Educational Leadership and Management

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    The Practice and Challenges of Continous Professional Development in Selected Secondary Schools of Kolfe Keranio Sub-City.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-09) Goitom Birhane; Zenebe Baraki (PhD)
    This study was designed to assess the practices and challenges of continuous professional development in secondary schools of kolfe Keranio sub city, Addis Ababa. To be successful in the study three basic questions were raised. The research design employed in the study was descriptive survey. The research method employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The sampling techniques employed were purposive, availability and simple random sampling. Accordingly since the number schools are few in number all the seven secondary schools were selected. The sample size was 165 teachers, 13 principals,19 department heads’, 5 schools’ CPD facilitators, with the total of 202 participants out of 764 study populations . The data gathering tools were both primary sources such as questionnaires for teachers and department heads, interview for principals CPD facilitators, and sub city experts, and secondary sources includes portfolios and document analysis. The participants of interview were principals, vice principals, CPD facilitators, and sub city experts. Questionnaire was administered to 259 teachers and department heads where 78% of them were properly filled and returned. Then, the information gathered through closed-ended questionnaire was analyzed using percentage and mean score while the information gathered through interview and open-ended questions were narrated qualitatively. Results of document analysis were also described. The findings of the study indicated that the extent of teachers practices of professional development activities such as mentoring, portfolio development, conducting action researches, facilitating group discussions ,peer observations, and evaluating the overall successes and failures of the implementation processes were implemented inadequately not considering as owns responsibility. The school principals, professional development focal persons, head teachers, sub city supervisors were providing no support for the teachers. and no allocation of budget. The major challenges identified were, COVID ,wrong perceptions on CPD by teachers (politicize the program) lack of sufficient office for the newly established schools, lack of training manuals, irrelevance and un clarity of the available training manuals, lack of trained facilitators, no supports provided for teachers growth, and school systems were not in the way that can satisfy the training needs of teachers for the good performance, lack of interest on the program from sub city to teachers. The effects of the CPD program in the daily activities of teachers were found discouraging. To overcome the challenges encountered, recommendations have been forwarded. These includes: All stakeholders need to reach common understanding, the program needs to be modernized, reformed and restructured the program. The necessity of CPD must be discussed and reach in to mutual understanding of all stakeholders, orienting teachers in advance with the overall contents of the professional growth, motivating teachers to willingly take more responsibilities in the implementation process, employing trained facilitators and supervisors, and allocation of sufficient resources to effectively achieve the intended goals.
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    Analysing the Factors of Internal Efficiency in Government Secondary Schools of Amaro Kore Zone in South Ethiopia Region
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-09) Minalu Tilahun; Jeilu Umar (PhD)
    The general objective of this study was to analyze the factors of internal efficiency in governmental secondary schools of Amaro kore zone in South Ethiopia Region. The study endeavors to identify the major causes that may affect internal efficiency positively or negatively, and recommend the possible remedy that enhance secondary educational efficiency of the zone. To achieve these objective mixed approach with explanatory design were implemented. The quantitative data was collected from students, teachers and school principals by using purposive sampling, because these subjects were the most related with the issues. Parents were selected using purposive sampling whereas, four secondary schools were selected randomly. The zone trend of dropout and repetition rate of secondary schools was showing fluctuating with varying increase and decrease over the years but it ended up with an increasing trend in grade twelve analyzed from document. Based on the research finding, some of the major factors causing for students’ dropout and repetition rate were divided in to five categories and they are listed in the causing order from the most savior to less; school related factors, the second category is teacher related, the third factor was parent related, the fourth factor was student related; and the fifth category was geographical factors. In order to eliminate these challenging, the researcher suggests the following remedies: in order to enhance parent literacy and awareness raising program; enhanced schools’ facilities and resources and limiting the student’s involvement in family work were the major ones. Finally, all Woreda and zone education office workers, school based supervisors, school’s administrators, teachers and parents have to work hard and provide serious follow up to make schools show continuous trend in decreasing student dropout and repetition rate.
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    The Relationship between School Feeding and Academic Achievement of Students: The Case of Selected Primary School of Gulele Sub City.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Sinidu Mengistu; Fekadu Mulugeta [PhD]
    The main objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between student academic achievement and school feeding in the context of a sample of primary schools in the Gulele Sub-city, particularly Dilbetigle, Addis Tesfa, Jerusalem, Addis Ababa Number One, and Kelem Amba primary schools. This study used a correlation research design was used in this study. The research objective was achieved through the use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The instruments used to acquire the data were questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussion, and document analysis. This research involves 162 students, 68 teachers, 26 parents and 5 principals. Simple random sampling technique was utilized for sample selection. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied in analyzing the collected data by using SPSS 26 software package. This research finding indicated positive correlation between school feeding and students´ academic achievement. The results of the study also revealed that students' involvement increased, their absence from classroom decreased, and they became more attentive to their lessons and completed all of the classwork and homework assignments given to them by their teachers. Then, in addition to addressing immediate hunger, the researcher recommended that Sub city education offices and primary schools take into account school feeding as one of the tools to improve students' achievement. The school principals, teachers and other stakeholders need to work hard on enhancing the knowledge and abilities of students in order to raise their academic achievement. Key words: Achievement, Feeding, Student, Relationship
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    Factors Affecting the Implementation of Integrated Functional Adult Literacy: The Case of Gudeya Bila Woreda of East Wollega Zone Oromia Reginal State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-07-01) Aga Moroda; Demoze Degefa (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to analysis factors affecting the implementation of integrated functional adult literacy the case of Gudeya Bila woreda of east Wollega zone Oromia regional state. To this end descriptive design was employed .Namely primary and secondary sources of data were adult learner 125 coordinating committee 10 healthy extension ,agree cultural workers, teachers, supervisors ,facilitators and educational expert 28 and secondary source of data were report and plans of IFALE at Gudeya Bila woreda education office. A total of 165 respondents were used in this study technical and availability sampling were .Data collection instrument were questioners ,interview guide and document analysis .The data analysis led to the following major findings; The study found out that the majority 76(61.78%) of the adult learners responded that the community lacked an interest to support literacy centers. The study indicated that the majority 68(55.28%) of the adult learners replied that the time was not convenient to attend integrated functional adult literacy program. The study find out that the major problems that encountered the implementation of integrated functional adult literacy in the study area were; Integrated sectors lack commitment, lack of incentives, Inadequate budget allocation to literacy program, lack of regular supervision, inconvenient time, lack of NGO surrounding area, lack of certification for learners, Committees lack commitment to implement the program. The study revealed that the (50%) of the coordinating committees responded that the extent of evaluation and monitoring of the program is low. The study indicated that the 5(50%) of the conducts committee responded that the literacy education was provided to learners 1- 2 days per week and each day for one hour. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the implementation of integrated functional adult literacy in Gudeya Bila woreda. It is not only the responsibility of government to equip integrated functional adult literacy center each year using government recurrent budget but also it needs the participation of the community and private sectors to equip integrated functional adult literacy center. To successful in integrated functional adult literacy program the contribution of every responsibility individual and organization in the woreda for real implementation of the strategy document is believed to be very important. Finally same recommendation were forwarded; In order to implement integrated functional adult literacy effectively, it is advisable for the woreda education office; Administration, Committee and surrounding NGO to allocate enough budgets for integrated functional adult literacy program in each year. Zone education office is adjusted to work with woreda educational office to provide satisfactory training for all stake holders for the proper implementation of the program. Woreda administration is advised to strengthen the commitment of all committees formed at woreda and Kebele levels in encouraging and giving training for them from time to time. The research finding has indicated the time of education is mainly after noon, there for it is recommended that the woreda education office / chairperson facilitators, Committee and learners to discuss and adjust the time of the program based on the interest of adult learners.
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    An Assessment of Community Participation In School Improvement Program in Government of Primary Schools In Kimbibit Woreda, North Shoa, Oromia Region
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Aklilu Mitiku; Zenebe Baraki (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess community participation in school improvement program in five selected primary schools of Kimbibit Woreda. Community participation in education plays a determinant role in developing quality education. In light of this, the specific objectives of this study were to determine the levels of community participation in school improvement program, to examine the roles played by school principals to involve community in SIP and, analyze factors affecting levels of community participation in school improvement program. To carry out the designed objectives in effective manner, both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed. Five government primary schools were selected as sample for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and document analysis were the data collection tools, employed in this study. To analyze the collected data from sample primary schools the researcher used both descriptive and inferential statistics approaches by using Statistical Package for Social science (SPSS version 21). The major findings that were identified from this study showed that the level of community participation in school improvement program in sample primary school was low. The role played by school principals in urging to the community to participate in school improvement program (SIP) was found to be inadequate. Furthermore, regarding factors affecting the level of community participation in SIP, out of twelve explanatory variables, nine variables showed significant effect on the level of community participation in SIP. Thus, to alleviate the major factors encountered with community participation PTSA, KETB, SIC members at all levels in the process of school improvement program, it is necessary to provide clear and specific guide line, provide training to community representatives, conduct meeting, motivate and encourage PTSA, KETB, SIC members organizing experience sharing programs; provide rewards for those who have better performance in the implementation of school improvement program. A similar study should be done to assess the impact of community participation (involvement) in secondary schools of Kimbibit Woreda. * Key words: - Community participation, School improvement program (SIP), School community member.
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    Leading Institution for Change: Preparation, Practice, and Challenges in the Case of Ministry of Education
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Alemu Getahun; Jeilu Oumer (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the preparation, practices and challenges of leading institution for change in the case of Ministry of education. For this purpose, an embedded type of mixed research design was employed. To conduct the research and attain the objectives of the research both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The study takes a population of 513 staff, CEOs, desks, team leaders and experts from general education. From, out of 513 staffs, 155 participants were selected as a sample using simple random, purpose and stratified sampling methods. To gain the relevant information from respondents, closed and open-ended questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussion and documents analysis were employed to gather data. Finally, the frequency, percentage and mean, were employed to analyze the quantitative data. Besides, the data obtained using qualitative methods were transcribed and narrated to strengthen the findings from the quantitative analysis. The findings show that there was limited attention for institutional change in the Ministry of Education. the findings also indicated that ministry of education acknowledges and accepts the role of institutional change in institutional development. However, it is found that there was less effective and inefficient practice of institutional change in the Ministry as compared to its vision and responsibility. To this end, the federal government has to keep autonomy of the institution especially in the appointment of leaders and the Ministry of Education has to realize the institutional change through empowering its executive work unit and building an open communication system in the Ministry.
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    Implementation and Challenges of Continuous Professional Development in Enemor Ener Woreda Goverenmet Secondary Schools
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-07) Cheru Melis; Befikadu Zeleke (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of continuous professional development in Government secondary schools of Enemor EnerWoreda. The study employed descriptive survey design and method. A total of 104 respondents were including in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and document review. The teacher, school leader and WEO expert participants were selected using simple random sampling technique, whereas CPD coordinator and cluster supervisors were selected by purposive sampling technique. Using SPSS version 20, quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics while the qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis approach. The finding of the study revealed that ’the extent of participation in the implementation of continuous professional development in different secondary schools was not satisfactory. This was with the intent to assess the implementation of CPD program and recommend possible ways of alleviating the problems. To this end, basic questions addressing the issues related to CPD such as the CPD programs practice, contribution to CPD implementation, attitudes of teachers towards the CPD program and major challenges of secondary schools have encountered in implementing CPD program were raised. Thus, it was concluded that teachers’, school leaders’ and supervisors’ participation in the implementation of continuous professional development was not satisfactory in this study. Finally, it was recommended that schools, cluster Woreda Education Office, Zone Education Department, Region Education Bureau, Ministry of Education and NGOs should support the teachers at the grass root level to implement continuous professional development implementation successfully in their school. Keywords, Continuous professional development, monitoring, coaching, induction
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    Situational Leadership Practices and Challenges in Secondary Schools of Degem Woreda.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Hailu Tsega Belayneh; Kenenissa Dabi (PhD)
    The main purpose of the study was to assessing situational leadership practices and challenges of secondary school in Degem Woreda North Shewa Zone. To this effect, a mixed method was employed. Questionnaire interview and document analysis were used as data gathering tools. The data was gathered from 70 teachers, 2 school principals, 3 vice principals and one supervisor of the sample secondary schools were included using available sampling technique. The collected quantitative data were analyzed by mean, frequency, percentage and standard deviation analysis methods and the qualitative data were analyzed by using thematic analysis method. The findings of the study indicated that school principals were not good situational school leadership practices in secondary schools of the Degem Woreda like participate all stakeholders in decision making, consider interpersonal skill /group readiness of teachers, educational back ground of principals, and lack of finance and infrastructure to training teachers and to improve interpersonal skills were some of the main findings. As a result the following recommendations were forwarded. Woreda education office should provide appropriate support for school leader ship like short term training provision to obtain the knowledge and skill of decision making and problem solving and educational policy. In addition the criteria for selecting leaders for principal keeping the directives set by MoE and collaboration between the school committee and the local community, parent, NGO, Donors to generate additional income to cover some expenses not covered by the regular budget are recommended by researcher. Key words: situational leadership practices, and challenges.
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    The Practice and Challenges of Situational Leadership in Private High Schools of Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12) Tesfaye, Zelalem; Dabi, Kenenisa (PhD)
    The main objective of this study was to investigate the actual practice and challenges of situational leadership in private high schools of Addis Ababa. Specifically, the study examined the leadership exercise in the private high school leadership practices; attempted to identify the challenges faced by private high school leaders and provided possible alternative solutions that might help to control challenges and get better leadership practice. To this end, descriptive research design was used. The research also mixed approach. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select sample schools, school principal’s students and PTSA. In addition, random sampling technique was used for student and teacher respondents. The data analysis and interpretation were carried out by using STATA, percentage, standard deviation and grand mean values as deemed appropriate. Accordingly, it was found out that the practice of situational leadership in private high school was moderate and similar. The findings also indicated that the major challenges in the practice of situational leadership in private high school are lack of trained, experienced and competent human resource, employees’ resistance to change, frequent turnover of employees, lack of incentives for employees, slow decision-making habit, increasing rate of rental buildings and shortage of vehicles. On the basis of these findings the researcher provided such recommendations as high schools leaders should engage in various income generating endeavors involving different stakeholders such as parents, donors and non-government organizations. Key term: - Leadership practice, challenges situational leadership
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    Managing Performance of Academic Staff In Private Higher Education Institutions: The Cases of Unity and St. Mary’s Universities
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12) Nigatu, Yemisrach; Oumer, Jeilu (PhD)
    This research assesses the performance management of academic staff in Unity and St. Mary’s Universities. In doing so, data were collected through questionnaire from 163 total academic staff (58 from Unity University, 105 from the St. Mary’s University). Also deep-interview was conducted with randomly selected individuals from the selected universities. Besides, secondary data were collected from both Higher education and quality assurance offices. Descriptive design was in this study. The findings of this study indicated that the lived experience of the universities in performance management of academic staff is found to be poor and needs to be matured. The academicians have been found almost concentrated on teaching activity. The involvement of the academicians in research, publication, symposium, community service and grant project is insignificant. From the total number of 163 teachers who were participants of the study only 7 teachers have the experience of less than 2 years. Accordingly, 88 teachers have 3- 5 years of work experience. The 53 teachers have 3-5 years of work experiences.23.9% of the academicians agreed on the necessity of annual performance appraisal. The overall performance evaluation of the instructor’s was 75.5% out of 100%. With minimum of 65% and maximum 86%. 60.8% of the academicians agreed that they inform consultation hour and solves students’ academic problems on time. Core competency and professional competency are statistically significant in correlation (p<0.05). Performance management for academic staff needs more attention for the overall qualification of academy industry. This study was conducted under two private universities. From this study it has been drawn that performance management is going to be a complex and difficult reality. Therefore, from this study the following conclusions have been made. The Universities need to implement performance management (PM) procedures to improve the performance of academicians and align individual goals setting and objectives with the university strategic goals. The universities also need to apply the encouragement strategies and capacity building package for academicians. This can improve the overall performance of the universities to achieve its intended end. Keywords: Performance Management, Academic Staff, Unity and St. Mary‘s Universities
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    Practices and Challenges of School-Based Supervision in South West Showa Secondary Schools
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Serbessa, Merga; Baraki, Zenebe (PhD)
    Education is the social process by which people are subject to influence on a selected and controlled environment. The general objective of the study is to access the status of current school-based supervisory practices and challenges in government secondary school, in South West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional state. In this study, descriptive survey design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches was used. The data was gathered from primary sources to accomplish the study, to get reliable and valid information. Totally, 454 teachers are found in these sampled government secondary schools and 30.2% (n=140)of them are selected as sample for the study using simple random sampling technique. Regarding officials, each secondary school had one principal, two vice-principals, one cluster high school supervisor, and total number of eight principals, sixteen vice-principals, eight high school cluster supervisors and eight woreda educational supervision experts head and from zonal educational supervision experts five of them were selected . The data was analyzed by using descriptive that mean and standard deviation. As the finding indicated in service training was not given twice a year on school-based supervision for teachers and supervisors and lack of awareness about significance of school-based supervision.. The finding indicates that respondents had lack of awareness about significance of school-based supervision; the woreda education office and Oromia education officers are advised to create awareness about significance of supervision for teacher, student and school community as whole
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    Assessing Contextual and Prospective Situations of E-Learning Integration in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Addis Ababa University (Aau)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12) Mulugeta, Melaku; Mulugeta, Fekadu (PhD)
    This study was aimed at exploring AAU’s status in efforts towards e-learning integration by assessing accessibility of vital hardware and software e-learning resources to instructors, e-learning literacy level of instructors, digital practice level of instructors as well as institutional support provided in technical and pedagogic needs to the academic staff. In order to get answers for the basic questions, a partially mixed method was employed on purposively selected three colleges and a school of AAU. Totally 126 instructors were randomly selected from all departments in cluster sampling technique, of which 108 returned completed questionnaires. The questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed, supplemented by interviews with an ICTDO director, two program directors two associate deans and two vice directors taken as key informants. Document analysis, especially review of the AAU digital platform covered infrastructure topic. For data analysis, mean values, standard deviation and Likert scale were used. The results indicated that AAU’s instructors’accessibility to digital resource, basic ICT tools and internet was adequate, but digital skill and practice level were very low in techno-pedagogical areas. Instructors’ e-learning practice in instructional planning, delivery and browsing for professional development aspects was very insignificant. The technical support need was not consistent; but comparatively better among CEBS and CHJC. Network and administration, and maintenance issues are signified as concerns of instructors in applying e-based instructional practice. Capacity development tasks were COVID-19 initiated, not well-planned and were not practiced at university-level programmed packages. Absence of e-learning policy and an institutional frame work suited specifically for e-leadership; as well as limited sense of ownership at top level so far were stressed as profound challenges to the e-learning integration from the Instructor-User side. Thus the integration level at AAU was found to be at initial stage. Based on the results, the study suggests availing comprehensive e-literacy and e-based pedagogy capacity development programs for staffs, speeding up ratification of inclusive e-policy based on an all-rounded baseline study and, scaling up user attitude in organized manner. It is possible to conclude that the bright future of AAU as a graduate university among Ethiopian HEIs can be realized by enacting sound e-learning policy with strong all-rounded e-leadership that focuses on improving user and institutional aspects of e-learning system. Keywords: E-learning, integration, higher education institutions, institutional support
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    Assessment on Practices and Challenges of Employee Training Management in Oromia Land Bureau
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Daba, Geremew; Worku, Aman (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the practices and challenges of employee training management in Oromia Land Bureau. To achieve the purpose of the study mixed research method was employed. The study was conducted on Oromia Land Bureau that stratified, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed to select the sample from the population. Hence, 116 employees were involved in the study. Questionnaire, interview and document analysis were the instruments used to collect data. The data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using tables, frequency counts, percentages and mean scores. The findings of the study indicate that there is no enough budget, time and expertise for training and improper selection of trainees. There is also less support of managers, peers, and employees for training given and no clear written training policy in the bureau. However, training plan is included in the strategic plan of the bureau. Generally, in management of employee training the bureau did not practiced training need assessment. Accordingly the activities to be done in the process of training evaluation were not applied in the bureau. This confirms that the effectiveness of training was not evaluated. In designing training program there were good communication to trainees and proper selection of vendor or consultant for training services for outsourced training. However, provision of good training materials, the curriculum designed in achieving the objectives set were not given attention by the bureau. Therefore, the bureau partially performs training program design. Though, the training need improperly identified and designed it was effectively implemented. Lack of well-designed training program, low priority given to training, inadequate organizational facilities, absence of clearly stated training policy and were the major management of employee training constraints identified. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that Oromia land Bureau should Carryout training needs assessment, properly design its training program, conduct training evaluation to judge the effectiveness of training, formulate clear written training policy, establish clear and transparent selection criteria, furnish training program with necessary equipment and facilities and take joint actions to alleviate training challenges occurred. In general, the bureau should manage employee training systematically to get fruitful results. Key words: Training management, training need assessment, training program design, training implementation, training evaluation
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    Public Participation in the Educational Operation in Schools of Central Ethiopia: A Systems Approach
    (Addis Ababa University, 1996-06) Mekuria, Tadesse; Yimtatu, Zaudneh (PhD)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state of public participation in relation to the disparity it possibly has by school level, size, appropriation, experience of principals, and geographical setting. To treat participation, approach. both the micro and macro the study was made to base factors on the of the intensity major components of of public systems The data made in use were collected mainly through questionnaire from 98% of respondents from both groups representing school systems ' and the public suprasystem, as well as through structured interview as a supportive from 100% of school principals . Mainly one-way ANOVA/correlation statistical techniques were used to analyze the data . Taking all things together, the results indicated that by level, the primary; by size, the small-size; by appropriation, the non-government; by experience of principals, those schools with experienced principals; by geographical setting, the rural schools are found exceeding correspondingly their counter parts under their respective dimensions with regard to : Their openness amplitude to public participation; Enhancing the extent of public influence on their educational operation; Intensifying the magnitude of the economic, political-legal, social, and technological-educational dimensions of public participation. Statistical treatments proved that the disparities in public participation among the categories under those dimensions happened mainly due to the relationship between the dimensions of this study and the degree of occurrence of the major components of the systems approach in dealing with public participation. Yet, what ever the difference is, it is apparently understandable that the schools as a whole are found in a pertinent need of increased public participation in their endeavour of educational operation. Thus, the following are expected from schools, the public , and from the government as suggested by the study. It is indispensable to develop two-way relationship between the schools and the public. Thus, the schools being more open and using socialization as their strategy in responding to pubic demands, have to enable the public to participate and support them more economically, legally, socially, and educationally. Public representatives (local administrative councils) have to create conditions for the public to participate being organized so that the educational operation in schools would be economically efficient, legally responsive socioculturally relevant, and educationally effective. The government or policy-makers have to strengthen school administration committees by establishing at Woreda (District) level as boards of education for better coordination and with better legal protection enabling the public to share educational responsibility in light of decentralization. This can be done by securing the educational policy nationally and the administrative task at the would be educational board level&updating both the curriculum as well as the work and· organization designs .: /
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    Preschool Teachers’ Perceptions towards Play based Instruction in Private Preschools in Guji Zone, Oromiya Regional State
    (AAU, 2021-10) Yohannes, Tamirat; admas, Fantahun(Dhr
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of preschool teachers towards play based instruction. In order to achieve the objectives, a mixed research design was employed. Random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sample size from the population. Data was collected from 44 preschool teachers, through questionnaire, interview and observation. The quantitative data obtained from questionnaire were analyzed in SPSS software version 20 by using descriptive (mean and standard deviation). On the other hand, the qualitative data obtained through interview and observation were analyzed qualitatively in narrative form and used to supplement and/or triangulate the responses. Accordingly, from the findings of the study, it would appear that the sample of preschool teachers surveyed endorse the importance of play based approach in preschool education. However, many teachers did not integrate play into their activities to support teaching and learning process, even though they agree that children love to play. Apparently, factors such as time allocation for play activities, limited and unsuitable space for play, lack of knowledge and skills required to implement play based instruction and poor support from administrators, are the main reasons the teachers cited for minimizing play. Hence, it is recommended that the Woredas Education Of ice, Guji zone Education of ice and Oromiya Educational Bureau with dif erent pertinent stakeholders shall work in a coordinated manner to provide stimulation programs for preschool teachers so as to enhance their capacity for ef ective implementation of play based instruction.
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    Factors Affecting the Participation of Women in Leadership in Secondary Schools of East Wollega Zone
    (AAU, 2021-09) Merga, Fikadu; Zeleke, Befekadu(Dr
    This study aims at analyzing specific factors affecting women participation in educational leadership in selected public secondary schools in East Wollega Zone. To conduct this study, a descriptive survey design was employed. The participants of this study were 130 selected by using purposive sampling techniques. Out of these 95 participants are teachers. Twenty women included from teaching staffs to get more insight from females, four principals, four vice principals, three officers from woreda education office, and four school supervisor. Data were collected by using questionnaire, interview and document analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed in order to reach at the result. Later on data were cleaned, coded, fed in and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 as a tool that helps for descriptive analysis of the data. The findings of the study revealed that school leadership seems as if it is mainly kept for men alone. Among the various reasons for low female participation in school leadership social factors, sex role stereotyping has deterring effect as these issues label females as weak and dependent, not as leaders in a family or community. Female teachers’ involvement in school leadership is at its very low. This is mainly influenced by social factors that give lower position for females due to sex role stereotyping. Moreover, there is a tradition that dictates women role as caregivers at home, giving them more burden at home providing them with less time to invest in school leadership. Women also face severe discrimination from institutional side due to organizational culture and structural problems than what men face. Women has shown less personal aspiration in seeking for leadership position.
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    Leadership Roles in Managing Education in Crisis at Addis Ababa University During Covid-19 Pandemic
    (AAU, 2021-08) Gebeyehu, Aster; Zeleke, Befekadu(Phd
    The purpose of this study was aimed to assess the leadership role in managing education in crisis at AAU during covid-19 pandemic. A mixed research method of study was employed to reveal the leadership role in managing education in crisis at AAU during covid-19 pandemic. The sample population involved AAU academic staff members and students who were selected using stratified simple random and purposive sampling techniques. In this study, both primary and secondary sources of data were used. The primary sources were the AAU academic staff members and students. Secondary sources such as books, journals, and reports prepared by AAU were considered. As far as, data collection instruments (questionnaire, document analysis, and interview) were adapted. The questionnaire was pilot-tested and modified. The questionnaire was distributed and completed by 384 staff members and students of AAU making a sample size of 384. Out of these,327 (85%) are filed in and collected back. The data gathered were analyzed using such statistical tools as percentage, mean, frequency, cross tabulation, standard deviation and t-test. The result of the study showed that the role of leaders in managing education during covid-19 was good but still needs further action to bring quality education. The result of the study also portrayed that the university sets strategies to manage education, but as results of teacher’s negative perception on e-learning and students’ technological capability, infrastructure problems AAU strategy was not executed properly and the execution was not satisfactory. Therefore, it may be concluded that leaders failed in managing education, causing deterioration of quality of education. Hence, it was recommended that leader in a crisis better be collaborative and also look to be sensibly hierarchical. There are times when university leaders need to wait and take advice from government, system-level leaders and first responders. Within the university, a well-formed crisis management team brings a cross section of perspectives to a problem, and reduces the risk of missing certain voices. As the result of negative perception of teachers on e-learning and capability problems, it is also suggested that the AAU leaders in collaboration with other stake holders required providing adequate training to its academic staffs and students on using of technology to facilitate teaching learning process.
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    The Perception of Stakeholders about the Contribution of Leadership on Students‟ Academic Achievement In Government Primary Schools of Gulele Sub City
    (AAU, 2021-08) MOLLA, ASMAMAW; Nigusse, Dejene (PhD
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perception of stakeholders about the contribution of leadership on students’ academic achievement in Primary schools of Gulelle sub city. The study employed a descriptive survey research design and mixed research methods. Data for the study were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and document analyses. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to 288 teachers, 65 students,16 parents selected by using simple random sampling techniques and 48 leaders and supervisors. All principals and supervisors were interviewed and the analyses of necessary documents were made in all sample primary schools. The data collected were analyzed by using percentages, means and weighted means and an independent sample t-test used by computing the data on SPSS version 26. The data gathered through open ended questions, interviews and document analyses were analyzed qualitatively through narration for the purpose of triangulation. Finally, the findings of the study were echoed in another study which found that leaders achievement high expectations have direct and indirect positive effects on students learning through the building of primary school at significance level which is learning through work with staff and leadership capacity that has merely focus on teaching and learning subsequently indirect affects students’ motivation, behavior, engagement, learning and achievement. Finally, the study regression result regarding to leader implementation on effective educational leadership found positively affecting students’ academic achievement was perceived by stakeholders at 5% significant level.
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    Students’ Usage of Communication Technologies in Secondary Schools in Burao District of Somaliland.
    (AAU, 2021) Mohamed, Said; Alemu, Yekunoamlak(PhD
    The purpose of this research was to investigate the usage of communication technologies of secondary school students in Burao district. The descriptive survey design was used; also Stratified random sampling was employed in sampling the respondents. Responses were elicited from students in two secondary schools one public secondary school and one private secondary school was the target population. The target students were five hundred (500) students from the two secondary schools. The study sample was two hundred twenty two (222) students. Also, the interview was conducted through face to face interactions among fifteen of the school principals and teachers including thirteen teachers and two principles selected purposively. Frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviations were used in the analysis of data. To achieve the objectives of the research, the study used a mixed method approach which involved the survey of student’s responses on the influence of modern technology on the student’s academic performance. The study revealed that a great number of students in Burao district use most frequently Smart phones but other technologies such as laptops, desktops and tablets were also used. As the research results revealed most of the secondary school students in Burao district used these modern technologies for their learning purposes and academic issues as well as social media. Since they used these technologies including the social media for more than two hours daily, it influences their academic performance. Hence, students should be thought to better manage their study time; students should create a balance between using the technology for seeking knowledge from the internet and usage of social media, also teachers should ensure that students use modern technology as a tool to improve their academic performances. In addition schools should enact rules and regulations to protect students from misusing the modern technology.
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    The Relationship Between Servant Leadership Practice and Teachers’ Job Satsfaction as Perceived By Teachers In The High Schools of Arada Sub City
    (AAU, 2021-06) Kebede, Mesfin; Nigussie, Dejene (PhD
    Servant Leadership qualities of principals in schools play a critical role in teachers ‘job satisfaction. Nevertheless, there is little research in the literature that is available on the links between principals’ servant leadership behavior and teachers’ job satisfaction in Addis Ababa high schools. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between servant leadership and teachers’ job satisfactions in the schools of Arada Sub city, Addis Ababa. The target population of the study consists of four hundred forty nine secondary school teachers. Of which 150 teachers, representing 33% of the population, were participated in the study. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were employed to select samples. Data were collected through a closed questionnaire filled by teachers through hard copy and they were analyzed through SPSS version 25 software. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics such as percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation were used. Correlation statistics were also used to study the relationship between the variables. According to the research findings, this study supported and verified that there is implementation of servant leadership qualities (M = 3.63), high job satisfaction (80.04%, M = 3.977) of teachers and strong relationship (r= .701**) between servant leadership practice and teachers’ job satisfaction. Therefore, to attain teachers’ satisfaction in their work, leaders in sample schools and others are advised to be service oriented and apply servant leadership approach in their respective work contexts.