Tropical Veterinary Medicine

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    Epidemiology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants, Isolation and Molecular Detection of the Virus in Selected Districts of Awi and Metekel Zones, North West Ethiopia
    (Addis Abeba University, 2022) Yalew Abiyu; Dr.Yasmin Jibril
    Ethiopia possesses huge population of sheep and goats despite the country benefited little from it due to different factors including Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), highly contagious and economically important trans-boundary disease of small ruminants associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional study involving questionnaire survey, retrospective outbreak data, seroprevalence, isolation and molecular data analysis were conducted from February 2020 to May 2021 in selected districts of Awi and Metekel zones with the objective of revealing epidemiological status, isolation and molecular detection of PPRV circulating in the area using c-ELISA and real time PCR. Of the total 714 sera samples tested, 467 (65.4%) were found positive for PPRV antibody. Significantly higher prevalence of 70.7% (236/334, P=0.007, CI=65.4-75.4) in Metekel than Awi zone (60.8%) was observed. Seroprevalence of 66.8% (243/364) in sheep and 64% (224/350) in goats with no statistical significant difference (P> 0.05) was also revealed. In this study, significantly higher seroprevalence was recorded in old animals (75.2%, OR=3.5) than adult (72.7%, OR=2.8) compared to young (52.1%) (CI=2.3-6.2, P=0.000). A prevalence of 64.9% and 54.4% was observed in female and male animals respectively (P=0.000, ꭓ2=13.18). From 42 samples examined with the PCR, 38.1%; 15 (5.7%) goat and 1 (2.4%) sheep were detected positive. The virus was also successfully isolated from VDS cell cultured samples. The questionnaire survey revealed that 89.7% (n=78) of farmers know the disease though most of them are not familiar with prevention and control measures. About 64.1% of them also indicated that PPR outbreak occurs each year. The retrospective data (2016-2021) showed a total of 632 PPR outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality rate in Benishangul Gumuz the outbreaks being common in dry season. As evidenced from the questionnaire survey, retrospective, serology and molecular detection in addition to the field observation result of this study, PPR is found to be endemic in the study area. The higher PPRV circulation, the usual free animal movement and communal grazing system in the area indicates possibility of further spread within and to other areas. Therefore, it should have get priority attention from control and eradication campaign of the country. Creating awareness to farmers, restricting animal movement and targeted vaccination is necessary to prevent spread of the disease. Further study on sequencing and characterizing the circulating virus to a lineage level is also recommended.
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    Prevalence of Bovine Sycticercosis and Human Taeniais in Southwest Shoa Zone, Oromia Region
    (Debre Zeit, 2009-06) Tadesse, Adugna; Hailu, Yacob PhD
    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2008 to April 2009 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Sebata,Tulubolo and Woliso municipal abattoirs in south west Shoa zone of Oromia regional state,
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    Characterization of Dairy Cattle Production Systems in Debremarkos City Administrative Woreda of East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Regional State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2009-06) Yayeh, Zemenu; Hailemariam, Mekonen
    The study was conducted in Debremarkos Woreda, Amhara National Regional State, from October 2007 to may 2008 with a with the objective of characterization of dairy cattle production systems /practices of the Woreda; to get base line data on the status of dairy cattle production levels in the study area and identify the .constraints and opportunities of dairy production. All 7 kebeles of Debremarkos were included in the study. A total of 200 house holds were selected randomly based on the proportion of total house holds in each kebele site using random nLunber table. In formations were collected from secondary data, by key informant group discussion, household level questionnaire survey, fann visit and personal observations. The data were analyzed using the SPSS computer soft ware and Ex-cell programs. The mean land holding in rural farms were 1 ha and except 5 persons the rest of urban area farms were landless. The mean livestock holding was 8.36 TLU in rural areas and 5.32 TLU in urban areas. Cattle constituent 98.86 % and 92.44 % of total TLU per household in Urban and rural sites respectively. In urban sites cows constitute 41.20 % of cattle herd and steers 0.60 % and in rural sites steers constitute 20.31 % and cows 29.00 % of cattle herd. The propOltion of cross breed and local breed cows in urban areas was 31.10% and 69.90% and for rural areas it was 3.38 % and 96.62% respectively. Main feed resources were crop residues and communal grazing land and most common supplements include hay, atela, wheat bran and noug cake mix as concentrates. For the last two years AI service was not available in the Woreda. During the survey period 72.0% of urban area and 93.2% Of rural area households used uncontrolled natural mating. Common animal health problems were black leg, anthrax. abortion, foot and mouth disease, ticks, liver fluke. Animal health service (treatment and vaccination) for the last two years was not available in the Woreda. Only 7.5 % of urban area households used private veterinary service. The average daily milk yield was 1.50±0.68 and 7.30±4.65 litters for local and cross bred cows respectively. There was a significant difference in mean daily milk yield, lactation length, AFC and CI, for local breed cattle between urban and rural areas but there was no significant difference for cross breeds except calving interval in between urban and rural areas. Main milk processing milk products include butter, ayib, sour milk, butter milk, whey and "Metata." The main milk market outlet was contractual type of informal marketing either for hotels and restaurants or neighboring consumers. Lack of improved breed cattle, disease, feed shortage, milk market, space and water were IX identified in decreasing order of impOliance as constraints for dairy production. From this study, it was recommended that: Extension service should be improved; dairy cooperatives and bull service should be established. Key words: Characterization, Dairy cattle, Production systems, Debremarkos
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    Assessment of Problems/Constraints Associated with Artificial Insemination Service in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06) Gebremedhin, Desalegn; Bekana, Merga(PhD)
    Study on reproductive performance of 18 AI bulls and on the efficiency of AI operations was conducted at the National Artificial Insemination Center and in purposively selected ten areas of five regional states. This study was also conducted to assess the problems and constraints associated with artificial insemination service. The 18 bulls were owned by NAIC and were in semen production. Questionnaire survey was also carried out on technical staffs that were performing their duties at the National AI Center. Evaluation of number of services per conception and conception rates to first insemination was carried out. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 375 cows in the selected areas. Besides, 114 straws of semen, 61 from regions, and the other 53 from NAIC were checked for semen motility to see if there were any differences in motility due to handling between the center and the regions.Thirty AI technicians and 246 farmers were used for the collection of data using questionnaire surveys. Moreover, fifty-two high-level professionals who have stakes directly or indirectly in the artificial insemination service have been used to participated in the focus group discussions. Mean (± E) scrotal circumference for Holstein, Jersey and crosses of Holstein with indigenous breeds at NAIC was 39.71± 0.64, 41.00 ± 1.16 and 39.00 ±1.00 respectively. The results did not differ (p>0.05) among the three breeds. Similarly, the outcome of semen physiomorphological analysis revealed that there was no difference (P>0.05) for the different semen characteristics except for the total morphological defects which differed significantly (P<0.05) among the three breeds. The sources, the selection procedures, and the health status of the AI bulls at NAIC were found to have serious problems. Mean (± SE) number of services per conception and conception rate to first insemination were 1.74 ± 0.07 and 16.08 ± 0.44 respectively. These results differ significantly (P0.05) between the NAIC and the regions. The overall results of the assessment via questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions at large have indicated that artificial insemination is not doing well in all the regions and at national level at large. It is inferred, therefore, that artificial insemination operation in Ethiopia is not a success and requires urgent measures to change the situation before it totally collapses.
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    Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants and Humans in Selected Peasant Associations of Adaml-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha District,Oromiya Regional State,Ethiopia
    (Debre Zeit, 2009-06) Tesfaye, Aklilu; Kyule, Moses PhD
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected 10 peasant associations found in Rift Valley area of Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha District, Oromiya Rcgional State, 160km South of Addis Ababa between October 2008 to March 2009 to deterrmine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants and human risk groups (farmers),
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    Epidemiological and Microbiological Studies of Calf Diarrhoea and Pneumonia in Debre Zeit, Holeta and Muke Turi Dairy Farms, Etmopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06) Berhanu, Yenemwot; Kyule, Moses
    A six-month prospective study was conducted in Holeta, Debre Zeit and Muke Turi dairy fanns between November, 2007 and April, 200S with the major objective of determining both the cumulative incidences of neonatal calf diarrhoea (NCD) and pneumonia. In addition, determination of calf mortality rates, identification of agents of NCD, pneumonia and potential risk factors as well as determinations of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the bacterial pathogens. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 429 calves, from seven intensive dairy farms were followed up. The farms were described using a pre-tested questionnaire and personal observations. Study calves in each fann were visited weekly and appropriate test samples collected from diarrhoeic and pneumonic cases. Antigenic ELISA test was utilized to identify four major enteropathogens (rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and E. coli K 99). Standard isolation techniques were used to identify Salmonella and other strains of E. coli from diarrhoiec cases (n=112) and Pasteurella species, Mannhaemia species and Haemophilus somnus from pneumonic cases (n=2S). In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. The cumulative incidences (CI) of NCD in Holeta, Muke Turi and Debre Zeit dairy farms were 0.41, 0.63 and 0.37, respectively. While for pneumonia, they were 0.12, 0.09 and 0.07, respectively. Higher CI ofNCD was recorded from Farm 1 with 0.65 followed by Farm 3 with 0.63. The least CI was observed in Fann 2 of 0.11. Highest calf pneumonia was observed in Farm 6 followed by Farm 1. No calf pneumonia was observed in Farm 5. Associations of the potential risk factors for NCD and pneumonia revealed significant results with young ages. Significant positive hazard rates of both diseases were recorded in young agegroups. Other risk factors (.sex of calves, breed, etc) were not significantly associated with these diseases. The ELISA results showed that, C. parvum was prevalent in the majority of calves with diarrhoea followed by rotavirus, coronavirus and E. coli K 99. The bacterial isolates were 91.96 % of E. IX coli other than the strain K 99 and 24.11 % of Salmonella species. Nasal swab samples taken for isolation of Pasteurella and Mannhaemia species revealed 42.85 % positive reactors for Pasteurella and Mannhaemia species. No Haemophilus somnus was isolated. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was perfonned for all the bacterial isolates. Norfloxacillin and gentamycin were highly sensitive and clindamycin the least sensitive. The susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents varied by different bacterial isolates, but resistance to all antimicrobials used were observed in most of the isolates. In conclusion, NCD is a serious problem among dairy calves followed by pneumonia. Both of them were influenced by the age of calves. These diseases have complex etiopathogenesis. Therefore, further epidemiological and microbiological studies ofNCD and pneumonia with aims of designing and implementing appropriate prevention and control strategies are strongly recommended. In addition, the higher rate of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the strategic use of the drugs. Key words: Neonatal calf diarrhoea, Calf pneumonia, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherchia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Mannhaemia, Haemophilus somnus
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    Serological Studies on Bovine and Human Leptospirosis in Wonji, East Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2009) Yilma, Roman; N. Kyule, Moses
    A cross sectional study design, consisting serological and questionnaire surveys, was applied to assess the occurrence of leptospirosis in cattle and humans in Wonji from October 2008 to April 2009. Consequently, the seropositivity percentage for leptospirosis in human patients visiting hospital and health center in Wonji and the seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans sv Hardjo in apparently healthy cattle was determined by using Leptospira IgM ELISA and Leptospira Hardjo antibody ELISA respectively. The overall seropositivity percentage of human leptospirosis was found to be 72.S% (n=298) and that of cattle was 30.4% (n=204). In this study assessment of risk factors associated with human leptospirosis was carried out based on semi-structured questionnaire survey. Regardless of wide distribution of the risk factors included in this study, statistical analysis of relationship between the variables showed that only occupation, animal contact and sampling sites were significantly associated (p
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    Identification and Quantification of Ruminal Microorganisms in Blackhead Ogaden Sheep (BHS) using Real Time PCR
    (Addis Ababa University, 2009-06) Getahun, Melaku; Belihu (PHD), Kelay
    This Study was Carried Out in Jijiga and Gursum Werwdas of the Somali Reginal State of Ethiopia with the Objectives of Identifying
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    The Epidemiology and Public Health Implication of Bovine Tuberculosis in Alage Dairy Farm,Southern Ethiopia
    (Debre Zeit, 2009-01) Shimelis, Dawit; Kyule, Moses PhD
    Across-sectional study was conducted on a totel of 355 dairy cattle and 8 pulmonary tuberculosis patients between October 2007 and April 2008 to determine the prevalence, risk factors and public health implication of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Alage. Single intradermal Comparative tuberculin (SIDCT) test, bacterial isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based typing were performed on both sputum samples of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and milk of reactor cows.
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    Medicine and Agriculture, Department of Microbioiogy, Immunology and Veterinary Public Health
    (AAU, 2014-06) Degefa, Teferi; mamo, Gczahcgn(Dr
    ox disease outbreaks occurred in sheep and goats population. Skin lesion samples were oUected from six different geographical areas with the aim of isolation and molecular haracterization of the virus responsible for causing pox lesion in heep and goats. The study was mployed questionnaire, outbreak search, virus isolation, and genotyping methods. The uestionnaire survey indicated that sheep and goat pox is the most common disease in all study reas and the disease is more frequent during rainy sea on followed by spring and autumn easons. Purposive sampling method was used to get samples for laboratory inve tigation. 1\ otal of six pox suspected outbreaks were assessed for virus isolation and genotyping during the tudy period. Out of 102 sheep examined, 35 sheep (34.3%) developed pox lesions on their skins here as from 50 goats examined eight goats (16%) were found to be positive for pox. Virus was isolated from 14 skin samples (n= 16; 14 sheep and 2 goat). The virus developed characteristic pox virus cytopathic effect of cell syncytia, ballooning, aggregation and detaching of cells on Vero cell culture. Similarly, the conventional genotyping P R revealed 14 out of 16 tested samples were positive by developing band of 172 bp (Goal poxvirus) whereas two of them could not produce any band on gel electrophoresis. The real-time genotyping PCR analysis also jndicated that 14 samples were properly amplified and genotyped as goat poxvirus only while 2 samples not. Even though the existing knowledge suggested that Capri pox virus is strictly host pecific, this genotyping assay confirmed that sheep are affected by goat pox virus similar to goats. Classification of poxvirus based on infected host in small ruminants has been found to be inconclusive. Thus, genotyping of the isolates should be conducted carefully instead of naming the virus genotype based on the name of animals from which the samples has been collected. Hence, further genotyping studies are needed to differentiate sheep pox virus and goat pox virus with respect to their host specificity in order to select appropriate vaccine candidate and challenge virus for the control of pox in the small ruminants.
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    Pathological and Bacteriological Study on Abnormalities of Female Reproductive Organ of Camel us Dromedary Slaughtered at Akaki Abattoir, Addis Ababa
    (AAU, 2014-06) Melaku, Moa; Kasa, Tesfu (
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on reproductive organs of Camelus dromedarius to characterize the pathological lesions and to isolate and identify possible bacterial causes of reproductive failures. Reproductive organs of 231 female dromedary camels (169 from Borana and 62 from Afar) were grossly inspected and sampled for further histopathological and bacteriological studies. Grossly 46(19.9%) camels were found with different types of reproductive organ disorders, (30 (J7.8%)from Borana and 16 (25.8%)from afar). Ovarian Follicular cyst (3.5%), ovarian hypoplasia (0.43%), ovarian tumor (0.87%), para-ovarian cyst (0.87%), irifundibular cyst (0.43%), uterine serosal cyst(0.43%), endometritis(J3.4%) and endometrial calcification (0.43%), were the identified disorders. The frequency of lesion occurrence did not show statistically significant difference (P>0.05) at different age groups and areas of origin,' whereas the occurrence of reproductive tract abnormalities were significantly different (p<0.05) between pregnant and non-pregnant camels with higher occurrence in non pregnant animals. Uterine abnormalities were the major disorders recorded in this study accounting for 31 (13. 4%). From 31 cases with endometritis 26 (83%) were positive for different types of bacterial cultures. Escherichia coli (38.7%) Staphylococcus spp (35.5%), Streptococcus spp (25%), Enteriobacter aeroginosa (16.1 %), Corynebacterium spp (J 2.7%), Proteous spp (9.7%), and Salmonella spp (6.5%) are bacteria isolates. In conclusion the finding of the present study suggests frequent detection of the diseases of dromedary female camels' reproductive organs. Considering the importance of Camelus dromedarius among the pastoral society of Ethiopia, there should be collaborative studies pertinent to reproductive health for the betterment of production and productivity of camels
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    Household Level Milk Production And Child Milk Consumption In And Around Bahir Dar. Etiflopia
    (AAU, 2014-06) Shlteraw, Fanaye; Terefe, Getachew (PhD.
    Malnutrition is a serious problem in 1-5 years old children of Ethiopia and livestock products have a contribution in solving malnutrition. This study was conducted in and around Bahir Dar with the objectives of investigating the contribution of cow ownership and milk production to child milk consulllption; assessing constraints in cow milk production and child milk consumption; and assessing the quality of cow milk consumed by children at household level. ross- sectional study design was employed. A total of 300 households were individually interviewed. The results indicated a positive relationship between dairy cow ownership and child milk consumption. A child in a household with dairy cow consumes 464.911/1 ofmilk while in a household without dairy cow consumes 457.51111 of milk. Among households with dairy cow and without dairy cow larger volume ofmilk offer was observed in the peri urban (512.8ml) and urban areas (465.7ml), respectively as cOli/pared with the rest. In terms of child milk feeding practice, higher practice of child milk feeding was obtained in the urban households with 39% and without 60.7% dairy cow. The major constraint of child milk consumption across households with and without dairy cows was selling of milk for income generation and lack of knowledge; and shortage of money and cultural issues, respectively. Coliform and standard plate co lints in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas were 4. 7X10J and 104 , 3.1X104 and4.6X104 , 2.2X105 and 5X1oJ, respectively. The overall result of adulteration and acidity were 26.11 and 0.21, in CFU respectively. The general hygienic practice followed by households with dairy cows in the area is poor. Feed shortage is the biggest problem for all the study sites, whereas shortage of land is a priority problem for urban and peri-urban dairy owners and lack of improved breeds is a priority problem for the rural farmers. Reduction of milk production and quality affects child milk consumption. Therefore, further research works to address constraints and to improve child milk consumption are imperative.
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    Epidemiology and Identification of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus Circulating in Small Ruminants of Eastern Amhara Region Bordering Afar, Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2014-06) Alemu, Biruk; Abuna, Fufa(Dr.
    A cross-sectional study design was employed between November 2013 and April 20i.f. to determine antibody/immunity level of vaccinated sheep and goats at herd level. to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of PPR in non-vaccinated areas and to invest igate incidence and recent eirculat ion of P P R virus in field samples collectedfi-om small ruminants of eastern Amhara region bordering Afar, Ethiopia. A total of 969 serum samples were collected from sheep and goats in the study districts. Muftistage sampling. with four hierarchical stages. was used as sampling strategy. Peason/ Associotio17 /villages and individual animal were selected by random sampling. A tOlalof 32 samples, comprising 18 swab samples and 1.f. heparinized whole blood samples were collectedfrom the suspected animals for the presence of PPR viral antigen. 28 samples were examinedfor the presence of PPRV RNA by one step RT-PCR assays. Anti-mortem samples were collected from active cases with the aim of virus isolation. in additiol1./iI'e yeors retrospecti1'e data 011 PPR outbreak ~ras used in the present stud),. Questionnaire survey was also conducted to assess the association of seroprevalence of PPR and possible risk factors. Proportions were calculated for seroprevalence visa-vis fixed faclors that included animal species, sex and age, districts and village. Univariable analysis for the proportions was carried out using Chi-square analysis in £pi 1nfo software. A confidence limit of less than 5% was used to indicate a significant level. All variables with P < 0.05 (two-sided) in the univariable analysis were further tested by multivariable logistic regression model to assess their effect on PPR seropositivity
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    In Vivo Drug Sensitivity Tests of Trypanosoma Vivaxisolates from Selected Tsetse Infested and Tsetse Free Areas of North West, Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2014-06) Tsegaye Biniam; Dagnachew, Shimelis(. Dr
    Tsetse transmitted animal trypanosomosis is an economically devastating disease in Sub Saharan Africa where trypanocidal drug treatment is the mainstay of control but their efficacy is hampered because of the widespread occurrence of drug resistance. The present study conducted from March to June of 2014 in young zebu cattle was to determine the drug sensitivity of T vivax isolates from selected tsetse infested and tsetse free areas of Northwest Ethiopia and also to look for hematological profiles improvement after treatment. A total of tlu·ee isolates one from tsetse infested and two from tsetse free areas were used. A prospective study and randomized controlled block design was applied to the experimental animals together with preliminary questionnaire survey on drug usages. The study revealed that one isolate from tsetse free area was resistant to 7mg/kg of DA. The finding of one relapse from the tsetse isolate to 1mg/kg of ISM is highly indicative that more relapses could be found if more isolates were used. The decrease in packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration improvements was more common in breaktlu-ough infections. Results of the experiment on the low efficacy of the drugs were supported by respondents of questiolU1aire survey. In conclusion, drug resistance is a tm·eat in both areas and the situation is magnified in the non-tsetse areas so that control of the disease should be an integrated approach. Moreover, the use of sanative pair with DA and ISM in accordance with the reported drug resistance is impOliant to reduce the problems in the study sites. Fmihermore, extensive data on trypanocidal drug sensitivity tests on more T. vivax isolates using advanced molecular techniques is essential.
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    Comparative Study of Reproductive and Productive Performance of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cows at Holeta Bull Dam Station and Genesis Farms
    (AAU, 2014-06) Heyredin, Alewya; Goshu, Gebeyehu(Dr
    The study was conducted at Holeta Bull Dam tation and G nesis Farm with the objective of evaluating age at first effective service (AF ) age at first calving (AF ), days open (DO), number of service per conception (N ), calving interval (CI), lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL). Data recorded in the Holeta Bull Dam Station from 1997 to 2003 and in Genesis arms from1996 to 2005was used for this study. the independent variables considered included location, birth year and season calving year and season and parity while AF , AF , DO cr, N , LMY and LL were the dependent variables. Data were analyzed using The General Linear Models procedure (GLM) of the Statistical Analy is System (A 2002). The results indicated that the overall least squares means (± standard error) of AF , AFC, D , cr, N C, LMY and LL were 733 ±16 days, 1001 ± 17days, 202 ± 13 days, 470 ±12day , 2 ± 1, 4097± 1491liters and 301±91days, respcctively. Location had highly significant (p
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    Epidemiological Study And Zoonotic Importance of Bovine Salmonellosis in Selecteo Sites of Adois Auaua, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 1999-12) Nyeleti, Charles; Sinyangwe, P.G(PhD)
    A cross-sectional study was carried out for the period of 6 months in selected sites of Addis Ababa in order to determine the prevalence and distribution of Salmonel/a in the cattle chain fj'om abattoir to the consumer. The sources analyzed were pooled cattle faeces, pooled mesenteric Iymphnodes, single muscles from the diaphragm as well as \i'om the abdominal region. Additional minced beef from supermarkets destined for human consumption and additinally stool samples from the abattoir personnel were included in the survey. The iso lated Salmonella- strains were serotyped and resistance against antibiotics determined. for the culture method, the technique recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579, 1998) was chosen. Antimicrobial results were analyzed based on the descrption by A VlD (1987). All the data collected on the pl'evalence and Salmollella distribution Irom the samples were presented in form of tables and figures. The Chi- Square test analyzed stati stically whether there was association between Salmollella prevalence with animal condition or mode of transport conditions, supermarkets or storage conditions in supermarkets. Analyzing prevalence and distribution of Salmonel/a from 235 abattoir cattle randomly selected samples leads to the following results: in 47 pooled samples of faeces (containing five samples) 5 Salmollel/a strains (10.6 %) were isolated, in 47 pooled samples of mesenteric Iymphnodes there were 9 strains (19.6 %). In 235 single samples of the abdominal (oblique and transverse muscle) 23 (9.8 %) and in 235 diaphragmatic muscles 28 Salmonella were found (11.9 %). From 300 stool samples of the abattoir personnel in 18 cases (6.0 %) Salmollella were isolated. Minced beef from the 22 supermarkets with an overall of 330 samples contai ned in 26 of the units (7.9 %) Salmollella cases. In the entire study, 98 surviving Salmollel/a strains were serotyped and identified as 27 S. Anatum, 53 S. Dublin, 5 S. Meleagridis, 1 S. Muenchen, 9 S. Saintpaul alld 3 S. rough form. From the pooled samples of faeces 4 S. Dublin and I S. Muenchen, of the pooled samples of mesenteric Iympllllodes 3 S. Analum and 2 S. Dubl in have been found. In single samples of abdominal muscl es 18 S. Dublin and 3 S Anatum and in diaphragmatic muscle samples 2 1 S. Dublin and 2 S. Anatum occurred. The cattle specific S. Dublin was the most dominant serovar in all the cattle samples. The 18 Salmollel/a iso lates from the abaltoir personnel consisted of 7 S. Aantum, 4 S. Dublin, 5 S. Meleagridis and 2 Salmonella roughforms. In this case S. Allalllll/ was the most predomi nant serovar fo llowed by S. Meleagridis which was never iso lated from the cattle chain. From minced beef 26 Salmol/ella strains were cultivated comprising 12 S. Anatum, 4 S. Dublin, 9 S. Saintpaul and 1 S. rough form. 3 Salmonella serotypes, (2 S. Anatum, I S. Dublin and 6 S. Saintpaul) originated fi'om Kaliti abatloir. In this of Kara abattoir all 3 strains belonged to S. Saintpaul. In llIinced meat originating from Addis Ababa lOS. Anatum, 3 S. Dublin and I S. rough form but no S. Saintpaul were found. In all the samples of Addis Ababa abattoir (faeces, mesenteric I ymphnodes, beef cuts and minced meat) no S. Saintpaul was detected neither. The 98 Salmonella isolates were tested for resistance against the seventeen antibioti cs. This result is an indication of rarely using antimicrobial agents in Ethiopian cattle, hence no drug resistance was observed during the antimicrobial tests. Low prevalence of Salmonella in the li ving cattle, indicated by low isolation rates from faeces and Iymphnodes, at one hand and high Salmonella prevalence in samples of beef cuts (abdominal and diaphragmatic muscles) on the other hand lead to the conclusion that there must have been severe contamination during the skinning process as a resu lt of bad hygiene during subsequent dressing operations. To reduce the Salmonella burden to the public it is therefore essential to improve the hygienic conditions at slaughterhouse and to slaughter only health animals. In future there should be planned a study containing all the meat products with a considered Salmonella contamination risk to quantify the total hazard of Salmonella infection for the consumer.
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    Contrlbution to the Knowledge of the Epidedemology of Peste Des Petits Ruminats in Wolle and East Shewa Zones of Etillopia
    (AAU, 2001-12) Mohammed Ali, Elzein Bashir; Greiner, Matthias
    A study was carried Qur to eSl1m~lIe the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants>. (PPR) In East Shewa north wollo and South Wollo in Ethiopia and to assess potential risk fractors of thedisease and the economic feasibihty of control by vaccination. The study consisteJ of three parts retrospectiv study (RPS) based on the analysis of a combination of serum bank salmples and samples collected during active search for the disease ( AS) .an active starch for the disease with ultimate aim at ViruS isolation and antigen detection and a retrospective analysis of data collected by the veterinary service (RVET). This study designed to estimate the level of sero-prevalence in the three zones. Dlfferent gourp age groups difierent sex groups and species, the spatial distribution of the disease,. risk factors associated with the disease occurrence and the economic feasibility of conducung a control progrmme. The result of testing 1472 sera with competitive enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) was used to estimate the sera – prevalence.
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    Bacteriological Quality of Bovine Milk in Small Hollder Dairy Farms In Debre Zeit, Ethiopa
    (AAU, 2004-06) Wubete Yirsaw, Alehegne; Molla, Bayleyegn (PhD)
    The critical control l point in milk handling, determination of bacterial load of In milk at each critical control points and farm water, isolation and identification of bacterial pathgens in milk were determined from .september2003 to march 2004 .A total f 178 raw milk ample form various critical points , and 77 farm water sample were taken three times from 27 small holder dairy farm of Adaa-Libcn district dairy and dairy products producers and marketing co-operative society Pasteurized milk sample (n= 100) were taken from mama milk processing plant. Specific gravity alcohol and Californian mastitis were used as screening test and total aerobic plate counts (TA P C) and coliforrn count • from milk and the most probable num be r (MPN ) of coliforn count from farm water were conducted. Isolation and identification of the bacteria in the milk was conducted following standard method.
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    Calf Morbidity and Mortality in Dairy Farms in Debre Zeit and Its Environs, Ethiopla
    (AAU, 2004-06) Temesgen Jemberu, Wudu; Belihu, KeJay (PhD); Kassa, Tesfu (Prof); Hailemarian, Mekoonen (PhD)
    A longitudinal prospective observational study on calf morbidity and mortality in dairy faons in Dcbre Zeit and its environs was conducted from October II, 2003 to April 8, 2004 with the objective of describ ing incidence of calf morbidity and mortality, investigating potential risk factors related to calf morbidity and mortality and identification ofsomc pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. A total of236 cah'cs, 51 from three large dairy famls and a random sample of 185 calves from market oriented smallholder dairy famls in Ocbre Zeit and its surrounding were included in the study. Each calf was ind ividually identified and regu larly monitored for clinical health problems up to an age of six months. Infomlation on different potential risk factors were collected by personal observation during the regular visit to farms and from questionnaire survey conducted during the study. Fecal samples were also collected from diarrheic calves for laboratory examination to detect entropathogens involved. The overall incidences of crude morbidity and crude mortality found in this study were 61.5% and 18.0%, respectively. Disease conditions/syndromes that were diagnosed in calves included diarrhea, p.neumonia, navel ill, joint ill, septicemic conditions, congenital problems and other miscellaneous cases. The most frequent disease syndrome was calf diarrhea with the incidence of 42.9% followed by pneumonia (4.9%). The incidence of calf diarrhea and crude morbidity were apparently higher in large dairy farms than in the market o riented smallholder farms. However, the mortality was higher in the latter. A total of 20 potential risk factors were investigated for their association with the risk of crude calf morbidity, crude calf mortality and calf diarrhea using Cox's proportional hazard model. Age was the only factor thai was found significantly associated with risk of crude calf mortality (HR= 0.04, P= 0.001). Older calves above three months age were at lower risk of mortality than younger calves under three months of age. When weaned calves were considered, weanin~ age and age at first colostrum feeding were additional risk factors. Among the risk factors examined, those found significantly associated with the incidence of crude morbidity were age of the calves. age at first colostrum ingestion and cleanness of the calf house. Older calves were at lower risk of crude morbidity (HR=O.42, P = 0.001) than younger calves. Higher risk of crude morbidity were observed in calves that ingested their first colostrum meal later than 6 hours of age as compared with those that ingested before 6 V[[] hours (HR = 2.24, P = 0.001). Sim ila rly calves housed at unclean house were at higher risk of crude morbidity than those housed in clean house (HR = 1.75, P = 0.024). Risk factors with sign ifica nt assoc iation to calf diarrhea were age, condition of birth and cleanness of calf house. Older age was again associated with low ri sk of diarrhea as compared with younger age (HR = 0.24, P = 0.000). Calves from prolonged labor or dystocia (HR = 3.01, P = 0.002) and housed at unclean house (HR = 2.34, P = 0.011) were at greater ri sk of diarrhea than those calves from !lonnal delivery and in c lean house, respectively. Based on laboratory examination, Sa/monella and Cryptosporidium were detected from diarrheic calves at ' rate of 2/55(3.6%) and 4/55(7.2%), respectively. The serotypes of Salmonella identified were Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmol/ella Heidelberg both of which were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics. In conclusion, the incidence of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were high and could affect the productivity of the dairy famls through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock. Among the management risk factors investigated, time of first colostrum ingestion and cleanness of the calf house were found very important; incidentally, these two aspects of calf management are easy for observation and carrying out appropriate interventions. Implementation of good calf management in these areas could contribute in the reduction of the -high calf disease problems seen in this study_ Salmollella and Cryptosporidilln/ were found in diarrheic calves and these pathogens in addition to their role in calf diarrhea, are potent zoonotics. Individuals particu larly very young, elderly and immunocompromised, in contact with calves are al a potential risk of infection and therefore, efforts should be mounted to avoid such risks.
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    Seropreva Alence Study of Brucellosis in Cattle and Human in Bahirdar Milkshed
    (AAU, 2005-06) Hailemelekot, Mussie; . Asfaw, Yilkal (PhD); Kassa, Tesfu (Prof)
    A Cross – Sectional Study Was Conducted In South Gondar, West Gojjam And Awi Zones of Amhara Regional State, Between October 2004 And March 2005, to Determine the Sero – Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle and Humans as Well as to Identify the Likely Potential Risk Factors. Two Sage Cluster – Sampling Was Employed, by Which 11 towns as Identified Primary Units and 195 Farms as Secondary Units in Semi – Intensive Production System. Similarly, 29 Peasant Associations as Primary Units and 145 Individual Cattle Owners as Secondary Units Were Selected for the Extensive Production System. in the Government Cattle Breeding Ranch all Eligible Cattle Were Sampled. Human Risk Groups Were Sampled Using Purposive Sampling Method. the Study Methods Involved Collection Serum Sample, Data, Questionnaire Surveys and Serological Tests Conducted in Laboratoris. Accordingly, 1944 Cattle (341 Clusters in the Three Production Systems)Were Sampled. the Sampling Involved all Cattle Above 6 Months of Age With No History of Previous Vaccination Against Brucellosis. the Number of Cattle Sampled in Extensive, Semi – Intensive and Ranch Were 864, 754 and 326, Respectively. the Types of Tests Used to Detect the Presence of Brucella Antibodies Were Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) as Sereening Test, and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) as Confirmatory Test, Results of The Two Tests Were Interpreted Serially. A Cluster Was Said to Be Positive if at Least one Animal Reacts Positively by Both RBPT And CFT.