Archaeology and Heritage Management

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    Accessibility of Museum Collections for Visitors with Disability: A Case of Three Selected Museum in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Abeba Universty, 2022-02-01) Abrham Tesfaye; Kassaye Begashaw (PhD)
    Throughout the world, the cultural and educational roles of museums are growing. But many museums do not carefully consider people with disabilities as their visitors, for their buildings and communication accessibilities are very limited in designing museums for all people. However, in this regard, the overall conditions of the Ethiopian museums are hardly studied. Having this in mind, this study adopted case study research design and explored three museums found in Addis Ababa, namely Ethiopian National Museum, Institute of Ethiopian Studies Museum and Addis Ababa Museum, in relation to their accessibilities to disabled visitors, and compliance with universal design principles targeting disabled museum visitors. To this end, the research employed a multi-method approach to gather appropriate data, including site survey /observation, interviewing, photographing, analysis of secondary sources directed at gathering facts regarding the experiences and viewpoints of existing museum visitors with disabilities, and museum professionals; multiple aspects of disability access, such as physical accessibility, inclusive exhibition design, and communication accessibility in each selected museum. Consequently, the findings of the research show that the three museums comply reasonably well when it comes to approachability of their buildings. On the other hand, the findings of this study reveal that the facilities and services provided by the three museums investigated were not designed to benefit people with disabilities. The result of the study also shows that the physical contexts of the three museums’ exhibition spaces are not well planned and constructed to satisfy people with disability in terms of learning with convenience. In addition, the research found that the three museums investigated are not fully inclusive in creating a place and environment where the disabled visitors can access museum objects for several purposes, including education. For instance, none of the three museums have provisions for communication in sign language, Braille, tactile representations of some objects to make learning easier for hearing impaired and visually impaired visitors respectively. Thus, the research concludes that the three museums investigated are below average in light of fulfilling the requirements of accessibility guidelines, and being compliant with the Principle of Universal Design. Finally, this research recommends that the stated three museums and their stakeholders should carefully consider what they can do within their own limitations for disabled museum visitors to make each museum ameliorate its physical and communication barriers for disabled visitors and be inclusive. In addition, it is suggested that the three museums should adopt universal design principles, particularly as they relate to accessibility and usability requirements while retrofitting the existing ones.
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    A Study of the Ethiopian National army Museum
    (Addis Abeba Universty, 2023-06-01) Bergene Baleso; Kassaye Begashaw (PhD)
    Museum history and collection management is one of the important processes for museums to be successful in their mission. It refers to the process of managing museum collections properly and increasing of effectiveness of the museums. It is the systematic mechanisms that regulate the museum collections to play towards the achievement of organizational goals. Ethiopian National Army Museum since its foundation in imperial Haile Selassie has over the years tried to accomplish a lot of objectives in its activities. The overall goal of this thesis is to conduct a study of the National Army Museum and to investigate the history and, functions of Museum documentation and collection management. The research approaches employed include both qualitative and quantitative research. The essential information was gathered from both primary and secondary sources, and it was thoroughly reviewed and interpreted. Questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, and observation were used to collect data for this. The primary results are that museum collection management, museum role; discontinuities, representation, legal frameworks, community participation, museum services, and organizational structure fall short of the intended norm set by (ICOM, and ICCROM). This study suggests that museum history and collection management be run and managed by professionals who carry out their duties in accordance with the basic principles of effective museum collection management policy and guidelines. As long as stringent and effective museum policies and guidelines are implemented, the National Army Museum will eventually be able to build proper standards of museum history and collection administration. As a result, the Ethiopian Army troops and the general public receive suitable, effective, and goal-oriented service.
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    Cooperation and Conflict Management Mechanisms among the People of Kalu, North Eastern Ethiopia
    (AAU, 1995-06) Argaw, Demeke; K.Mohapatra, S
    The study area, Kalu, is found in North central highland massif of Ethiopia and on the upper part of the rift valley depression. The Kalu are Amharic speaking people whom they share common boundary with Oromo, Argoba and Afar ethnic groups. The study area selected based on its location is on the main road from Addis Abeba northern Ethiopia Dessie, Mekele and the Afar depression in which the movement of people is too high. The Woreda shares common boundaries with the Argoba, Oromo and Afar Ethnic groups where ethnic interaction has its own effect in the traditional conflict management. Furthermore, most of the population in the Woreda is Muslim where the Islamic religion is believed to have its own contribution to the development of the indigenous institutions of conflict resolutions. In this regard, the Woreda is one of the centers of Islam in the country. I conducted the field work in the Woreda with an objective of examining traditional cooperation and customary conflict management mechanisms within the community. The people have age old tradition of cooperation and customary conflict management mechanisms. In the descriptive study of cooperation and customary conflict management of the Woreda and social, economic and political structure of the people is assessed. The traditional cooperation aspects reflect the mutual support and self help mechanisms while the customary conflict management institutions are the legal system mechanisms out of the court. Furthermore, the study focuses on the major mechanisms of traditional cooperation such as Debo, Azmach, Ertiban, Elf and other major institutions of cooperation. In addition, family, Shimglina and traditional mediators are adequately assessed as institutions of conflict management out of the court system. Finally, the customary conflict management mechanism among the people of Kalu is based on the public opinion, cultural consensus and religious beliefs. In other words, the conflict management mechanisms are basically interrelated with the social, economic and political conditions of the rural agricultural community. The customary conflict management mechanisms of the people of Kalu consider other conflict resolution mechanisms of the horn and Ethiopia studied by other Anthropologists.
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    Forest Management From Local Knowledge, Institutions And Livelihood Perspectives: A Case Of Belete -Gera Forest In Southwestern Oromia Region, Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2010-06) Merga, Disasa; Berisso, Taddesse(Dr
    This study deals with forest management from the perspectives of local knowledge and institutions in relation to the livelihood of local people with particular reference to Balate Gera Forest Priority Area of Jim a Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. By using material from Ganji-caalla ofGera district, the paper attempted to address the role of local knowledge and institutions in forest management in relation to livelihood of the local p eople. The study was based on the field research conducted in Gera district for two solid months ranging from 21 December 2009 to 21 February 2010. Different tools of data gathering mechanisms were employed: structured and unstructured interviews, focused group discussions, observation and survey were utilized in order to obtain relevant and reliable data. The data were analyzed qualitatively employing conceptual ji-ameworks of political ecology and common property theories. The qualitative analysis of the study revealed that knowledge of local people about the values of fo rest and forest management was incredible. They were well aware of ecological, economic and socio-cultural values of forest in the study area. The study also indicated that customary institutions of the local people have played a great role in forest management. In the study area, the experience of charcoal burning, cutting live trees for fire wood, and extraction of timber were very minimal. However, local people have been utilizing forest resources for subsistence domestic uses cautiously and selectively. Traditional leadership set ups such as abbaa lagaa and shanee were still active and played great role in resource management and other social affctirs like conflict resolution. Above all, findings .!i'·om this study implied the importance of considering existing customary institutions, respecting ownership rights of forest resources users and reducing the role of government to technical support and some aspects of administration for sustainable forest management. Future researches should be directed to how the existing customGlY institutions will be fostered into fo rest management institutions in collaborating with the local government institutions and non-governmental organizations that have interests to work with the local people respecting their customary institutions.
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    Assement of the Organijation and Mangement of Functional Adult Literacy Program in Selected Woredas of West Harerghe Zone of Oromia
    (Addis Ababa Universty, 2012-06) Kumsa, Ayele; Ingidayehu, Yalew
    The study was intended to assessing The Organization And Management Of Functional Adult Literacy Program in Selected Woredas of West Harerghe Zone of Oromia. In the study, a descriptive survey method was used. Six Woredas were selected by purposive samplin method. From the six (6) Woredas, six FAL centers together with 1 faCilitators, J Woredas Adult Education boarded and technical Committee (AEB'f, ') and 7 Zone (AE8J', ') were selected by purposive sampling technique. In addition, 78(52.6)( 42 male trainees and 36 f emale) trainees were included using proportional stratified folLo wed by simple random sampling technique to supplement the data gained from the practitioners. uestionnaire, interviews, observation, as well as document revie'w were used to gather data and enricli the study. Data analysis was made by using percentile, chi square lest, t-te t and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS of version 15. The finding ' revealed cU/pnt conditions and major factors related to organization and management of FALP offered in FAL centers. The respondents, nonetheless, listed a number of constraints like: lnadequa }' of resources (finance, human, and materials),' lack of faCilitators training, lack of facilitators recruitment fr0111 community, lack of clear and convel/ient or anizational strIfetures absence of income generation mec.:hanisms, lack of qllalified tmind faCilitators, private resistance for the establishment of FAL training program, un willingness to send family members to the FAL centers, religions problem to attend ." 'ALP, unde;' valuing fun 'lional adult literacy program, lack of non gmernment support at [til, lack of e"alu((tion materials based on quality standard out comes, lad of follow lip the (Ictivities of c.:oncerned 'ector on FALP implementation were some of th2 hil1drances re'. ealed in the stlldy. Thus, the 'e problems made organization and management of FALP ·0 be incapable of meeting their purposes and the interests of disadvantages adults al :d you'lL'. it i ', therefore, recoll1mended that the Oromia Education beuros, Zone and W.Jreda A.EBTC mell1bers and diffe rent concerned sectors have to make maximum possi:)le efforts to /I1obilize all re 'ources, stakeholders and institutions under them to rel'erse the current situati:Jn of FALP organization and management in FAL centers.
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    Human-Environment Interactions in the Bale Mountains During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs: Anthracological Study
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-08) Tarekegn, Tefera; Beldados (PhD), Alemseged
    This thesis presents results of the analysis of the anthracological remains excavated from 10 archaeological sites located in the Bale Mountains. These sites yielded hundreds of anthracological remains collected from the early LSA occupation phase to the early arrival of pastoral phase in the BM covering a period between ~15-0ka cal. BP. The aims of the present study are: to reconstruct firewood collection strategies used by the prehistoric group in the Bale Mountains, to investigate the nature of vegetation history, to shed new light on the poorly understood environmental conditions during human occupation phases in the Bale Mountains, and to understand interactions between past humans and their environment in African high-altitude ecozones. The anthracological investigation was conducted on a total of 565 charcoal macro-remains obtained from various excavated sites. From the samples, a total of 366 anthracological samples were identified in their respective taxa from which seven different plant spices were documented. The recorded taxa include Erica arborea (n=90), Myrsine africana (n=82), Solanum giganteum (n=51), Artemisia afra (n=47), Hagenia abyssinica (n=44), Hypericum revolutum (N=31) and Juniperus procera (n=21) The results of antrhacological analysis show the presence of varied vegetation cover and environmental conditions in the sites located along the plateau and northern escarpments of the BMs. The finding of this study also demonstrates that prehistoric hunter-gatherers used different ecological zones very variably; the aforementioned plant types namely, Erica arborea, Myrsine africana, Solanum giganteum, Artemisia afra, Hagenia abyssinica, Hypericum revolutum, and Juniperus procera were also available as fire woods.
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    An Investigation of Later Stone Age Lithic Assemblages from Laga Oda Rock shelter, Southeastern Ethiopia
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-09) Asrat, Seminew; Derara (PhD), Worku
    The Laga Oda rock shelter stands among the key sites in Ethiopia yielding evidence of LSA lithic assemblages. Despite an initial preliminary report in the 1970s, a more detailed and state-of-the art techno-typological and attribute analysis of the recovered LSA lithic assemblages remains limited. This study examined the LSA lithic assemblage (n=563) of the Laga Oda rock shelter using techno-typological and attribute features and provided insight into the behavioral, technological, subsistence, and occupation nature of prehistoric populations of southeastern Ethiopia. Various distinct typologies of LSA artifacts with retouch and none-retouch elements including flakes, cores, flake fragments, backed pieces, scrapers, denticulate, and burins have been documented. The lithic technology and morphologies of the assemblages suggest production techniques might have involved multiple type of percussions including bi-polar, hard hammer, soft hammer as well indirect percussion. Particularly, the study reveals backed pieces (n=203) are the most significant portion of the whole assemblages retaining unique technological features. The comparisons of Laga Oda backed pieces with other contemporaneous sites of Goda Buticha and Mochena Borago revealed both similarities and variations in technological and typological aspects of the LSA assemblage during the Middle and Late Holocene. The rock shelter and the eastern side of the rift escarpment may also have acted as a sporadic refugium during alternating warm and cool periods of the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-1.
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    An Investigation of the Archaeobotanical Remains from the Site of Harlaa, Eastern Ethiopia (Mid-6th–15th Centuries AD)
    (Addis ababa university, 2021-10) Hussien, Endris; Beldados (PhD), Alemseged
    The archaeology of Islamic Ethiopia has been fundamentally understudied until recently, and the archaeobotany specifically has been largely neglected. This archaeobotanical investigation is part of a wider archaeological research project called “Becoming Muslim”, which began work at the site of Harlaa, since 2015. The archaeological evidence from Harlaa confirms the immense importance of the site, which was an important commercial, residential, and industrial quarters between the mid-6th and 15th centuries AD. A total of 230.04 liters of soil samples during the 2016 to 2020 field seasons were collected through excavation, which are the focus of this study, with the aim of looking: at the food economy of the inhabitants, diversity and distribution of floral resources, and the environmental history of the study area. More than 718 plant remains were identified, and were grouped as cereals, legumes, oil plants, weedy plants, woods and Poaceae based on their primary use and morphological character. The finding indicates that the historic Harlaa peoples had developed food-crops-based subsistence strategy from the mid-6th to early 15th centuries AD. Based on the data recovered, it is possible to see that most of the food crops recovered at Harlaa are Middle Eastern, and are similar with the food crops of the northern highlands. Secondary sources indicate that cash crops (such as khat and coffee) were amongst the widely cultivated plants introduced to the region at a later date, probably after Harlaa was abandoned in the 15th century. The archaeobotanical data, however, is devoid of remains related to khat and coffee.
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    “An Assessment of the Ethnographic Museum of Wollega”
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-11) Alemayehu, Solomon; Gobezie (PhD), Mengistu
    An Assessment of the Ethnographic Museum of Wollega Several researches have been conducted on the museums of Ethiopia. Research on the Wollega Museum, the subject under study is very minimal. Wollega Museum has not been touched adequately by researchers. Since museum is vital human treasure in all countries in the 21st century, the status of museums should be adequately evaluated; whether they meets national as well as internationally set standards. In the case of Ethiopia, concerns to the cultural institutions in general and to the museums in particular has given less attention in government structures as compared to other public institutions. Museums have a real power to teach the society about everything of the past and also create a link between the past and the present. Everybody can contemplate and think to put her/his history in the museum where every cultures and identities displayed and communicates. Based on these and other issues regarding the museum under study, the researcher has set an objective on the identified problems that initiated him for the study. The overall objective of this study is to assess the general status of Wollega Museum. The assessment has been made on overall of the museum‟s category of collection, documentation, conservation, exhibition and its management and also the museum standard. It also aims at exploring the challenges and opportunities of the museum under study and suggesting possible solutions to the identified gaps. Qualitative research method has been applied to address the objectives of the research. Data collecting techniques and tools are those appropriate to the qualitative research method such as, interview and observation are applied as the basic methods of data collecting tools. The collected data has been analyzed and interpreted to address the objective of the study. After all the data has been interpreted recommendations has been made to suggest possible solutions based on the findings. The key findings are: 1) The museum has meet the standard of museum establishment proclamation criteria, established according to the legislation of the Ethiopian Museums, but the Wollega Museum has not given attention on the administrative part of the museum. 2) The museum by its collection is not only an ethnography museum, it seems the general museum and its rank is on the 1st level. But, due to mal administration of the local authority, it is below the standards set for the museum in terms of management and professional personnels. As a result, recommendations for possible solutions has been forwarded for the concerning body.
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    The Role of Oromo Ethnographic Museum in Promoting Social Interaction and Generation Building
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-06) Beyene, Tujuba; Burka(Dr), Temesgen
    This study examined the roles Oromo Ethnographic Museum in promoting social interaction and building strong generation in terms of creating rational, democratic, responsible and respectful citizens through its material culture. The objectives of the thesis were examining the collection, organization management and presentation of the museum, examining the accessibility of the museum, assessing the extent to which the museum’s collection promotes social interaction and generation building and Identifying the potential challenges of the museum and forward recommendations. It also answers the questions what does the collection, organization, management and presentation of the museum look like ?, what enabling environments does the museum have to play its roles properly ?, how powerful meanings are the museum’s collections, employing to promote social interaction ? And build the capacity of the generation and what are the challenges hindering the museum for meeting its purpose?. In order to address the questions different data collection techniques were employed and data were gathered through data collection instruments: unstructured observation, in-depth interviews and questionnaire. An analysis was made in terms of number, quality and words so as to have a clear picture of the museum object. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were employed to analyze data. Data collected through interviews and observations were analyzed qualitatively. The study reveals that the Oromo Ethnographic Museum is in a position to strengthen/promote interaction among the residents of the region and to help build a generation that acknowledges the values and culture of the Gadaa system.
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    Museum Collections and Management: A Case of Addis Ababa Museum
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-05) Taye, Eshetu; Begashaw (Ph. D), Kassaye
    The museum collection management is one of the important processes for museums to be successful in their mission. It refers to the process of managing museum collections properly and increasing of effectiveness of the museums. It is the systematic mechanisms which regulates the museum collections to play towards the achievement of organizational goals. Addis Ababa Museum since its foundation in 1986 has over the years tried to accomplish a lot of objectives in its activities. The museum collection management is not on the position from the expectations to be as the municipal museum. Up to now few researchers have dealt with the issues concerning the collection management of the museum. The general objective of this study is to assess the current status of the museum collections and management by examining the effectiveness of the current status of museum collection management in comparison with the required standard of museum management. The methodologies used to conduct the research are both qualitative and quantitative research. The necessary data were collected from both primary and secondary sources which are carefully analyzed and interpreted. To gather with this the appropriate data tools used are: questionnaires, interviews and observation. The scope of this thesis is entirely limited to the reach the experiences of the museum collection management in the context of the Addis Ababa Museum. The key findings are the museum collection management is below the expected standard set by (ICOM, ICCROM) in the level of museum collection management, representation, legal frameworks, community engagement, museum services and organizational structure. This research recommends that the museum collection management should be run and managed by professionally who should perform their tasks by following the basic principles of effective museum collection management policy and guidelines. As long as strict and proper museum policy and guidelines are put in place, it will ultimately help Addis Ababa museum develop proper standard of the museum collection management. The result leads to the appropriate, effective and goal oriented service that satisfies the general public.
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    The Palace of Guzara And its Environs: its Heritage Management and Conservation
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-11) Endris, Kedir; Begashaw (PhD), Kassaye
    The Palace of Guzara and its Environs: its Heritage Management and Conservation Kedir Endris Addis Ababa University, 2018 Ethiopia is both fortunate and unfortunate as far as Cultural Heritage Management is concerned. It is fortunate because the country at large and the study area in particular are home for various heritages. Unfortunately, it is very unfortunate that we are unable to take care of our spectacular cultural heritages. As a result, they are all in a deplorable state which could be totally damaged soon unless immediate action is devised. The problem is becoming intense as these heritages are not adequately researched, documented, conserved, and promoted. The study assessed the management and conservation of Guzara Palace and its surrounding monuments, located in the Woredas of Gonda Zuria and Libo Kemkem, Amhara National Regional state, North West Ethiopia. To attain the objective of the research, seven heritages namely, the Palace of Guzara, Dil Amba Giorgis Church, Gobatit Dildey, Debsan/Debresan Gemb, Bahri Gemb, Debre Mitmak Cave Church, and Washa Endrias Cave Church were selected purposely based on the objective of the research. In order to collect data, the researcher conducted serious field observation, and field survey. And, field data recording tools were also used to collect information on the field. Interview was also employed to collect data (23 informants were selected purposely). Additionally, the researcher has also consulted secondary sources from previous researches, books, internet sources, and regional and Wereda’s documents. To analyze the gathered data, qualitative method was used. The finding of the study shows that all of the selected monuments of the study area are in a deplorable state. The study reveals that both man-made and natural-made hazards were the cause for the deterioration of the heritages. This is due to the less attention given for the protection, preservation, and conservation of the monuments by the government. This shows that Heritage Management activity in the study area is negligible. Hence, immediate preservation and conservation measures are crucial to keep the resources from any threat, to use it for sustainable development and transfer to the next generation
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    Documentation of Cultural Landscapes in Welkait Woreda: Western Tigray, North Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-11) Demis, Yilikal; Beldados, Alemseged(PhD)
    This study was conducted in Welkait Woreda, Western Tigray in particular the heritage sites of Bete Mulu, the Burials of Women (“Weyzazirt Mekabir”), Ona Eyesus Church, Zuwa Kidne Mihret Church, May Gaba Mikael, and Medhanialem Holy Water. The main objective of this study is to document the cultural values and history of these sites for the purpose of heritage management and possibly tourism development. To achieve the stated objectives, the researcher designed a proper methodology which includes both primary and secondary data sources. The primary data was collected through pedestrian survey, interview and field observation from these study sites. To support the primary data, secondary data was also collected and all were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, the research has involved more of qualitative than quantitative method. Purposive (judgmental) sampling techniques were employed in order to select the study sites and respondents within the study area. During the study, a total of 8 tumuli, 3 churches, a Castle, and Holy Water sites were identified. The burial tradition in this area was also compared with other sites in the country and the region. Accordingly, it is observed that there is a similarity and continuity of the tradition in terms of the material composition, shape and spatial coverage. Ruined churches and medieval structures were also documented for the first time. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that creating community awareness, establishing sufficient infrastructural conditions, and continuous promotion of the area should be the focus done by the concerned authority. This paper also recommends that participation and coordination of all concerned bodies and stake holders is imperative in supporting and conserving the unique landscape values of the study area
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    A Survey of Rock Hewn Churches in Mäqet Warada, Northern Wallo
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-06) Ebabey, Tsegaye; Begashaw, Kassaye(PhD)
    The rock hewn churches of Mäqét roughly cover the time between the 4th and 14th centuries A.D based on traditional sources. This dating is not reliable without tangible archeological sources and future researches are expected to provide archaeological sources to discuss the detail of their chronology. The churches are cave and monolithic hewn rocks in type. No built up churches are found in the Wäräda. The tradition of the Wäräda is cave oriented which might be influenced by the nature and setting of the rocks in which the churches are hewed. These churches are hidden behind the escarpments, mountains or hills of Mäqét. They are built in the inaccessible areas of Mäqét that isolated the churches from heritage managers and researchers. They have common and unique architectural features and cultural heritages. The churches are recognized by their unique architectures, locally produced hand craft materials, and by other essential movable treasures in many of the churches. The architectures of the churches resemble dominantly indigenous technologies. The tradition of the Wäräda is claimed to be the base for the later rock hewn church development of the country, by recognizing the churches as parts of the early Aksumite Christian traditions. Suspiciously, there are some features such as basilica styles and domes which might be adapted from the early Byzantine Christian traditions probably introduced by Abunä Musé. The churches have intangible heritages which are significant by their spiritual, socio-cultural and economic manifestations of the people which need future detail studies. Despite this, the heritage management and tourism activities of the churches are challenged by both natural and anthropogenic related problems. This research indicated the need of further detail studies concerning the management and conservation of these churches
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    An Ethonarchaeological Study of Pottery Production in Tigray: The Case of Saharti Samre and Hintalo Wajirat Districts
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-06) Asefa, Tilahun; Burka, Temesgen(PhD)
    It has been described that little is done on ethnoarchaeological investigation of pottery crafts in Ethiopia. Furthermore, except some attempts made in Hintalo-wajirat, detailed ethnoarchaeological study on pottery production in Saharti-Samre and Hintalo-Wajirat districts of Tigray region has not been conducted so far. Thus, the purpose of this study was to document the over all aspects of pottery production from ethnoarchaeological perspective so as to gain better understanding of pottery in the archaeological record. To achieve this, purposive sampling technique was employed to select both samples of pottery making villages and sample of informants. The data gathered through survey, observation and interview were analyzed qualitatively. Accordingly, the results of this study revealed that clay and sand are the basic elements for pottery making across the selected villages. In the study area pottery production is generally performed through various processes beginning from raw material procurement to paste preparation, forming and shaping, making decoration, drying, polishing and firing. Though some difference and similarities are observable in some of the stated processes among potters of the selected villages, none of these differences reflect variation in ethnicity as all potters of the selected villages belong to the same ethnic group. However, the presence of similarities in some aspects indicates the prevalence of socio-cultural contact among the artisans of the different villages. Since most activities are performed in the compound of the potters, firing pits with debris of ash, fragments of pots and toolkits employed to perform various steps of pottery making could be left in the compound of potters. Furthermore, pots could be broken and discarded outside production areas at market places and households of consumers. Thus, this study suggests that production areas, market places and households of consumers could become sources of archaeological site formation in Saharti-Samre and Hintalo- Wajirat districts
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    Current Practices and Challenges of Addis Ababa Museum
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-03) Birhane, Solomon; Teffera, Zelalem(PhD)
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and to identify the current practices and challenges of Addis Ababa Museum. The finding of this paper will show when and how the museum was opened. The nature of current practices and its challenges are going to be addressed in this study. The number of Ethiopian and foreign visitors and amount of money generated will be clearly seen in the finding of this study. Moreover, the significance of museums to the general public in promoting culture, identity, history and economy will be discussed. Data will be collected in terms of interview, questionnaire, personal observation, photographs, archives and other means. Purposeful sampling will be used to select informants and individuals who are going to fill the questionnaire will be selected through random sampling. The finding of this study will recommend many stockholders to contribute their share in order to solve some challenges that are affecting the museum so that the country can generate good income from it
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    Significance of Melka Kunture Prehistoric Site for Sustainable Tourism Development of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-11) Kebede, Solomon; Hagos, Tekle(Ato)
    This study documents the importance of archeological sites of Melka Kunture and its environs. To deal with this issue, the qualitative method and descriptive approaches are employed using interviews, questioners, personal observations and related literature reviews. Due to the nature of the data purposive sampling was preferred to gather data from purposely selected key informant groups to meet the objective of the study. As the result of this thesis, indicates, the possible establishment of integrated archeological and cultural sites within the proposed corridor would bring significant positive impact in the development of sustainable tourism. Among all findings, the proximity of the archeological site to the capital city, as well as the presence of closely located archeological and paleontological localities, the Open Air Museum, the natural resource sites in the wide area, as well as the flourishing living cultural qualities of the Oromo people and the natural habitat are taken as the major findings of this thesis. At present compared to many other archeological sites, Melka Kunture archeological site is considered to be in a better position. Based on its proximity to the capital city and the frequent visit by researchers from abroad this research paper thoroughly discussed issues related to the need to formulate strategies for sustainable tourism development that benefits the local community. Possibly this would help propel the development of rural tourism, cultural industry as well as preserve the indigenous heritage of the local community. The paper deals with such an institutional development in the locality would provide opportunities for local and international researcher to respond and to overcome problems associated with the absence of sustainable tourism development. Therefore, the various sections of the community, Non-Governmental Organizations and the government should properly focus on conducting critical researches, capacity building and appropriate interventions by using integrative approaches developing heritage sites to meet international standards
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    An Archaeological Survey of Islamic Shrines in Jimma Zone, South western Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-06) Merga, Seyoum; Burka, Temesgen(PhD)
    Islamic shrines are a sanctuary devoted to Muslim saints and used for ritual practices. As defined by Braukamper.U (2002), shrine is any man made sanctuary (sometimes associated with natural objects) devoted to a Muslim saint (wali). The custom of venerating saints and visiting their shrines is a common phenomena found in the Muslim world (Ishihara 2009). In Ethiopia, the presences of several shrines are typical proofs of the existence of a deep rooted tradition of venerating saints among the Muslim people. Islamic shrines in Ethiopia are not only a religious place, but are also important depositors of the pre-Islamic cultures of the indigenous communities (Trimingham 1965; Hussein 1994; Braukamper 2002; Kassaye 2009). Hence, Islamic shrines are important heritages used to understand cultural changes and continuities of the past and the present. However, due to the past socio-political and historical marginalization of Islam in Ethiopia, Islamic shrines have been studied very little. The previous researches conducted on Islamic shrines have been geographically and thematically limited. Consequently, shrines in the historically prominent Muslim lands (the five Gibe states) of the present day Jimma zone remained unstudied. Therefore, this paper presents archaeological survey research conducted on the Islamic shrine sites of Jimma zone. The study identified and documented two Islamic shrines namely; shrines of Sadeqiyo and Abba Arabu, located in Sokoru district and around Jimma town respectively. The shrines, being located near the former economic and administrative sites; have great significance to understand the history of Islamic relation with the past political and economic scenario of the area. In addition to this, the pre-Islamic Oromo cultural and ritual traditions are well preserved in the two shrines of Jimma zone. Albeit scholars such as Terje Ostebo (2009) claimed the ‘Islamaization of the pre-Islamic Oromo cultures’, the ritual performances conducted at the shrines of Arabu and Sadeqiyo, clearly indicates the ‘Oromization of Islamic religion’. Moreover, the shrines have actual and potential economic, scholastic, and cultural significances. Despite this fact, the shrines are presently endangered from deliberate anthropogenic actions as well as natural factors
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    Stakeholder Engagement at the National Museum of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-04) Mekonnen, Nigussu; Burka, Temesgen(PhD)
    The main objective of this study was to investigate the status of stakeholder engagement practice at the “NME”. A renewed interest in stakeholder engagement approaches has been identified, as organizations experience increasing pressures with regard to social accountability and transparency. The subject is of particular interest within the public sector, where involving stakeholder views into decision- making is becoming a crucial part of museum governance strategies. This study engages with very topical subject and aims to explore the value of stakeholder engagement practices in museums. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed to enhance the completion of this study. The data collection involved 7 in-depth semi-structured interviewees, 216 questionnaire and critical observation. The collected data from questionnaire was incorporated with the interviews for triangulation purposes. The overall data analysis was conducted via a systematic content analysis approach for qualitative data where as the quantitative data was analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The study’s findings revealed that the “NME’’ must take seriously its stakeholder engagement practice as its core activities and to open its door for all stakeholder groups. In light of this, the main conclusions to be drawn from this study revealed that stakeholder engagement practice plays a vital role at the “NME” enabling it to successfully adapt itself to the current trends of stakeholder engagement approaches. The study adds its own share to the scarce literature regarding stakeholder engagement in the museum sector of the country in general and the “NME” in particular.
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    Techno Typological Analysis of Developed Oldowan Early Acheulean Assemblages from Garba IV C and D, Melka Kunture (Upper Awash), Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Gitaw, Niguss; Beldados, Alemseged(PhD)
    This thesis conceives of an analysis of Early Stone Age collections from Melka Kunture, particularly at Garba IV levels C and D. They were excavated between 1972 to 1985 and are today stored at the Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage. In spite of ongoing researches conducted at these localities, raw material influence on the knapping process of the knappers and the technological features of the previously nominated artifact traditions called “Developed Oldowan” is poorly understood. Methodologies like typological classification, measurement of the technological axis, width, depth and so forth, identification of raw material, understanding of thickness evennes along the technological line of artifacts were employed to address the problem. The production techniques were influenced by the type of raw material. Although large flake productions are not large in number, their appearance is an essential indicator about the emergence of the Acheulean. The low number of Large Cutting Tools is determined by the original size of the unworked material. On account of this, not only frequency of Large Cutting Tools, but also understanding various technological innovations of an artifact has been found to be important in characterizing Early Acheulean site. Therefore, the artifact tradition called “Developed Oldowan” was not understood to be independet technologicaly. It, rather, bears an evidence of technological similarities with the Early Acheulean