Isolation and Identification of Escherichia Coli K99 and Salmonella enterica from Diarrheic Calves in and around Awash Fentale District of Afar Region, Eastern Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


The current cross sectional study was conducted from December 2018 to September 2020 with the aim to isolate and identify E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica and associated risk factors for occurrence of these two pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 188 diarrheic calves aged up to 6 months from 150 households in Awash Fentale district Afar region, eastern Ethiopia. These samples were processed during the study period for the isolation and identification of E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica using culture media, biochemical tests, Pathasure kit and Biolog GEN III microplate. Out of 188 samples, 20.74% and 5.32% were found to be positive for E.coli K99 and Salmonella enterica respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica were also investigated using 12 commonly used antibiotics. All isolates from calves were susceptible (100%) to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cephalothin ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamycin and trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to identify significant risk factors associated with examined bacteria. Thus study showed that the occurrence of E.coli K99 in male calves was higher (25.27%) than in female calves (16.49%). This might be the reason that more care is given to female calves than male calves. Because female calves are needed by the pastoralist where compared with male calves for milk production. On the other hand age and colostrum feeding within 24 hours were significantly associated with Salmonella enterica shedding. Calf age was significantly associated with Salmonella enterica (P=0.014, OR=13.15, 95% CI=1.677-103.127). The highest occurrence of Salmonella enterica was recorded in the 61-120 days of age (13.79%) than 1-60 days of age (2.86%) and 121-180 days of age (10.53%) diarrheic calves. In conclusion, isolation and identification of bacteria and risk factors associated with the spreading of bacteria causing diarrhea may be helpful for construction of suitable methods for prevention and control.



Calf diarrhea, E. coli K99, Salmonella enterica, Culture, Isolation, Risk factors, Awash Fentale