Physics Education

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    The effect of Dialogic-Practical Work Approach on Secondary School Students’ Physics Learning outcomes
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-07) Ewonetu Bantie Belay; Mekbib Alemu (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the dialogic-practical work approach on secondary school students’ physics learning outcomes. A mixed method, concurrent research design was used to collect and analyze data before, during, and after the dialogic-practical work approach sessions. In this study, 91 participants from two governmental secondary schools in Bahir Dar City, Amhara, Ethiopia were involved. The treatment group and the comparison group conducted a dialogic-practical work approach and a recipe-based practical work approach respectively in secondary school physics laboratories. Quantitative data was collected through multiple choice test items, questionnaires, and observation checklist rubrics. Video recordings of small group discussions and semi-structured interviews were used as qualitative data. To analyze the quantitative data t-tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression were performed. Video recordings and semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Results indicated that the dialogic-practical work approach significantly improved secondary school students’ mechanics achievement, science process skills, attitudes toward physics, and epistemic beliefs about physics compared to the recipe-based practical work approach. Moreover, the dialogic-practical work approach improved female and male students’ physics learning outcomes irrespective of gender differences observed between them. The results also revealed that the dialogic-practical work approach significantly and progressively improved students’ scientific argumentation skills from the beginning to the final session. The results from the qualitative analysis showed that students’ dialogic talk moves focused on cumulative and exploratory talks. They showed improvements in their exploratory talks. These results revealed that the dialogic-practical work approach has a positive impact on students’ physics learning outcomes. The results, however, revealed that students had difficulties providing evidence, arguments, and counterarguments to the expected level during the dialogic-practical work approach. Students struggled with changing a claim when encountering inconsistent information. Applying dialogic-practical work approach can help secondary school students develop physics learning outcomes. Keywords: Attitudes towards physics; Dialogic-Practical work approach; Epistemic Beliefs about Physics; Mechanics Achievement; Recipe-based practical work; Scientific argumentation skills; Science process skills.
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    Effect of Dialogic Argumentation on Grade Eight Students Eepistemic Knowledge of Science: A Mixed Methods Design
    (AAU, 2020-12) Tarekegn, Getachew; Hardman, Mark (Professor
    This dissertation aims to explore the effect of dialogic argumentation on grade 8 students' epistemic knowledge of science in physics learning and to identify the practices and challenges faced to promote epistemic knowledge through dialogic argumentation. The study used a mixed methods experimental design research approach where a quasi experimental design was employed to compare experimental, and control groups' epistemic knowledge of science and a collective case study design was employed to identify teachers' challenges in promoting students' epistemic knowledge in argumentation lessons. Fourteen classrooms were randomly selected from twelve schools and assigned to intervention (239 students from seven classrooms) and control (240 students from seven classrooms) groups. A pre-intervention physics reasoning test was administered to both groups and small group classroom discussions were video recorded. Then, physics teachers in the intervention group had trained for three days about dialogic argumentation and its implementation. In addition, Talking Physics Students Activities manual, that contains fifty-two argumenattives physics activities were distributed and used in a yearlong dialogic argumentation intervention. Post intervention data were obtained from a physics reasoning test administered to both groups, video records of small group classroom discussions from both groups and whole-class teaching and audio records of teacher interviews from intervention group. The test scores and the quantized qualitative data of small group discussions were analyzed using inferential statistics. Video data of classroom teaching were quantitized using quantitative ethnography and analyzed using epistemic network analysis. Teachers interviews were also qualitatively analyzed using a thematic analysis. Mann-Whitney U test results indicated that the post-test iv scores of grade 8 students in the argumentaion lessons significantly increased in their level of epistemic knowledge compared to the non-argumentation groups, z = - 4.509, p = .000, and r = .21, but not in the pre-test scores, z = - 1.038 and p = .299. However, both pre- and post test scores of both groups were relatively low. The intervention groups showed significant improvements in the quality of their argumentation on the ASAC scale, z = 2.111, p = .035, and r = .56, but not the control groups, z = 1.068 and p = .285. The epistemic network analysis of the wholeclass teaching in the intervention group showed weak and less frequent connections epistemic aims, epistemic processes of construction, justification, and evaluation of knowledge. The study found evidence that argumentation-based lessons improved both the epistemic knowledge and the quality of dialogic argumentations of grade 8 students and that students' level of epistemic knowledge and the quality of their dialogic argumentations were strongly correlated. However, teachers had failed to teach argumentation as an epistemic practice. To make a better use of dialogic argumentation, therefore, well-thought-out and research-supported training needs to be given to science teachers as part of their continuous professional development. Future studies are necessary to address the effects of such trainings and to determine if there are other hidden factors, apart from teachers' inadequacy, that affect students' epistemic knowledge of science.
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    Practices, Opportunities and Challenges of Skills and Work Related Prison Rehabilitation Programs at Kaliti Prisoners Correction Center
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-06) Tilahun, Abebaw; Minaye, Abebaw (PhD)
    Inmates are not permanently criminal and it is possible to restore them. The main objective of this study was to assess practices, opportunities and challenges of skill and work related prison rehabilitation programs at Kaliti correction and rehabilitation center. A mixed method and concurrent convergent parallel design was employed. A quantitative data was collected from 131 inmates selected through simple random sampling among those who were participating in the rehabilitation program. Qualitative data was gathered from nine participants using Semi structured interview guide and document review was made. The quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analyses. The findings of the study showed that, Majority of Inmates (62.6%) who participated in the skill and work related rehabilitation program had a high extent of involvement in the rehabilitation program and 76.3% of them perceived the program as successful. Three key factors were identified as challenges of the rehabilitation program that were administrative related challenges, infrastructural or resource related challenges and inmates motivation related challenges. However, there were different opportunities to improve the rehabilitation program like the support of concerned stakeholders and NGOs. Yet, the prison administration failed to use such opportunities. Moreover, this study revealed that, there was significant perception difference between male and female inmates towards practices, opportunities and challenges of the rehabilitation program. But no difference was observed among inmates in terms of their age group, educational status and participation years with exception of resource related challenges that showed significance difference between inmates who completed high school and those who had diploma. Regarding perception of inmates towards the success of the rehabilitation program no difference was observed among inmates based on their sex, age group and educational status. The major conclusion of the study is that there is both high involvement and positive perception of inmates towards the rehabilitation program even if the program faced with many challenges. So, based on this conclusion recommendations were made. Key words: Rehabilitation, Skills training, Work program, Inmates.
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    The Development of the Features of Positive Youth Development among Youth Who Are Practicing Circus Art at Fekat Circus Club in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-07) Biru, Abaynesh; Desie, Yekoyealem (PhD)
    This study has explored the development of the features of Positive Youth Development (PYD) which are the Five Cs (Caring, Character, Connection, Competence and Confidence) among youth at Fekat Circus Club in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 35 participants of whom 24 were permanently practicing circus and 11 trainees who were under training took part in the study. The research used a mixed method design to examine the real life contextual understandings regarding the circus art and the development of the features of PYD at Fekat Circus Club. The quantitative data was collected using the short version of the measurement scale of Positive Youth Development developed by John Gheldof (2014) based on the original measuring scale developed by Lerner, (2005), whereas the qualitative data was collected through interviews with those who were managing the club, trainers, trainees, and technical advisor. The responses from all interviewees supported the result from the quantitative data that development of the features of PYD were significant among youth who were practicing circus art. Results showed that participants of the study had highest means in all the Five Cs and respondents confirmed that the features of PYD were manifested on themselves and friends. It is recommended that it will be important to exert efforts to raise the level of awareness of the community, government bodies and other stakeholders to consider circus art as a tool to PYD so that it can get the necessary support and input to grow and serve the youth population
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    Parental Beliefs, Values and Practices of Child Rearing Among the Kechene Parents in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-11) Worku, Bruktawit; Zewdie, Teka (PhD)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences of parents‟ values and beliefs and the influence of these parental values during childrearing practices in parents Kechene community, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Grounded theory guided the data analysis and interpretation processes of the study. The participant of the study were parents raising children in Kechene community and active member of the community, who regularly engage in vital functions of the community such as community leaders and teachers (n=30, 12 fathers & 18 mothers). Data has been collected through semi-structured interview (n=10) and FGD (two groups of 10 parents). Around 80% of the parents reported that the desired values their children to inherit in obedience, religiosity, collective/social, patriotic (love their country), compliant and hardworking behaviors, whereas, the undesired values that their children must not inherit are bad behaviors (deception, disrespecting others and stealing), disobedience and being substance addict. Almost all parents believe that children are gift from God and others added that children as assets, who support their parents and younger siblings later in life, whereas, others believe that children are destiny of life. More than threefold of the parents also favor disciplining by physical punishment with proper intensity as well as accept parental involvement to include both fathers and mothers in the socialization process starting from the early age. Most parents expressed that parental values and beliefs influence their childrearing practice in a way that more or less they agree that they believe in inheritance of their religious values and cultural sex role execution that gives boys more freedom than girls. Implications for future research and practice called for the importance of developing and using contextual knowledge to help parents receive appropriate intervention.
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    Assessing Teachers’ Attitude towards the Inclusion of Students with Autism in Selected Schools in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-11) Yilma, Assel; Ayalew, Moges (PhD)
    The purpose of this research is to assess teachers’ attitude towards the inclusion of students with autism in Addis Ababa in the general education classroom highlighting individual teacher characteristics and factors that can potentially be in agreement or disagreement with inclusion. To this end, mixed methods of research approach were employed where explanatory sequential mixed methodsof design, which quantitative (survey) and qualitative (phenomenological) research design or strategies were implemented respectively.Interview questions ware used as data gathering tools. The responses were interpreted and analysed using descriptive, ANOVA and post-hoc comparison analysis methods. Data were collected from a strata formed containing two from each setting governmental, private local and private foreign schools with a population of 375 teachers, then out of the strata formed 180 randomly selected sample for the survey and 10 participant for the interview question through a demographic questionnaire and a modified version of the Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion Scale (TATIS, Cullen, Gregory& Noto, 2010) and using interview questions for the purpose of triangulation. Teacher attitude toward inclusion of students with autism as measured by the modified TA TIS was overall positive. A statistically significant result was noted with the TATIS Full Scale score and the following teacher characteristics: severity level of autism and having basic autism training. A statistically significant difference was noted between regular and special education teachers and between governmental and private school teachers when assessing teachers’ attitude towards the inclusion of children living with autism. At last the researcher recommended that there should be a support system that can reduce regular teacher exhaustion to teach autistic student with different levels of severity, that regular and special need teacher must be provided with adequate formal and basic training, government should strengthen special need program and produce more special need teacher trained specifically towards the disability and provide enabling resource and setting and at last but not least incentives and acknowledgment for teachers working with these student are few recommendation given which can remedy the situation at hand.
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    Psychological Well-being of Married and Unmarried Postgraduate Students in the College of Education and Behavioral Studies, Addis Ababa University
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-06) Bedilu, Nebiyou; Tefera, Belay (PhD)
    The objective of this study was to compare the psychological well-being of married and unmarried postgraduate students in Addis Ababa University.Quantitative method was employed to achieve the research objectives. For this purpose, 300 (200 male and 100 female) postgraduate students of the College of Education and Behavioral Studiesof Addis Ababa University were selected throughsimple random, stratified, and systematic sampling techniques.A psychological wellbeing scale (Ryff, 1989) with demographic questions wereused to collect data. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and t-test were conducted for data analysis. Findings revealed that unmarried students were found to have a significantly lower psychological wellbeing as compared to the married postgraduate students. Results from Pearson correlation analysis also revealed that Education level was significantly and positively correlated with psychological wellbeing whereas marital status was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological wellbeing. Age was not significantly related with psychological wellbeing.Therefore, the media, professional and religious institutions, family and the society at large has to teach those young men and women about the benefits of being married boldly
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    Maternal Attitudes towards Giving Birth in Some Selected Health Facilities and its Associated factors in kirkos Sub-city Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2018-11) Assefa, Million; Wuhib, Tigest (PhD)
    The major objective of the present study is to examine the attitudes of mothers towards giving birth in some selected health facilities, whether their attitudes varies across the selected health facilities, selected demographic variables and its relation with service provided in the health facilities. For these reason, a quantitative non experimental research design employed which allows descriptive method. Both random and non-random sampling methods were employed. The study was conducted in Kirkos sub city, since it have large population size with more exposure to modernity, urbanization and industrialization as well as well-known former health facilities available, compared to the other sub cities. Specifically, using simple random sampling among the woredas in the sub city, woreda 02 selected and using anon- random sampling which was purposive the health facilities were selected since the only available health facilities that gave maternity service were only the two selected health facilities which was Efoyita health center and Marie Stops International private clinic Ethiopia. A total of 500 participants each 250 from private and 250 from public were participated. In addition, data were generated from primary sources using quantitative methods (Likert scaled questionnaires). In order to report research questions data were analyzed using independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient techniques. Consequently, the current study generally revealed several important findings about maternal attitude in giving birth in the selected health facilities. First, That maternal attitude varies across the private and the public health facilities. Second maternal attitude in giving birth varies by the level of education and number of children that the mother have. Third, maternal attitude do not vary across the health facilities by age and residence. Fourth, that maternal attitude is strongly related with quality of service provided in the selected health facilities. Moreover, based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were drawn. Maternal attitude differs in the individual health facilities and that maternal attitude influences preference of place to give birth, mothers with higher level of education and low number of children have better attitude in giving birth in the selected health facilities and that quality of service provided by the health facilities influences maternal attitude. Key words: maternal attitude, private health facility, public health facility.
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    Job Related Stress and Familial Relationship among Addis Ababa Police Commission Crime Prevention Officers
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-10) Ababiya, Kagnu; Kassaye, Demelash (PhD)
    This study was conducted to determining major sources of police job related stress and its effects among police officers’ familial relationship. By its nature police job is accompany with cruelest, disruptive and distrustful aspects of the humanity on the customary bases along with poor organizational atmosphere, low personal income, family related prob-lems, poor social health and clearly bureaucratic nature of the organization. The descrip-tive survey supplemented with qualitative methods was used to examine possible sources of police job related stress and its effects in familial relationship. The study population (N=150) it comprises police officers from different genders and rank levels from Addis Ababa police commission crime prevention unit deployed in 6 areal community police stations in Nifes Silk Lafeto- sub-city. The findings shows that even though the officers had enormous sources of job related stress and the coping mechanism implemented to reduce the effects of job related stress in the familial relationship was poor; the familial relationship of officers was identified as doing well. Finally, different recommendations were forwarded by police seniors and by the police supervisors to the police commission in order to supply facilities which can aid officers to reduce job related stress and its ef-fects in the familial relationship.
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    The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Marginalization and Students’ Academic Achievement, The Case of Manjosocial Group in Kafa Zone
    (Addis Ababa University, 2017-10) Gebru, Amare; Wondimu, Habtamu (Professor)
    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between socio economic marginalization and students’ academic achievement, the case of Manjo students in kefa zone. (South Western Ethiopia) In this study, students from Manjo cultural group and the mainstream Kefa, teachers and school directors, education experts, community leaders and coordinators of Nongovernmental organizations have participated. Student roaster is another source of data for the study. The methods used in this study is ethnographic. Quantitative data is also used only where it is necessary. Socio economic Scale, interview, and document analysis were the instruments used for data collection. The findings of the study indicated that Manjo families have low socio economic status the bi-variate analysis has indicated that Manjo students’ low academic achievement is strongly correlated with their socio economic marginalization. According to the findings, Manjo students with bright mined are at disappointment because of social exclusion and economic marginalization. As a result, their academic achievement in all levels of schooling is by far behind Non-Manjo students. Parent’s educational background, occupation of parents, type of house, monthly per capita income, study hour and family support are the major factors influencing Manjo students’ academic achievement. The recommendation includes Economic Empowerment of Manjo cultural group, Educating and mobilizing the society against discriminatory attitudes and practices, encouraging the participation of Manjo in social, economic and political life, and providing training for teachers, principals and Parent-Teacher Associations (PTA) on how to handle students with diverse cultural background etc Keywords: Socio economic, marginalization, achievement, Inclusion
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    The Attitudes of Students with Visual Impairments Toward Physical Education
    (Addis Ababa University, 2001-06) Abdi, Degefa; Omer, Yusuf(PhD)
    This study was conducted in Ormiya Region West Shoa zone two schools- namely Bako and Sebeta schools for the Blinds. Its attempt was to disclose the attitudes related to physical education encountered by children with visual impairments. 100 subjects of whom 60 males and 40 females were part of the study. Questionnaire was the main instrument of the study which was adapted from the Standard Attitude Survey Test of Seaman's (J 970) Attitude Inventory. School directors and physical education teachers were interviewed with the help of an interview protocol designed for discussion. The main findings of the study was that students with visual impairments were in favor of physical education irrespective of sex, age and grade level. On the other hand, teachers of physical education were found to be indifferent to teaching physical education to visually impaired children and were less interested in their profession. Interestingly, the congenitally and totally blind students were the ones who were found to favor physical education than the adventitiously and partially sighted students. In fact, though these students seem to favor physical education as a subject, they were viii found to oppose the grading that enables them promote from grades to grades. Finally, the findings call the attention of MOE, MOLSA, Ethiopian Disabled Peoples' Sports Federation and concerned NGOs to focus on special education programs in general and physical education in particular so that better work could be done to promote quality physical education programs at schools.
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    Assessment of Quality of Graduate Studies at Addis Ababa University: the Case of Selected Programs in College of Education and Behavioral Studies
    (Addis Ababa University, 2010-11) Gikamo, Bekele; Jebessa, Firdissa (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of education in selected graduate programs at the College of Education and Behavioral Studies (CEBS), AAU. The sample programs were selected on the basis of purposive and availability sampling techniques. The study examined the perceptions of academic community about quality of education, curriculum design and development practices, academic staff profile, students profile and the state of non-human resources as the key issues in assessing the quality of programs. For this purpose, one of the Mixed Methods Design, Concurrent Triangulation was used. Both qualitative and quantitative data were simultaneously collected using Interview, FGD with graduate students, Questionnaires and document review. Data obtained from interviews, FGD, and open-ended questionnaires were analyzed qualitatively, while close-ended questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively using frequency and percentages. The results of the analysis showed that the sampled graduate programs at the CEBS have fairly qualified academic staff while the number and composition is found to be inadequate. There were poor provision of teaching-learning resources such as recent books and journals in the library system. Its location and the physical facilities were found to be inadequate to sit and study for longer hours. ICT applications including the Internet services to both instructors and students were rated as very poor. Regarding the classrooms, both instructors and students have expressed their felt need that there is shortage, mismanagement, and lack of facilities such as chairs, light, plugs and related equipments. Hence, it was found that research activities both by instructors and graduate students were inadequate. Graduate students have also complained of the inconvenience they face due to lack of accommodation services which they should have been provided by the University and its impact on their academic performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that such shortcomings would badly affect the quality of graduate programs. Hence, it is recommended that the CEBS/AAU should invest on resources in the way of improving the existing adverse situations encountered in the teaching- learning processes of the graduate programs