Epidemiology and Economic Impact Of Foot and Mouth Disease of Cattle In Selected Districts Of Arsi and Bale Zone, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Raw beef consumption is time immemorial tradition in Ethiopia. However, unhygienic meat processing and distribution practices are risky to public health. A cross sectional study was carried out from December 2021 to May 2022 to investigate the occurrence and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance pattern of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from slaughterhouses and butcher shops in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia. A total of 352 samples (120 fecal, 92 beef cut, and 140 environmental swab) were collected and processed. The isolation and identification process involved the selective enrichment in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with Novobiocin, plating on MacConkey, Eosin methylene blue and Cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, biochemical testing (IMViC test), followed by latex agglutination test. The isolates were tested for resistance profile to 13 antimicrobial agents using the standard disk diffusion method. Accordingly, of 352 samples, 14 (3.97%) were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7 serotype; of which, 28.6% (4/14), 21.4% (3/14), and 50% (7/14) were from fecal, beef and environmental swab samples respectively. A significant difference in the occurrences of the pathogen was observed among the sources of sample (p=0.028). Antimicrobial susceptibility test results indicated that 100%, 92.8%, and 64.3% resistance were developed against tetracycline, erythromycin and ampicillin respectively. All E. coli O157:H7 isolates were found to be susceptible to azithromycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7 isolates, 12 (85.8%) were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Unhygienic processing and poor sanitary practices were also noted by observational checklist among personnel in slaughterhouses and butcher shops. In conclusion, the study indicated that the occurrences of multiple antimicrobial resistant E. coli O157:H7 in the beef is strongly associated with the current beef processing and distribution practices. Therefore, an appropriate slaughter hygiene, more stringent regulation in the use of antimicrobials in human and animals, and risk based control measures, are recommended to afeguard the public health.



Antimicrobials,E. coli O157:H7, Beef, Butcher shop, Cross- contamination