Isolation and Identification of Salmonella species from Smallholder Broiler Chicken Farms and Their Antibiograms in Central Ethiopia: Its Implication for Public Health

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Addis Ababa University


Broiler meat is the second most widely consumed meat and it is one of the sources of zoonotic Salmonella serotypes. The study was assessed the occurrence of Salmonella isolates in smallholder broilers chickens and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Salmonella isolated from the study farms. From November 2020 to May 2021, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on smallholder broilers farms and slaughter house in Bishoftu and Modjo to assess the occurrences of Salmonella species and to detect their antimicrobial resistance pattern. From selected farms selected (two farms from each) a total of 289 samples (189 cloacal swab samples, 52 feed and 48 water samples) were collected from broilers farms whereas 100 cecal contents were collected from slaughtered chicken at Chico-Meat slaughter house in Bishoftu and 26.46 % of the cloacal samples, 21.00 % of the cecal contents, 30.77 % of the feed samples and 25.00 % of the water samples yielded Salmonella. Total of 389 samples were collected analyzed in the laboratory using standard bacteriological techniques and typical Salmonella colonies were further characterized by biochemical test. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was conducted using standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results of questionnaire survey showed that all farmers and attendants did not have knowledge about the occurrence of Salmonella in broilers. Overall 99 samples (25.45 %) were positive results for Salmonella. Of the samples collected from Bishoftu 43 of the 200 (21.50 %) were positive whereas 56 of the 189 (29.63 %) samples collected from Modjo were found positive. The effect of potential risk factors such as age ,breed, source of water ,type of house and farm location on the occurrence of Salmonella was assessed using logistic regression with odd ratio and breed was the only significantly (p < 0.05). The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the Salmonella isolates were resistance to Tetracycline (80 isolates, 80.81%), Kanamycin (71 isolates, 71.72%), Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin (67 isolates, 67.68%) whereas most of the isolates were susceptible to Gentamicin (69 isolates, 69.70%) and Erythromycin (40 isolates, 40.41%). The results of this study showed that Salmonella isolates in broiler and their inputs were resistant to most of antimicrobials used in medical and poultry practices. This has important implication for public health.



Antibiotics, Broilers, central Ethiopia, Resistance, Salmonella, Smallholders