Serological Studies on Bovine and Human Leptospirosis in Wonji, East Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


A cross sectional study design, consisting serological and questionnaire surveys, was applied to assess the occurrence of leptospirosis in cattle and humans in Wonji from October 2008 to April 2009. Consequently, the seropositivity percentage for leptospirosis in human patients visiting hospital and health center in Wonji and the seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans sv Hardjo in apparently healthy cattle was determined by using Leptospira IgM ELISA and Leptospira Hardjo antibody ELISA respectively. The overall seropositivity percentage of human leptospirosis was found to be 72.S% (n=298) and that of cattle was 30.4% (n=204). In this study assessment of risk factors associated with human leptospirosis was carried out based on semi-structured questionnaire survey. Regardless of wide distribution of the risk factors included in this study, statistical analysis of relationship between the variables showed that only occupation, animal contact and sampling sites were significantly associated (p<O.OS) with seropositivity of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis seropositivity occurred in all human age groups observed in this study, with more frequenc of occurrence in individuals aged between 20 to SO years of age although no significant statistical difference among age groups. There was no significant difference between sexes on ELISA test result. Signs and symptoms manifested by the sampled patients were highly distributed, but no statistical significance was observed. Analysis of the occupational risk showed that housewives were found to be most frequently reactive to Leptospira IgM ELISA ~est as compared to sugarcane factory and government employees. Moreover, Leptospirosis seropositivity was significantly higher (p<O.OS) in human cases having animal contact as compared to those who had no animal contact. Leptospira interrogans sv Hardjo anitibody test was underway to measure the prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle. Out of 204 samples tested, 62 were positive, with no significant difference · (p<O.OS) between sex and sampling locations. The animals sampled were apparently healthy and the high prevalence (30.4%) of Leptospira interrogans sv Hardjo, which is pathogenic to humans, suggests the existence of considerable risk posed by animal contact. Generally, this study emphasizes the potential public health importance of • - ~ ~ ic; in the study area, where the cause of fever usually remains obscure because of limited laboratory diagnostic facilities. VI To contain the disease, public awareness on the transmission routes, and health and economic importance of leptospirosis should be implemented particularly in Wonji and generally in other sim ilar areas that may support the maintenance of leptospirosis spread. Virtually no work has been done in Ethiopia regarding the veterinary and public health significance of leptospirosis that renders it as a forgotten disease with paramount health and economic importance. Veterinarians and physicians should make collaborative further investigation on leptospirosis epidemiology, control and prevention. Keywords: Bovine, ELISA, Human Cases, Hardjo, IgM, Leptospirosis, Prevalence



Bovine, ELISA, Human Cases, Hardjo, IgM, Leptospirosis, Prevalence