behavior was not given enough emphasis until recently. As a result, this segment of the population has been at the centre of the HW pandemic around the world. The current study sought to explore the sexual experiences, sexual behavior and safer/unsafe sex practices of male and female college youths in the context of the HW/ AIDs pandemic in the country by placing it within the existing socio-cultural context. To that end, the study investigated: college students' narrated sexual experiences, their perceived sexual relations, the degree of students' engagement in negotiated safer sex practices, and factors facilitating / constraining students' initiation of sexual relationship and safer sex practices. Data gathered from survey questionnaire administered among randomly chosen college students (N=200) in Nekemete town revealed that 34% of the students were sexually engaged. Empirical materials obtained largely from focus group discussions with 35 college students (18 male and 1 7 female) revealed that college youths were sexually engaged with one another and non- college people as well. Students' sexual engagement with people outside colleges included female students' sexual relations with "sugar daddies" and male students' sexual experience with high school students and less commonly with commercial sex workers. Female and male students had generally positive perceptions towards the sexual relations existing amongst themselves. They were, however, critical of relations female students had with "sugar daddies", and sexual affairs between male students and commercial sex workers. The significant number of college students' youth, as revealed by empirical material, are in such sexual affair. The qualitative data further revealed that college female students rarely negotiated their sexual motives. Female students were presented as people who passively or sub - consciously surrender into young men's trickeries in to sex after momentary resistance. Notwithstanding some positive signs of safer sex practices, students' overall sexual practices were characterized by unsafe sex (procrastinating HW testing, promiscuity, non/ inconsistent condom use, and absence of meaningful communications on sexual matters), risky behaviors including alcohol and/ or chat use were reported to have led the college youth to risk sexual behaviors, including sex with having commercial sex workers without condoms. Qualitative data showed students' high level of knowledge about contraceptive methods and condom use, but students' failure to translate it into protective behaviors implies the need for interventions beyond provision of knowledge. Among other things, the study underlined the need to raise students; positive attitudes towards safer sex practices and developing students' skills and abilities in using condoms and other contraceptives through peer- led education and training of life skills.
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    Participation Of Farmers' In Farmer Research Groups: The Case Of Adama Woreda
    (AAU, 2009-06) Bekele, Dereje; Nigussie, Taye(Dr
    The aim of this study was to identify the determinants and patterns of farmers' participation in Farmer Research Groups in Adama Woreda. Statistically significant association between socio-economic characteristics and farnlers' participation in Farlner Research Groups were tested. The specific objectives were to: (1) determine the relationship of the socio-demographic and economic factors with farmers' participation; (2) describe the patterns of participation in Farmer Research Groups by farmers and researchers and (3) identify constraints to farmers' participation in Fam1er Research Groups. The respondents were selected through a combination of probability proportionate to size and systematic sampling, and 120 farmers (60 participants and 60 non-participants in Farmer Research Groups) and 20 researchers were included. The respondents were selected from 'Awash', 'Batu Degago', 'Ulaga Melka Oba' and 'Wake Miya' peasant administration. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews with key informants, and case studies were also employed to collect qualitative primary data. Quantitative primary data, on the other hand, were collected through questionnaire administered by enumerators. Secondary sources were also adequately referred from recorded archives to support primary data. The data were analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics like mean, frequency, percentage, chi-square, phi-coefficient and point-biserial correlation. The findings of this study showed that socio-economic and cultural factors such as age, household size, educational attainment, size of farm land, and gender are significantly related to farmers' participation in Farmer Research Groups in Adama Woreda. Based on this finding, it can be concluded that younger farmers relatively participated more in Farmer Research Groups. Besides, those farmers who had larger households, large size of farm land and exposition to formal education tend to be more involved in the Farmer Research Groups. In addition, the study indicated that the majority of Farmer Research Group members in Adama Woreda have been involved in consultative and collaborative type of participation. There are constraints to farmers and researchers in participation in the Farmer Research Groups in Adama woreda. Expectations for subsidized inputs, farmers' reluctance to work with researchers on the site due to the underestimation of their indigenous knowledge in the research process and inadequate motivation of researchers to use participatory approach have been the most commonly manifested problems among the participants in Farmer Research Groups.
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    Current Attempts At Eradicating Begging From Public Places In Ethiopia: The Case Of Arada Ghiorghis Neighborhood
    (AAU, 2010-07) Belay, Demelash; Admassie, Yeraswork (PhD
    Begging is not a recent phenomenon in Ethiopia. The problem has been present in the country for more than a century. Despair and agony which are commonly associated with begging have been the constant companions of beggars in Ethiopia in general and its capital in particular. More specifically, the large number of beggars we see on the streets of Addis Ababa and the various places of worship in the city can be regarded as one of the most telling examples for describing the central characteristics of begging and what could be associated with it when it is seen in terms of its harshest manifestations. This study was conducted with the aim of aiding the effectiveness of current proposed and implemented attempts at eradicating begging from Ethiopia. By selecting the Arada Ghiorghis neighborhood as its area of particular reference, the study has tried to assess the attempts as well as the beggar and non-beggar attitudes towards them. The data needed for the study were collected from forty beggar and the same number of non-beggar respondents mainly using the cross-sectional survey design. However, when analyzed the data gathered using the survey method were triangulated with data obtained from in-depth interviews with beggars and responsible individuals in both governmental and non-governmental organizations, a Focus Group Discussion among beggars, information from the researcher's personal observation of the situations of beggars in the study area as well as secondary data from various sources. Accordingly, the findings of the study indicate that current implemented attempts to eradicate begging from Ethiopia, although they should be accorded recognition for .their concern for the improvement of the lives of beggars in the country, are characterized by a number of weaknesses ranging from inadequate effort and little willingness to work cooperatively with other parties working in the area of begging up to the employment of unsustainable (ineffective) strategies. However, the Social Development Fund of Ethiopia, which was analyzed by the study as a current proposed attempt to eradicate begging from the country, was found to be by far well designed and very likely to be more effective if it is made to include some of the recommendations suggested on the basis of responses from respondents of the study. Furthermore, findings from the inquires on the attitudes of both beggar and non-beggar members of the public in the study area towards attempts at eradicating begging from Ethiopia show that most of the respondents from both groups have positive attitudes towards the attempts.
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    Poverty As Cause of Limited Adoption of Crops Extension Package: A Farmers' Perspective the Case of Tarmaber Woreda, Amhara Region (Ethiopia)
    (AAU, 2010-07) Yekoyesew, Dawit; Berhanu, Abeje(PhD
    New agricultural technologies are important in improving the. well-being of rural households in Ethiopia. However, there are many factors affecting adoption of these technologies in the country. Researches dealing with adoption of agricultural technologies focus on the effect of demographic, socio-economic, agro-ecological and institutional factors which limit many farm households from taking advantage of crops technology package in Ethiopia. However, inadequate attention is given to geographical and social contexts in which poverty occurs to identify factors in a give society that influences farmers' decisions to adopt. In this study poverty was conceptualized in Tarmab er Woreda of North Shoa following Robert Chambers' theory of deprivation with the objective to explore factors responsible for farmers' use and non-use of improved seeds and chemical fertilizers. Here, the subjective judgments of farmers about what constitutes well-being in their own communities were given due attention to classify households into worse-off/poor, medium and better-off/rich. The study was undertaken in three purposefully selected rural Kebeles of the district namely Koso-ber, Yitam-na-kosta and Yizaba-na-woyin. Knowledgeable individuals from 35 gott of these Kebeles were selected. A total of 35 key informants 'Were included to assign farm households in the respective Kebeles into worse-off/poor, medium and better off/rich based on such indicators as land size, livestock holdings (mainly oxen for ploughing), the number of times that a family fe eds its members per day, housing conditions, land renting and/or sharecropping arrangement, household labour force availability, loan status, membership of cooperatives and ability to send children to school. Out of 2120 farm households, worse-off/poor, medium and better-off/rich households constitute 41.5%. 52.2% and 6.7% respectively. Income loss, vulnerability to crop failure and asset depletion, physical weakness, social isolation and powerlessness are locally believed causes of poverty. After well-being ranking was completed, a cross-section sample of 125 farm households were selected from worse-off/poor, medium and better-off/rich households based on a two-stage stratified random sampling using Proportional Probability to Size (PPS) method. The survey result shows that educational status, size of land holding, membership of cooperatives, ownership of radio, how often farmers attend agricultural related programs, reading pamphlet and perceived distance of the market were found to be significant positive correlates of adoption of chemical fertilizers and improved seeds. The findings of this study call for the need of policy interventions. The policy that aims at achieving poverty reduction should consider local-level situation of poverty across sub social groups (i.e. male and female). The extension services should reinforce how farmers diversify their income beyond convincing them to use agricultural technologies. The family package program should be strengthened to tackle pressure of population on land. The public services should reach poor households in remote area. This finding also suggests areas of interest like panel study of adoption decision of farmers, the relationship between big population size and poverty, market failure and adoption of extension inputs and comparing rural households near to town with the one in remote Kebeles for future study in the study area.
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    Personal and Structural Factors Influencing Peoples' Attitudes toward Interethnic Marriages: A Study in Nekemte Town, Eastern Wollega Zone
    (AAU, 2011-05) Tola, Ameyu; Murugan, Paula(Dr
    Thi - du.dy was intended to explore and examine the personal and structural facwi s that influence peoples' attitudes toward ethnic intermarriage. To this em:, ,·elevant literature has been reviewed to shade light on the issue under stud.,;. Intermarriage is said to have a significant lessening of 'social distance' betv. , 'en groups and enabling unions between them. This study primarily em})! .ys a quantitative research method, particularly survey questionnaire, in oreie ,' to obtain the data needed for the study. Samples of 500 people are s eleC1ed using a simple random sampling technique for this study. In addition to tl :e . survey research, qualitative method (Case Study) has also been emp l:'yed to substantiate the data obtained by quantitative method. Both p ersl;.-wl and s tructural level factors have been examined in order to see their impc(t on p eoples' attitudes toward interethnic marriage. Different statistical mClr,·(Jds such as one-way ANOVA, t-test, correlation and regression have been used to test the effects of the independent variables (the factors) on the de 1)('.1' dent variable (attitude towards interethnic marriage). At personal level, var iC' )les such as age, gender, educational level, religiosity and sameness of pOleids' e thnicity have been tested. While individuals' age, level of religiosity, educ:tional level and sameness of parents' ethnicity have significantly in/ lu, :l1ced their attitudes toward ethnic intermarriage, there is no significant gen de r diffe rence on attitudes toward ethnic intermarriage. Moreover, s tn LC 1 'lm l level factors like heterogeneity/ homogeneity of the social en v i /(} f'1 rnent, ethnic identity salience and an individual's social networks have significantly influenced attitudes toward ethnic intermarriage. Finally, the Case St, Lel !, cnalysis revealed that inter-ethnically married couples did not view their man ; lye as something different from intra-ethnic marriages. Moreover, aW L(' I ~ gh they face challenges from relatives and neighbors they indicated that theLj iLcve resources to cope with the challenges.
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    Urban Expansion and the Changing Socio-economic Life of the Surrounding Rural Community: The Case of Woreda 03 Lami Kura Sub-City, Addis Ababa City Administration
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-10) Tadesse, Yehualashet; Teferra(PhD), Zelalem
    This study has examined urban expansion and the changing socio-economic life of rural communities surrounding Addis Ababa with special reference to woreda 03 of Lami Kura sub-city. It emphasized the impacts of urban expansion on job opportunities of the households, and assessed the impacts of urban expansion on educational participation of the rural household members, the health condition of rural households and community after urban expansion, attitude and perception of rural households on urban expansion, social relationships and resource of rural households before and after urban expansion. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. In-depth interviews, FGDs, observation and survey methods were used as tools of data collection. In addition, secondary data were also collected from different sources. To analyze the urban expansion and the changing socioeconomic life of the surrounding farming or rural community the study used economic growth and sociological urban expansion theories. The study exhibited mixed findings. On the one hand, it was found that majority of the rural households lost their individual farming plots, communal grazing lands and subsequently the possibility of holding large livestock population due to lack of space. Consequently the peasant households were forced to change their livelihood orientation from mixed farming to specialized urban agriculture, employment in service sector jobs, construction works and manufacturing sectors jobs. Incorporation into urban setting also resulted in social disarticulation wherein the displaced farming community‟s social fabric was torn apart due to changing patterns of social organization, and scattered interpersonal and kinship ties. Likewise, life-sustaining informal networks of reciprocal help, local voluntary associations, and self-organized mutual services were disrupted resulting in loss of social capital. On the other hand, the study revealed that despite the initial economic disarticulation due to loss of traditional livelihood basis educational participation of peasant children has significantly improved due to construction of new schools in the area and easy access .Improvements in terms of access to healthcare and other urban social services have also been observed in the course of the study. Taking into account the above stated mixed results, the current researcher came up with a conclusion that if the process is properly planned and managed, it is possible to offset the losses incurred by farmers during initial displacement and loss of key assets, by benefits accruing to the same families due to access to improved economic and social infrastructures, and better employment opportunities. Keywords:-urban expansion, household social and economic change, unemployment. v
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    The Role of Community Policing in Crime Prevention: The Case of Addis Ketema Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-07) Mathewos, Tsegab; Berhanu (phD), Abeje
    This study has been conducted with the aim of examining the role of community policing in crime prevention at Addis Ketema Sub-City, Addis Ababa. The study has employed qualitative research approach. Four different instruments have been employed to carry out the study, these are: in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and documentary analysis. The data has been analyzed through thematic analysis. The study showed that community policing has reduced crime and fear of crime; and it has also improved police-community relations in the study area. Furthermore, the role of community participation is in good shape; likewise, community police officers are playing a good role in crime prevention through community policing. Ex-criminals are playing a crime prevention role. On the other hand, some factors that hinder community policing from playing its crime prevention role are identified: the presence of repeated reshuffling of community police officers; hiding criminals by some community members; the presence of large number of local liquor houses, prostitutes and street dwellers; wideness of the Ketenas which are tough to be covered by a single officer; and the problem of unemployment. The study has also portrayed some crime types that are tough to be prevented by community policing: Shiblil, Shua Shua, 23, pickpocketing and snatching. Lastly, the study showed the presence of low legal protection against community members who participate in preventing crimes through community policing; thus, the study suggests maximizing legal protection. Key words: Community Policing, Crime Prevention, Crime, Community Members, Community Police Officers, Role.
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    Opportunities and Prospects of Domestic Adoption and Alternative Child Care Services: The Case of Kibebe Tsehay Orphanage Center, Addis Ababa.
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-08) Lemma, Thomas; Berhanu (phD), Abeje
    Ethiopia was one of the leading countries in terms of sending children for adoption abroad next to China. However, the country banned inter-country adoption by formulating the new child adoption proclamation since February 2018. This research aims to examine opportunities and prospects of domestic adoption and alternative child care services taking Kibebe Tsehay Orphanage Center as a case. The study used qualitative research methods of in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussion and analyzed the data thematically. The results showed that compared to inter-country adoption, domestic adoption has a number of advantages which includes better psychological well-being of adopted children, they are also safe from identity crisis, children are secured from any danger because in domestic adoption there are sociologists and social workers who constantly visit children‟s condition after they are given for adoption. On the other hand, the government is playing an active role to promote domestic adoption by encouraging high-profile government officials including Prime Minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed and Ambassador Fitsum Arega to adopt children from Kibebe Tsehay Orphanage Center. Alternative child care services are also playing a role in putting children; whereas, in inter-country adoption, children were sold like “commodities”. The study also disclosed that domestic adoption has different challenges, one is adoptive parents are so selective of children‟s age and gender. The other major challenge is that OVC with health problems cannot get adoptive parents in domestic adoption. Finally, this study suggests that to improve the practice of domestic adoption the media can play a role in promoting the practice of domestic adoption as a blessing activity and social responsibility. Key words: domestic adoption, OVC, inter-country adoption, adoptive parents