Veterinary Public Health

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    Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Bovine and Swine, and its Zoonotic Implication in Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Kassa Demissie; Prof. Gezahegne Mamo; Prof. Gobena Ameni; Dr. Takele Abayneh_
    Tuberculosis is a global priority disease of humans and animals. Bovine tuberculosis has been first reported in Ethiopia in the year 1967. Since then its prevalence has been rising. The nationwide prevalence of bovine tuberculosis has been estimated (5.8%) very recently in Ethiopia and the animal level prevalence ranges from 0.8%-54.6%; the highest prevalence was being reported in intensive dairy farms in and around cities while the lowest prevalence was being recorded in grazing animals in rural areas. However, there are emerging dairy cattle farms in Debre Berhan milkshed where the current epidemiological picture of bovine tuberculosis has not yet been elucidated. Similarly, there is little scientific information on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in swine in the country although swine production has been growing in central Ethiopia since two decades following the privatization policy. Besides affecting animals and reducing their productivity, animal tuberculosis is transmitted to and causes illness in humans. However, there is little information on the magnitude of human tuberculosis of animal origin in Ethiopia that requires additional studies. This study was initiated to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis in bovine and swine and its zoonotic implication in central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 herds consisting of 625 heads of dairy cattle in Debre Berhan milkshed and 11 herds comprising of 329 heads of swine raised in selected sites in central Ethiopia. Skin testing was carried out by making use of single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test for cattle and single intradermal comparative tuberculin test for swine. Moreover, mycobacterial culturing, gross and microscopic characterization of tuberculosis like lesions and molecular typing of mycobacteria were used. Face-to-face interview using semi-structured and open-ended questionnaire was also presented to 165 respondents (146 farm workers and 19 human health professionals) to assess their knowledge and practices on the zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis from farm animals to humans. The finding showed that the apparent individual animal level prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 17% (106/625; 95% CI: 14.2-20.2) at ≥4mm and 18.4% (115/625; 95% CI: 15.5-21.7) at >2mm cut-off values in 625 heads of dairy cattle tested. Whereas, the herd prevalence was 16.7% (16/96; 95% CI: 10.1-26) at ≥4mm and 22.9% (22/96; 95% CI: 15-33) at >2mm cut-off values in 96 dairy herds tested. Multivariable logistic regression analysis at ≥4mm cut-off value revealed that dairy cattle with poor body condition score (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.4; p = 0.002), in the large herd size (AOR= 29.5; 95% CI: 5.6-154.1; p = 0.000) and of exotic breed (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-10.7; p = 0.018) had 4, 30 and 4 times the odds of tuberculin positivity with statistical significance, respectively compared to their counterparts. The apparent individual animal level prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in swine was 3% (10/329; 95% CI: 2-6) at > 2mm cut-off value. In the total 9 clusters tested, the herd prevalence was 11% (1/9; 95% CI: 1-49) at >2mm cut-off value. In addition, the abattoir lesion prevalence of tuberculosis in swine was 4.1% (26/640; 95% CI: 2.8-6.0) on the basis of gross tuberculosis like lesions. The awareness level of farm owners/attendants towards the transmission of tuberculosis from farm animals to humans was generally low. Culturing of tuberculosis like tissue lesions from swine and human sputa from suspected active TB patients as well as molecular typing indicated M. tuberculosis as the principal finding. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the endemic occurrence of animal tuberculosis in the study areas and low level of public awareness towards its zoonotic transmission. Poor body condition, large herd size and exotic breed were important predictors of bovine tuberculin positivity in dairy cattle. M. tuberculosis was the predominant species cycling in the study areas. The findings of the current study compliment research works done so far in Ethiopia and contribute its own share to the control options of bovine tuberculosis. The study forwarded recommendations for intervention and future research.
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    Isolation and molecular identification of Newcastle Disease Virus in chickens and evaluating the protective efficacy of Newcastle Disease vaccines in Ada’a district, East Shewa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Bogale Gossaye; Dr. Fufa Dawo; Dr./Fufa Dawo
    Newcastle disease (ND) is the first most economically important endemic viral disease of chickens that has a potential threat to village chickens and commercial poultry farms in Ethiopia. Reports from NVI Sales and Customer service directorate evidenced that customers are complaining against the effectiveness of lentogenic ND vaccines. Therefore, this study was designed to isolate and molecularly identify Newcastle disease virus and to assess the protective efficacy of ND vaccines against the current circulating viruses. The study was carried out from December 2019 to May 2021 in Ada’a district; Bishoftu town and Dhankaka village. A Cross-sectional study method was used to investigate ND in suspected cases and a total of 52 samples were collected for virus isolation and virus gene detection. ND virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs and virulence of the isolates were determined in vitro and in vivo. The current findings confirmed the circulation of virulent strains of ND virus in the study areas. The isolates were further identified by molecular assay, targeting the amplification of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1). Vaccine protection efficiency was evaluated in chickens hatched from SPF eggs. The chickens were selected randomly and assigned to five experimental groups. Experiment groups were vaccinated by the lentogenic vaccines (HB1, Lasota, and I-2) produced in the National Veterinary Institute (NVI) using 106.5Embryo infective dose (EID)50 per chicken at day zero (age of 7 days), and boosted at days 14 and 35. Group 1 was vaccinated by HB1 on day zero, revaccinated using Lasota on day 14 and boosted by Lasota on day 35 (HB1-Lasota-Lasota). Similarly, groups 2 - 4 were vaccinated, and boosted as (HB1-I2-I2), (I2-Lasota-Lasota), and (HB1- I2-Lasota) vaccines, respectively while group 5 were unvaccinated and threated as a control group. On day 49 all treatment groups were challenged by ‘Dhankaka’ ND virus isolate with 106.5ELD50 per chicken through occulo-nasal route. The result indicated that chickens in group 1 were induced a protective index of 94%, chickens in groups 2, 3, and 4 were revealed 100% survival while chickens in the unvaccinated group were all dead. Hence, the current ND vaccines produced at NVI induced an immune response against the circulating virulent ND virus using vaccination-boost-boost and challenge protocol in experimental SPF chickens challenge.
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    Isolation and Identification of Salmonella species from Smallholder Broiler Chicken Farms and Their Antibiograms in Central Ethiopia: Its Implication for Public Health
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Tesfaye Belachew; Dr. Teshale Sori
    Broiler meat is the second most widely consumed meat and it is one of the sources of zoonotic Salmonella serotypes. The study was assessed the occurrence of Salmonella isolates in smallholder broilers chickens and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Salmonella isolated from the study farms. From November 2020 to May 2021, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on smallholder broilers farms and slaughter house in Bishoftu and Modjo to assess the occurrences of Salmonella species and to detect their antimicrobial resistance pattern. From selected farms selected (two farms from each) a total of 289 samples (189 cloacal swab samples, 52 feed and 48 water samples) were collected from broilers farms whereas 100 cecal contents were collected from slaughtered chicken at Chico-Meat slaughter house in Bishoftu and 26.46 % of the cloacal samples, 21.00 % of the cecal contents, 30.77 % of the feed samples and 25.00 % of the water samples yielded Salmonella. Total of 389 samples were collected analyzed in the laboratory using standard bacteriological techniques and typical Salmonella colonies were further characterized by biochemical test. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was conducted using standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results of questionnaire survey showed that all farmers and attendants did not have knowledge about the occurrence of Salmonella in broilers. Overall 99 samples (25.45 %) were positive results for Salmonella. Of the samples collected from Bishoftu 43 of the 200 (21.50 %) were positive whereas 56 of the 189 (29.63 %) samples collected from Modjo were found positive. The effect of potential risk factors such as age ,breed, source of water ,type of house and farm location on the occurrence of Salmonella was assessed using logistic regression with odd ratio and breed was the only significantly (p < 0.05). The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the Salmonella isolates were resistance to Tetracycline (80 isolates, 80.81%), Kanamycin (71 isolates, 71.72%), Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin (67 isolates, 67.68%) whereas most of the isolates were susceptible to Gentamicin (69 isolates, 69.70%) and Erythromycin (40 isolates, 40.41%). The results of this study showed that Salmonella isolates in broiler and their inputs were resistant to most of antimicrobials used in medical and poultry practices. This has important implication for public health.
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    Estimating the Health Burden and Status of Rabies in Animals and Humans From 2014-2019 In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Elsa Zerabiruk; Dr. Fanta Desissa; Dr. Nigatu kebede; Dr. Teshale Sori
    Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries like Ethiopia where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for updated quantitative data on the public awareness, health burden and costs of diseases to support prioritization. The aim of this study was to determine the level of community knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) regarding rabies and to estimate the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of rabies in Addis Ababa. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2020 to April 2020 to assess the KAP towards rabies. Two hundred and sixty-seven people who were bitten by rabies suspected animals were purposively interviewed for this study and retrospective study was conducted to assess the burden of rabies over the period of six years (2014 to 2019). Based on the collected data PET costs were evaluated and the health burden was estimated in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The KAP study showed that 62.8% of the respondents had good level of knowledge and had medium (51.1%) level of attitude and practices towards rabies. In this study the good scores were higher in males (62.87%) than females. There was strong association between knowledge scores and type of employment (P= 0.003), Attitude and Practice scores and gender (P=0.001). There was significant positive correlation between Knowledge and Attitude and practice (P=0.001). The retrospective data indicated that a total of 8613 victims were registered and received post exposure vaccine in Addis Ababa over the period of six years (2014 to 2019). From this most important animal species responsible for PEP was dogs (93.8%). The annual suspected rabid dog exposures were estimated, and higher exposure was recorded in 2019 which was 54.5 per 100,000 populations. An annual estimate of approximately 10 human deaths and 57 disabilities resulting 430-955 DALYS per 100,000 populations per year due to administration of nerves tissue vaccine (NTV). Costs per completed (PET) estimated around 9.2 ±22.8 USD for children and 11.8±27 USD for adults in Addis Ababa.
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    Determination of Aflatoxin in Raw and Pasteurized Milk by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Sitena Kebede; Prof. Gezahegne Mamo; Dr. Belachew Tefera
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2020 to May 2021 with the aim of detecting and quantifying the amount of aflatoxin M1(AFM1) in raw and pasteurized milk in central Ethiopia by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using C18 column with fluorescence detector. The mobile phase was water-acetonitrile-methanol (60:25:15V/V/V) at flow rate of 1ml/minute. The HPLC instrument was conditioned with working standard solution of different concentration (0.05 to 4μg/l) to get the calibration curve. The obtained linearity(r) of concentration with their peak area was 0.99937 and the coefficient of determination (r2) was 0.99875. The study was conducted on total of 114 cow milk samples consisting of 60 raw milk and 54 pasteurized milks. From the total 114 tested milk sample AFM1 was detected on 79(69.3%) of them. From those positive samples 25.4% of them contain AFM1 above the maximum limit of EU (0.05 μg/l) and 1.8% of them contain above the maximum limit of FDA (0.5 μg/l). The maximum and mean concentration were 0.893 and 0.0465 respectively. The study result shows significant difference between contamination level of AFM1 in raw milk with considered risk factors (storage time, presence of noug in feed, using grazing or not). Higher contamination of AFM1 was detected in pasteurized milk (96.3%) than raw milk (16.7%). 35.2% of pasteurized milk and 16% of raw milk was contain AFM1 above the maximum limit of 0.05ug/l. There was no significance difference between brands of pasteurized milk which was considered in this study. Which means, pasteurization didn’t remove aflatoxin from milk. Site of sample collection have significant difference. 26.7% of sample from Sebata and 6.7% from sululta contain above the maximum limit (0.05 μg/L). In conclusion, AFM1 concentration level both in raw and pasteurized milk was not safe for human consumption. Due to its heat resistant properties AFM1 found in pasteurized milk which pose great public health risk both for children and adults. Thus, awareness creation on feed management practice of farmers, because animal feed is the main source of aflatoxin and risk mitigation method is very crucial to reduce its public health threat.
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    Dog Demography, Rabies Awareness and Dog Bite Cases in Bishoftu, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Hable Worku; Prof. Kebede Amenu; Dr. Balako Gumi
    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that affects humans and animals. Dogs are the primary source of infection and the majority of human rabies cases result from dog bites. Information on domestic dog populations is vitally important for rabies control but still rare in Africa, mainly in urban areas. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the demography of dogs, the incidence of dog bites, and the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of society concerning rabies in Bishoftu town, a typical urban environ. Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from April to June 2021 involving a questionnaire survey and collection of retrospective patient records from healthcare facilities. A total of 244 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire format to determine their KA and Practices.related Data on the incidence of dog bites and suspected cases of rabies from November 2019 to June 2021 were retrieved from the records of four health centers in Bishoftu. From the total respondents, more than half (51.2%) of households owned at least one dog with dog: human ratio of 1:9, and more than 70% of dogs had been vaccinated against rabies. Almost all, 99%of the respondents had heard of rabies and identified the mode of transmission of rabies. However, the majority of the study participants, 61.8%, had a moderate level of knowledge and 59.8% had an intermediate level of attitude, as well as 64.3%, had a satisfactory level of appropriate rabies prevention practices score. There was a statistically significant association between knowledge score and age, occupation, and source of information (P<0.05). However, a statically significant association was observed only with attitude score with age and source of information (P<0.05). In this study, respondents who attend higher education were more likely to have higher practice scores in the prevention of rabies (p <0.05). Also, there were significant correlations among the participants’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (P<0.01). A total of 612 victims were registered and received post-exposure vaccine in Bishoftu over a period of three years (2019 to 2021). In conclusion, we identified critical knowledge gaps related to factors influencing rabies prevention and control. The veterinary and public health sectors should play an important role in educating and raising community awareness.
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    Isolation and Identification of Escherichia Coli K99 and Salmonella enterica from Diarrheic Calves in and around Awash Fentale District of Afar Region, Eastern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Habtamu Girma; Dr. Shimels Tesfaye; Dr. Nigatu kebede
    The current cross sectional study was conducted from December 2018 to September 2020 with the aim to isolate and identify E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica and associated risk factors for occurrence of these two pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 188 diarrheic calves aged up to 6 months from 150 households in Awash Fentale district Afar region, eastern Ethiopia. These samples were processed during the study period for the isolation and identification of E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica using culture media, biochemical tests, Pathasure kit and Biolog GEN III microplate. Out of 188 samples, 20.74% and 5.32% were found to be positive for E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica were also investigated using 12 commonly used antibiotics. All isolates from calves were susceptible (100%) to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cephalothin ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamycin and trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to identify significant risk factors associated with examined bacteria. Thus study showed that the occurrence of E.coli K99 in male calves was higher (25.27%) than in female calves (16.49%). This might be the reason that more care is given to female calves than male calves. Because female calves are needed by the pastoralist where compared with male calves for milk production. On the other hand age and colostrum feeding within 24 hours were significantly associated with Salmonella enterica shedding. Calf age was significantly associated with Salmonella enterica (P=0.014, OR=13.15, 95% CI=1.677-103.127). The highest occurrence of Salmonella enterica was recorded in the 61-120 days of age (13.79%) than 1-60 days of age (2.86%) and 121-180 days of age (10.53%) diarrheic calves. In conclusion, isolation and identification of bacteria and risk factors associated with the spreading of bacteria causing diarrhea may be helpful for construction of suitable methods for prevention and control.
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    Isolation, Phenotypic Characterization and Public Health Implications of Listeria Monocytogenes Circulating in Smallholder Dairy Farms of Kombolcha Town And Kutaber District, South Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021) Wubshet Nasr; Dr. Kebede Amenu; Dr. Yitbarek Getachew
    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium of veterinary and public health importance, worldwide. Listeriosis in humans is the main food-borne zoonotic illness resulted from consuming dairy and other food products contaminated with mainly Listeria monocytogenes. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to May 2021 to isolate Listeria monocytogenes from raw bovine milk samples, to determine the Antibiogram of isolates and to understand its public health implication in smallholder dairy farms of Kombolcha town and Kutaber district of South Wollo zone, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. A total of 384 samples were collected from dairy producers using a simple random sampling technique. Listeria species isolation was performed, according to standard bacteriological procedures, using Buffered Listeria Enrichment broth (BLEB) and Polymyxin Acriflavine Lithium-chloride Ceftazidime Aesculin Mannitol (PALCAM) agar and for confirmation and species identification: carbohydrates utilization, hemolysis, Christie Atkins Munch Peterson (CAMP) and Listeriolysin 0 latex agglutination tests was carried out. The antimicrobial susceptibility test using 9 commonly used antimicrobial drugs against 15 Listeria monocytogenes isolates, and a questionnaire survey were also conducted. From the total of 384 samples the overall prevalence of Listeria species was 12.8% (49/384) and specifically for Listeria monocytogenes was 4% (15/384). In this study, listeriosis is significantly associated with farm management systems and herd size. Based on the antimicrobial susceptibility test, it was found that Listeria monocytogenes was sensitive to most drugs except Sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid which in both showed 100% resistance. 13.3% of L. monocytogenes isolates were also resistant to oxytetracycline, tetracycline, procaine penicillin G and cloxacillin. A structured interview was administered to 70 respondents. Thus, 76.7% of dairy farmers and 20 % of public respondents consume raw milk and 39% of participants were knowledge of zoonotic disease. This presence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk and its multi-drug resistance pattern is an indication of a serious public health risk. Therefore, creating awareness on milk safety, implementation of milk and personal hygienic practices, implementation of countrywide surveillance and further research to estimate its prevalence both in animals and humans is strongly recommended.
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    Isolation and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from layer poultry farms in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Sena Zinabu; Dr. Bedaso Mammo; Dr. Teshale Sori
    Escherichia coli O157: H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is a zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human enterohemorrhagic E. coli disease. However, the precise attribution of chickens and their food products as the sources of this zoonotic serotype has not yet been thoroughly investigated in Bishoftu town. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2021 to May 2022 on different sizes of layer poultry farms found in Bishoftu town to isolate, characterize, and determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of E. coli O157: H7. For this study, a total of 420 samples were collected from cloacae, eggs shells, the contents of eggs, personnel hands and the chicken environments. E. coli O157: H7 was isolated and confirmed using bacteriological, biochemical, and the latex-agglutination methods. All of the isolates were subjected to molecular characterization and susceptibility testing against twelve selected antimicrobials. Farm level information on the potential risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaires. Of a total of 420 samples examined, E. coli was detected in 66 (15.71 %; 95 % CI: 12.37, 19.55) whereas E. coli O157:H7 was confirmed in 16 (3.81%; 95 % CI: 2.19, 6.11) of the samples using the latex method. Of the 16 isolates, 9 (56.25 %) were from cloacae samples, 3 (18.75 %) were from litter samples, 1 (6.25 %) was from personnel hands, and 3 (18.75 %) were from egg shell swabs. The study showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7 among the different farm sizes and between chicken age groups. The odds of isolation of E. coli O157: H7 were 5.5 times greater in smallscale farms than in large-scale poultry farms and 4.1 times higher in adult chickens than in their younger counterparts. PCR amplification of intimin (eae) and shiga toxin (stx1) genes specific for E. coli O157: H7 using specific primers identified eae gene from 7 (43.75%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates, but stx1 was not detected. The results of antimicrobial sensitivity showed that 75% and 62.50% of the isolates had developed resistance against ampicillin and amoxacillin, respectively. On the other hand, 87.50% of the isolates were susceptible to gentamycin. Resistance to three or more drugs was detected in 68.7% of the isolates, which signifies a public health risk. The results of this study revealed the circulation of E. coli O157:H7 in poultry, their products and environ. Therefore, further research is highly encouraged to investigate the distribution of E. coli O157: H7 at human poultry interface and the driving factors of antimicrobial resistance in this setting.
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    Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Central Part of Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Mihiret Shimelis; Dr. Shimels Tesfaye
    Lumpy skin disease is economically important disease that is currently being reported as an emerging disease in various countries. Since, its inception in Ethiopia, LSD has spread in all the geographic locations affecting the livestock production system. Lumpy skin disease which cause lumpy skin disease is of the capripoxviruses, which is classified under the family poxviridae. Despite, efforts to contain by vaccination there have been several outbreaks of the disease in the country. These elucidate the importance of continual studies emphasizing on the viral genetics and associated factors. Thus, in this study lumpy skin disease virus was studied aimed at the virus isolation and molecular characterization from the outbreak reported areas of central Ethiopia. The study took place between October 2021 and May 2022. Purposive sampling technique was used when collecting Skin nodular samples and whole blood for serological assay. The virus was isolated using lamb kidney cells and molecularly characterized by amplifying the DNA fragment using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis using the complete RPO30 gene 606bp analysis. Multiple Sequence alignment indicated the nucleotide and amino acid variations among the capripoxvirus and to other viral isolates basically with the vaccine isolate. The alignment result indicated the absence of unique variation between the current field isolates and previous isolates. However, a single nucleotide variation was found between the outbreak isolates and the vaccine strain T/C at nucleotide position 292. All in all, the study in line with the veterinary professional’s vaccination practices gave an emphasis that outbreaks of the disease have continued to be a problem in different areas and the need of continual advanced studies
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    Epidemiology and Economic Impact Of Foot and Mouth Disease of Cattle In Selected Districts Of Arsi and Bale Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Muhabaw Yimana; Asso Prof.Hika Waktole
    Raw beef consumption is time immemorial tradition in Ethiopia. However, unhygienic meat processing and distribution practices are risky to public health. A cross sectional study was carried out from December 2021 to May 2022 to investigate the occurrence and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance pattern of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from slaughterhouses and butcher shops in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia. A total of 352 samples (120 fecal, 92 beef cut, and 140 environmental swab) were collected and processed. The isolation and identification process involved the selective enrichment in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with Novobiocin, plating on MacConkey, Eosin methylene blue and Cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, biochemical testing (IMViC test), followed by latex agglutination test. The isolates were tested for resistance profile to 13 antimicrobial agents using the standard disk diffusion method. Accordingly, of 352 samples, 14 (3.97%) were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7 serotype; of which, 28.6% (4/14), 21.4% (3/14), and 50% (7/14) were from fecal, beef and environmental swab samples respectively. A significant difference in the occurrences of the pathogen was observed among the sources of sample (p=0.028). Antimicrobial susceptibility test results indicated that 100%, 92.8%, and 64.3% resistance were developed against tetracycline, erythromycin and ampicillin respectively. All E. coli O157:H7 isolates were found to be susceptible to azithromycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7 isolates, 12 (85.8%) were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Unhygienic processing and poor sanitary practices were also noted by observational checklist among personnel in slaughterhouses and butcher shops. In conclusion, the study indicated that the occurrences of multiple antimicrobial resistant E. coli O157:H7 in the beef is strongly associated with the current beef processing and distribution practices. Therefore, an appropriate slaughter hygiene, more stringent regulation in the use of antimicrobials in human and animals, and risk based control measures, are recommended to afeguard the public health.
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    Seroprevalence and public health significance of bovine brucellosis and its associated risk factors in dairy farms of Debrebirhan town and its surrounding, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Gashaw Adane; Prof.Gezahegne Mamo; Dr. Fikru Regassa
    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes serious public health hazard in human and economic crises in dairy cattle production in affected countries. A cross sectional study was conducted between November 2021 to 2022 in Debrebirhan town and it’s surrounding of North Shewa zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle, identify associated risk factors and assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dairy cattle owners on zoonotic brucellosis. Blood samples from dairy cattle were collected and performed the serological tests and risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity as well as knowledge attitude and practice of respondents was collected based on questionnaire format and analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Using purposive sampling method, a total of 426 blood samples were collected from dairy cattle for serological test. The collected serum samples were screened initially with Rose Bengal Plate Test and positive samples for the initial test were confirmed by Complement Fixation Test. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study areas was 1.4% (95% CI: 0.28%-2.53%) and 0.47 % (95% CI: -0.182-1.121) using RBPT and CFT tests respectively at individual animal level and 13% (95%CI: - 0.39% -26.48%) and 4.43% (95%CI: -1.77% - 10.47%) using RBPT and CFT tests respectively at herd level. Statistical analysis of risk factors by using multivariable logistic regression indicates that buying stock replacement (OR=33.83, p=0.0003), last trimister abortion history (OR=5.90, p=0.005) and bull mating service (OR=6.43, p=0.013) were found significantlly associated with the seropositivity of Brucella infection in the dairy cattle. Knowledge, attitude and practice asseesment of respondents revealed that the majority of interviewees have no knowledge about brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases and their way of transmission. Because of this, drinking of milk with out boiling and contact with aborted and parturition materials with barehand are highly practiced in the study areas which clearly shows the presence of high risk for human Brucella infection. The result of this study revealed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was estimated to be very low in the study areas. However, the presence of positive serological reactors with statistical significant association of risk factors indicate previous infection of brucellosis in the cattle population of study areas. More over, the presence of one or more positive reactors in the herd is a predictor for the presence of infection. Hence, culling of Brucella abtibody reactor cows, carried out stock replacemenet through brucella testing before introduction in to the farms, improving of community awarness, further studies on isolation and molecular charcaterization of the caustive agent in livestock and epidemilogical study of human brucellosis and launch national contol and elimination campaign through One Health approach arerecommended.
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    Isolation And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test of Salmonella Species and Owners Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Antimicrobial Resistance in Selected Poultry Farms of Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Hayat Kelifa; Prof.Gezahegne Mamo; Hika Waktole(Asso. Prof)
    Salmonellosis in poultry cause mortality and high morbidity with economic consequences and has become public health concern as cause of food borne disease and due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The global deaths speculated from antimicrobial resistance threat is estimated to be over 300 million per year unless significant steps are taken by 2050. Little is known of contributing factors in poultry sector for the threat in Central Ethiopia. A cross sectional study carried out from December 2021 to May 2022 to investigate the distribution of Salmonella isolates, antimicrobial resistance using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion assay in twelve intensive layer and broiler poultry farms of Bishoftu town. Also surveyed 72 poultry farm owner‘s knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards AMR development and risks to public health in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia. A total of 214 samples collected in Bishoftu town; 191 cloaca swabs and 23 environmental samples (litter and drinking water) were processed for bacteriological isolation. Salmonella found in twelve farms (n=42), 19.6% (95% CI= 0.14-0.25) of which 90% were from the cloaca swabs. Out of 42 isolates, 30 were processed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and (n=29) 13.5% were detected for Salmonella and of that (n=16) 53.3% were detected for Salmonella Typhimurium. Antimicrobial resistance test was done on nine isolates detected and all were resistant to at least five antimicrobials, indicating a multidrug resistance (MDR). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, production type and age of the chicken were significantly associated with Salmonella positives (P<0.05). With regard to KAP of farm owners on AMR, the cumulative average score was less than 50% in both Addis Ababa and Bishoftu; despite 70% owners had high school plus background. Association of farm owner‘s knowledge and attitude with education levels and farming experience years were significant except, practices were only significantly associated in production types. The biosecurity status found good in 47.2% of poultry farms visited. In conclusion, the predominance occurrence of Salmonella Typhimurium, detection of MDR isolates in poultry farms and identified poor knowledge of the owners about AMR and potential risk to public health in this study, suggests the need for designing feasible Salmonellosis control strategies and in-depth detection of MDR genes. Furthermore, recommended improving awareness of poultry farm owners on AMR and investigations of other contributing factors to AMR development in the poultry sector
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    Brucellosis Seroprevalence ,Knowledge, Atitude and Exposure risks of Herdes’in Somalia region,Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Abdullahi Adan; Prof.Bekele Megersa; Dr.Bedaso Mammo
    Brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease caused by the genus Brucella that poses a major public and animal health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in pastoral settings where livestock and livestock products are the primary source of income. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2021 to April, 2022, to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of livestock and human brucellosis, as well as to assess herders' knowledge, attitude, and exposure risk in three selected districts of Somali region, Ethiopia. A total of 1000 blood samples were collected from goats (n=201), sheep (n= 99), camel (n= 450) and human (n=250). The serum samples were screened with Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and positive ones were further confirmed using competitive Enzyme Linked Immino Sorbent Assay (cELISA). The results showed that 45 (6.0%) and 28 (3.7%) of the animal samples tested positive for RBPT and cELISA, respectively. Samples from occupationally linked human, on the other hand, were confirmed positive 9(3.6%) by RBPT and 5(2.0%, 95% CI, 0.6-4.6) by cELISA. Goats had the highest seroprevalence (6.5%; 95% Cl, 3.5-10.8), followed by camels (2.9%; 95% Cl, 1.5-4.9) and sheep (2.0 %, 95%CI, 0.2-7.1). Sex, herd size, and herd history of abortion, all showed a significant association with Brucella seropositivity logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, in multivariable Firths’ logistic regression analysis for human samples, factors such as, gender, presence of fever or joint pain, and involvement in disposal of aborted or retained fetal membrane (RFM) were statistically significant (P<0.05). About half of the herders had heard about the disease (48%), of whom very low proportion (17%) knew brucellosis is a zoonotic disease. Despite respondents’ poor knowledge and high involvement in risky practices, significant positive attitudes toward disease prevention were identified in this study. In conclusion, this study provides a baseline information for the implemention of feasible disease control strategy in terms of pastoral community and sociocultural status through one health approach.
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    Isolation, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella from poultry and poultry products in central Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Adugna Emane; Professor Bekele Megersa; Hika Waktole (Assoc.professor)
    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne infection in food of animal origin including poultry derived food. Even though studies on occurrence of salmonella in poultry have been conducted in central Ethiopia, comprehensive study on salmonella contamination in poultry and poultry product is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study is to isolate, molecularly detect and assess antimicrobial resistance patterns of salmonella in poultry and poultry products. A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2021 to June 2022 in central Ethiopia. A total of 560 samples were collected from different establishments and analyzed for presence of salmonella. Frequency and prevalence were calculated for descriptive analysis whereas uni and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure the association of risk factors with occurrence of salmonella. p>0.05 was considered significant. 73.2% of 18 farms were positive for salmonella with sample level prevalence 11.3% (63/560). Salmonella was more isolated from meat samples (11.6%), Bishoftu (11.9%), large flock size (12.5%) and Eggs from market (13.3%). Serotype distribution showed that S.Typhimurium was dominant among serovar isolated. Salmonella occurrence was significantly associated to sources of samples (P=0 .04). In addition, all salmonella positive samples from backyard chicken were found to be serovar S.Typhimurium, which suggests less hygiene status and biosecurity in backyard environment. Antibiogram profiles revealed that all isolate were resistant to minimum three and maximum to 14 of 15 tested drugs. The maximum and minimum resistance index recorded was 0.93 and 0.2 respectively. In conclusion, high prevalence of salmonella recorded in chicken meat that indicates less hygiene status of workers and the working environment. MDR feature of the strain also alerts risk for the public health of consumer. This suggests the need for further epidemiological study and implementation of strong regulation on poultry food chain through cross-sectoral collaboration to reduce the risk of drug resistant foodborne infection
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    Determination of the shelf life of inactivated fowl cholera vaccine developed from local isolates of Pasteurella multocida
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Dawit Dufera; Dr.Fufa Dawo; Dr.Takele Abayneh
    Fowl cholera (FC) is caused by Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) and is a highly contagious disease that causes very high economic losses to the poultry industry around the world through high mortality, weight loss, low production of hatching eggs, reduction of fertility and carcass condemnation. Vaccination is one of the most widely used preventative strategies in the world to minimize illness prevalence and incidence of diseases including FC. Although NVI started to produce the killed FC vaccine in 2019, the shelf-life of the vaccine at 2-8 0C storage conditions was not determined; this was the objective of the current study. The shelf life was determined based on an indirect approach i.e. through evaluation of immune response to the vaccine stored at different time points as a direct approach to determining antigen content was not practicable. Hence, a total of 175 layer chickens (8 weeks old Bovans Brown) hatched and grown at Research and Development Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute (NVI) were used to determine the shelf life of the formalin-inactivated alum adjuvant FC vaccines. The vaccine's shelf life was determined using primary and secondary (booster) dose immunization of chicken with formalin-inactivated alum adjuvanted FC vaccine stored at 2- 8 0C for two weeks, three, six, nine, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months. Blood was collected from each chicken before primary immunization (at day zero), and on days 21 and 35 after primary vaccination to determine serum antibody levels by Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA). All chickens used for this study indicated a low cut-off OD value of 0.2 and that they were free from serum antibody response against Avian P. multocida before immunization (at day 0). The level of chicken serum antibody (IgG) titre was significantly increased after 3 weeks of the first immunization. After two weeks of the second vaccination, the titre substantially increased in all chickens. Antibody titre was increased within the group from primary vaccination to secondary (booster) vaccination. However, antibody titre was decreased among the groups with advancing storage time of the vaccine. As a result, formalin-inactivated alum adjuvant FC vaccine-induced antibody response while being kept at the standard recommended condition of storage for up to twenty-four months.
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    Molecular Identification of Major Bacterial and Viral Pathogens of Chickens and the Public Health Importance of the Pathogens in Commercial Poultry Farms in Bishoftu and Mojo, Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Behailu Assefa; Prof. Gezahegne Mamo; Prof. Teshale Sori
    The importance of poultry production is increasing in Ethiopia where high-quality protein and contained costs make poultry a valuable food resource. However, it entails some problems linked to rural, backyard and intensively reared flock proximity and pathogen circulation. The growing poultry production particularly in large-scale commercial intensive systems is challenged by occurrence of diseases of economic and public health importance. This study was planned to investigate the presence of important pathogens in chicken with a direct and indirect public health importance (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus ((IBV), and Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV)), in poultry farms in Bishoftu and Mojo, Central Ethiopia. Respiratory tract and cloacal swabs and bursa of Fabricious and kidney tissue imprints on FTA cards were collected in 2021 from a total of 500 chickens from 16 farms (1 broiler and 15 layer farms) and tested using PCR-based molecular methods for pathogen detection and sequencing method for species and strain identification. To generate farm-level data, the samples were pooled per farm, shed/flock, and sample type (matrix) where each swab pools contained ten swabs and each tissue smear pools contained variable number of imprints (two to five tissue smear pools). Based on their tropism for specific body system/part or tissue, twenty cloacal pooled samples were tested for Campylobacter and Salmonella species identification using genus-specific PCR. On the other hand, forty cloacal and respiratory swab pooled samples, and fourteen bursal and kidney tissue imprint pooled samples were tested using reverse transcription PCR, for different viral agents. Among the total twenty cloacal pooled samples tested, 70% (14/20) of them were positive for Campylobacter spp., where 71.4% (10/14) of the positive samples belonged to Campylobacter jejuni species, 21.4% (3/14) belonged to Campylobacter avium and 7.1% (1/14) to Campylobacter helveticus. But, all the twenty cloacal swab samples tested for Salmonella spp. became negative. On the other hand, among the total 16 farms tested for viral pathogens, one farm was positive (6.7%) for NDV (among 15 layer farms tested for NDV) with a Lasota vaccine strain, genotype II; another one farm was positive (6.25%) for IBDV (out of a total of 16 layer and broiler farms covered in the study), resulting in strains similar to those present in vaccines, Winterfield-2512, belonging to genogroup A1a; two farms were positive (12.5%) for IBV, resulting in a 4/91-like strain/793B (GI-13 lineages); but there were no farm tested positive for aMPV. In this study, Campylobacter jejuni was a predominantly isolated (71.4%) Campylobacter species in chickens in the study area, whereas species such as C. avium and C. helveticus were newly reported in Ethiopia, revealing a variability that needs to be monitored in light of the public health significance of this pathogen. On the other hand, the present findings suggest a low presence of viral pathogens (3/16,18.75% farm and 6/54,11.11% sample pool) probably due to the implementation of vaccination strategies, which is also testified by the detection of vaccine strains. The detection of high total prevalence of pathogens (35.2% (19)) for sample pools, and 81.2% (13) for farm), and particularly of a public health important campylobacter jejuni which has a high zoonotic importance, can imply high transmission potential of the pathogens from poultry host to human being indicating high risk of acquiring the infection. The high rate of detection of an important zoonotic pathogen, campylobacter (70% sample pools), in this study with wider farm coverage (80% farms) and among different host factors, management conditions, vaccination protocol and treatment schemes used, coupled with the poor biosecurity practices encountered during the field data collection, suggested a high risk of pathogen introduction to human population and greater dissemination potential. It was the limitation of laboratory facilities and budget related constraints that hinder further extensive investigation of the problems in both chicken and human population, covering wider areas and farms and coming up with detection of the circulating pathogens at their presence and at the same time investigating other public health important zoonotic pathogens of poultry like avian influenza virus and E.coli bacteria. In the future, extensive PCR-based detection of important pathogens circulating among poultry and human population should be carried out to have a clear epidemiological picture of distribution of these pathogens and to let design an appropriate intervention measures for control and prevention of the pathogens. Keywords: aMPV, campylobacter; chickens, IBV; IBDV; NDV; poultry; public health, salmonella.
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    An In-Depth Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about Transmission of Zoonoses, Food Safety, Antimicrobial Resistance and the Detection of E. coli O 157:H7 along the Meat Value Chain in Ethiopia: One Health approach
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Fufa Abunna; Prof. Bekele Megersa
    Food-borne diseases associated with zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans primarily, but not exclusively through animal source foods. Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain is also currently a subject of a major concern globally. The excessive use or rather misuse of antimicrobials coupled with a poor hygiene in the food production chain has led to a rise of drug resistant bacteria, commonly transmitted through food chain. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken by using a structured pretested questionnaire to investigate the level of knowledge, attitude and practices towards the transmission of Zoonoses among farmers in Ada‘a district, food safety among meat handlers of Bishoftu city and antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among 10 public University students in Ethiopia. Another study was also carried out to detect E. coli O157: H7 along the meat value chain in abattoirs and retail meat shops and of Bishoftu city and to assess the susceptibility profile of the isolates against 13 antibiotics using a standard disk diffusion method. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Accordingly, farmers with secondary school or above education background (OR= 6.8, CI=2.4 - 18.0, p <0.05), aged between 41 and 50 years (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.2, p<0.05), and good knowledge (OR=2.1, CI=1.3 - 3.5, p <0.05), and positive attitude (OR=7.8, CI=4.7 - 12.9, p <0.01) had better practices that reduce the risk of exposure to zoonotic infections than their counterparts. Most meat handlers had a good knowledge level, a positive attitude and poor food safety practices. In multivariable models, good knowledge was significantly (p<0.05) associated with older age; positive attitudes were associated with lower educational attainment and good knowledge; and good practices were associated with working experience in an abattoir and having received training on food safety. Students' birthplace was found to be significantly (p <0.01) associated with knowledge of students on AMU and AMR. Students with good knowledge had 3.9 times more positive attitudes than those with poor knowledge (OR = 3.9, CI = 3.0 -5.2, p < 0.01). Students from Veterinary medicine had 1.6 times better attitude than students from Helath Science and Non-Helath Science (OR = 1.6, CI=1.2- 2.1, p < 0.05). The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was found to be 3.6%. There was a significant difference in the occurrences of the pathogen among the sources of samples (p<0.05). The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that the isolates were found to be resistant to three commonly used drugs, tetracycline (100%), erythromycin (92.8%), and ampicillin (64.3%). However, all isolates were susceptible to azithromycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol. However, 85.8% of the isolates were found to be resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. In conclusion, this study revealed knowledge gaps, a low level of the desired attitude, and high-risk behavioral practices among farmers about the transmsioon of Zoonoses. The study revealed that there is an inadequate food safety practice among meat handlers; and E. coli O157:H7 was detected in abattoirs and butcher shops. Furtheromeore, there were critical gaps of knowledge, attitudes and practices among University students about antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the need for awareness creation about zoonotic disease transmission among farmers, regular hands-on training and enforcement of general and personal hygiene among meat handlers is recommended. Moreover, interventions to raise awareness about AMU and AMR should also target students majoring in fields other than health sciences.
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    Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Fish and Fish Products and Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Fish Handlers in Batu and Koka, Oromia, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Mikias Jufar; Prof. Bekele Megersa; Dr Marshet Adugna; Assist. Prof. Haile Alemayehu
    Fish and fishery product contribute to 17% of the global animal protein intake, but its contamination can cause food borne infections and constitute a risk to the public health. Across sectional study design was conducted comprising of field survey and laboratory analysis of fish samples from December 2022 to June 2023 in Koka and Batu towns. The aim of the study was to determine the bacterial load, detect common food borne pathogenic bacteria as well as to assess food safety knowledge, attitude and hygienic practices of fish and fish products. A total of 130 fish products were collected randomly from cooked (n= 20), frozen (n= 15), and fresh fish fillets (n= 65) as well as swab samples from hands, knife and filleting table (n=30). All collected samples were transported and analyzed at Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology Medical Microbiology laboratory of Addis Ababa University. Salmonella, E. coli, and S. aureus were detected by selective media and biochemical tests. Total viable bacterial count was assessed by using Plate Count Agar, whereas total Coliform count was determined by Violet Red Bile agar. The data were analyzed using STATA version 14 and descriptive statistics, Chi squared and one way ANOVA were employed to generate required information. The overall prevalence of E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella were 32.31%, 16.9% and 3.1% respectively. The mean of TPC from cooked, frozen and fresh fillets were 4.54, 5.91 and 7.55 log cfu/g respectively. The mean of TCC from cooked, frozen and fresh fillet were 3.67, 5.02 and 6.1 logcfu/g respectively. The mean of TPC and TCC showed above center for food safety standard level. The survey study revealed that 23.75%, 38.75%, and 51.25% of respondents had poor knowledge, negative attitudes, and poor hygienic practices of fish and fish products respectively.Similarly62.5% and 68.75% of participants had negative attitudes regarding consumption of raw and inadequately cooked fish, implying the potential health risk to consumers. Generally, the study showed detection of pathogenic bacteria and unacceptable bacterial load with unhygienic handling and processing of fish. Education and awareness creation regarding hygienic practice and risk of food borne disease is essential.
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    Investigation of Microbial Load, Selected Bacterial Pathogens, Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Antibiotic Residues of Backyard-Slaughtered Broilers Meat from Selected Farms in Bishoftu, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Misrak Netsere; Prof. Bekele Megerssa
    Broiler meat is a popular animal source food that can pose risks to human health as it may be contaminated with harmful microorganisms and antimicrobial residues. Investigations of those risks of broiler meat are limited in the study area. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out on selected Bishoftu farms, from January to July 2022, to investigate the microbial load, to isolate and identify selected bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance profile as well as detection and quantification of antibiotic residues of backyard broilers meat. A one hundred twenty broiler carcass samples were randomly collected and analyzed using TEMPO® for enumeration of microbial load, 3MTM Molecule for detection of Campylobacter, BIOLOG® for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella isolation and identification. The VITEK 2XL was used for antimicrobial resistance profiling, whereas a High-Performance Liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for the detection and quantification of antibiotic residues. This study has revealed, 120 (100%) E. coli and total aerobic bacteria, 114 (95 %) coliform, and 105 (87.5%) S. aureus contaminations found in the samples were above the limit of Ethiopian standard requirements. In all the farms at least one bacteria pathogen was detected with an overall ratio of Campylobacter 75 (62.5%), E. coli O157:H7 27 (22.5%) and Salmonella 20 (16.7%). Of the isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, 11 (40.7%) and 13 (65%) were multi-drug resistant with three extensively drug resistance (XDR) and one pan drug resistance (PDR) Salmonella isolates respectively. Regarding antibiotic residues, 4 (3.3%), 22 (18.3%), and 30 (25%) of the samples analyzed contained detectable levels of residues of sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin respectively, while none was detected with tetracycline residue. Among these, 26 (21.67%) and 1(0.8%) of the samples respectively had oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin residues above the EU Maximum Residue Limits. These indications of high pathogenic bacteria contamination and antibiotic residues with multi-drug resistance on broiler meats might be due to unregulated slaughter facilities and irrational veterinary antibiotic uses. To mitigate the health risks of consumers, the establishment of standard slaughterhouses, applications of food safety procedures and raising awareness in rational use of drugs for broiler meat producers are vital.