Journalism and Communication

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    Broadcasters Role in Bringing Social Change: A Social Cognitive Theory Based Examination of Health Promotion Messages Produced by BBC Media Action in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-06) Tihut Tilahun; Tadesse Zinaye (Ass. Prof.)
    In this paper, efforts have been made to examine the role of broadcasters in bringing social change by analyzing the message contents of the radio magazine programmes and Public Service Announcements (PSAs) produced by BBC Media Action in Ethiopia and broadcasted in collaboration with different local media organizations. The paper uses a qualitatively dominated analysis with a little statistical analysis. Content analysis using social cognitive theory and the health belief model has been employed as a dominant analysis strategy. Based on the findings, it has been confirmed that the broadcasted radio programmes and PSAs have the power to motivate the targeted audience through properly introducing the health habits, by giving in-depth instruction for better health practices, and showing the negative outcomes of failing to abide by the health behavior are provided in the messages of the programmes. In addition to that, the finding indicates message contents that could help the community to boost self-efficacy have been incorporated. In the same manner, it has also been confirmed that the PSAs contain messages that demand actions from listeners as the messages contain concepts of social cognitive theory and health belief models, and persuasive messages were also part of it. Key challenges such as lack of infrastructure, poor living standards, illiteracy, and some security issues have also been identified as a major challenge in bringing social change through BBC Media Action programmes as intended. Based on the key findings the researcher forwarded an insightful recommendation that help to improve the effectiveness of such kind of programmes implemented in rural Ethiopia.
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    An Assessement of the Implement of Media Regulatory Policy in Ethiopia: the Case of Selected Five Media
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-08) Mahlet Abdul; Dr. Mulatu Alemayehu
    The main purpose of the current study was to assess how media policy and regulation implemented in Ethiopia. The overall objectives were to assess the implementation of the media regulatory policy with an emphasis on the Ethiopian Press Agency (EPA), Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation (EBC), Fana Broadcasting Corporate, Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation (EBC), Reporter Newspaper and Capital newspaper.The study focuses on media proclamation1238/2021. Research designs are types of inquiry with qualitative method approaches that provide specific direction for procedures in a research study, whereas research methods involve the forms of data collection, analysis, and interpretation that researchers propose for the studies. A qualitative approach is better suited to allow the researcher to investigate initial participant responses by using open-ended questions asking "why" or "how" so that the respondents can give detailed answers with full freedom and flexibility. To achieve this objective, data collected from the reporters,and assistant editors, editor in chiefs, on selected five media organizations were analyzed by using percentage form to interpret on descriptive way. In order to get the research participants, the researcher apply a non-probability sampling technique, snowball and purposeful sampling. The study used a sample of 120 participants from the total size of the five media outlets in the institutions. The major findings of the study are therefore; editorial policy of those selected five medias is not in line with the national media regulatory policy and other media policies, regulation, and proclamations. This is because journalists to access the policy, less publicity of the media regulatory policy and training in the media institution. Key words: - Media, Media policy, media regulatory policy, editorial policy, training, creating awareness.
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    Internal Organisational Communication Audit of Hibret Bank Head Office.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Tirusew Geresu; Samson Mekonnen (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the internal organizational communication of Hibret Bank Head Office. This study adopted a hybrid communication satisfaction questionnaire administered to 138 respondents and In-depth interview was conducted with four chief officers. In the study descriptive statistical method of analysis is used to analyse the quantitative data and the quantitative data was analysed through descriptive statistical method of analysis using SPSS .The findings in the study indicated that the internal organizational communication at Hibret Bank Head Office Addis Ababa is characterized mostly by down ward communication and inconsistent information flow. The communication channels are also designed to serve only downward communication. Much is needed to enhance the internal organizational communication at Hibret Bank. As shown in the findings of the study the internal organizational communication mostly serves to communicate employees about policies, procedures, manual and changes within the bank. Upward and Downward communication at Hibret Bank is found to be weak based on the findings from the questionnaire and the interview. Though there is a platform which is used as private conversation channel between employees and the Chief Executive Officer the information flow in the bank should be revised. To this end upward and horizontal communication directions should be deployed to have effective and efficient internal organization communication within the bank as clearly stated in the findings of the questionnaire and the in-depth interview. It is also revealed in the study finding that the overall internal organizational communication practice at Hibret Bank Head Office should be revisited. Moreover, the communication channels need to be tailored to serve its intended purpose and also enable employees to actively engage in the internal communication process. Key Words: Organizational communication, Communication audit, Measurement
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    Public relations practice and challenges in multinational Companies in Ethiopia: A descriptive study of coca cola beverage Africa and Multi-Choice.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Yosef Shumye; Tadesse Zinaye(Asst.Prof)
    Through effective communication, the fields of public relations have grown dramatically in order to build relationships between an organization and its key publics. The purpose of this thesis is to look into the practice of public relations in Coca-Cola beverage Africa-Ethiopia and multi- choice Ethiopia. It took the form of a qualitative case study. The study's target was on public relations professionals. The information was gathered through a qualitative in-depth interview and a document review. The researcher used a qualitative data analysis and interpretation strategy. The major findings of the study indicate the Public Relations practice in the study area is in a good condition with few things to be corrected. The public relations departments in both companies under study have a management function. The public relations department in coca cola beverage Africa -Ethiopia directly reports to the CEO but the department at multi-choice reports to corporate affairs. Both the public relations departments have a smooth relationship with their respective head quarters. Budget dependence and lack of human power was mentioned as major challenges for multi- choice Ethiopia public relations department. While at coca cola beverage Africa –the political instability in Ethiopia and the continuously changing of business related are the major challenges. The researcher recommended multi-choice Ethiopia to structure the department independently and hire additional human power to the team. Building strong government relations and investing more on corporate social responsibility are among reconditions given for coca cola beverage Africa- Ethiopia.
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    New Media Practices in Learning and Teaching Process during the Covid-19 Pandemic: In the case of Addis Ababa University Students and Instructors.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Amakelech Shibru; Agaredech Jemaneh (PhD)
    The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a shift in education from face-to-face classes to onlineclasses. However, students and teachers faced many challenges in utilizing new technologiesfor learning and teaching.This study examined student and instructor practices regarding theuse of new media during the Covid-19 pandemic, particularly Zoom, Google meet, Telegramand email.This study was conducted using mixed methods. Participants were selectedsystematically and purposefully from four colleges of Addis Ababa University. Datacollection was performed using a questionnaire and an in-depth interview. A majority of the sampled population (58% of the population) practices Zoom, Google meet telegram, andemail by asking an experienced individual for advice. Based on the current study result, it isevident that students and instructors encounter many challenges when practicing new mediain learning and teaching.These challenges included low network infrastructure, low ICTskills, and Unfamiliarity with new media technology. The study findings showed that 52% ofrespondents strongly agree that they are not satisfied with Zoom, Google Meet, telegramemail learning, and teaching. Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, New Media Technology, Online Class: Learning, Teaching
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    Assessing media practice in building democracy in Ethiopia: The case of EBC
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Daniel Jemal; Dr. Mulatu Alemayehu
    The absence of democracy, joblessness, lack of good bad governance, abuse of human rights and repressive nature the EPRDF government are the major factors that advanced the mass political discontent and protest against the government. The law and order are at risk in various parts of the country so the subsequent impact led the country to adjust its leadership and policy reforms. These turbulent political conditions are the reasons for the coming of new Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. In fact, the transfer of power was peaceful and the new leadership launched unprecedented reforms to accelerate the country's path towards democratization. At this time, the focus of the media is mainly placed on access to information, freedom of speech and media’s impact on the realization of democracy. However, vehement conflicts are happened here and there in different parts of the country in return the reform has confronted several internal and external challenges. To assess the study, EBC is selected thus the study focused on news and programs since this media house is dominant sources of hard news and information in the absence of a strong independent media outlet in the country at this time. Hence, the central objective of the study is to analyze the media practice in playing its roles in building democracy in Ethiopia, particularly, after Abiy Ahmed came to power. Towards that end, it employed qualitative research methodology by taking sources from Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation (EBC). Data collected from primary and secondary sources. Key informants were used as the basic source of primary data for this research. The study used purposive sampling as a tool to select the key informants on the basis of certain predefined purpose. Semi-structured interviews with key informants have been conducted. The major findings from the study indicate that EBC has not been playing significant roles in contributing to the development of democracy in the country. The study also found that limited access to information, fake news, self-censorship and weak institutional management are of the major challenges that the journalists have been facing while trying to report stories and produce programs that can promote democracy in the country.
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    Journalism Professional Practice and its Challenges in FBC in focus on reporters, and editors.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-09) Jonse Ayana; Hailu Gutema (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the professional practices of Journalism in Fana Broadcasting Corporate (FBC) reporters, and editors in focus. Specifically, the study tried find out the extent to which the media is applying the principles of ethical journalism; factors that affect the reporters and editors to exercise journalism professionally and challenges the FBC reporters and editors are facing while performing their regular activities. In order to collect appropriate data, the study employed mixed research design which includes both qualitative and quantitative methods. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select subjects for questionnaire and in depth interview. The researcher believed that purposive selection of participants was useful to get the right experienced journalist who could provide reasonable data about the professional practices of the selected media house. The researcher selects about 80 respondents which consists the majority of reporter. The findings of the study showed that FBC is exercising the professional journalism with some suggested reservations. The government’s interventions and editorial board direction are among the factors affecting the media house professional practice. Refusal and delayed responses of government officials to the public questions, bureaucratic arrangement of the administration and lack of sustainable trainings are also among the challenges the journalists are facing. The observed reservations are about the journalist’s independency, and an interference of government bodies are among points the media should avoid.
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    The Function, Practice and Challenges of Public Relation in Health Organizations; Focused On Black Lion Hospital
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-03) Mengistab Girma; Tadesse Zinaye (A. Prof.)
    This study aimed at exploring the function, practice and challenges of public relation in health organizations; focused on black lion hospital. In order to be able to answer the questions, quantitative and qualitative research designs were used. For the questionnaire of quantitative design, a total of 128 individuals from management members, employers and clients of the Back Lion Hospital were selected with purposive sampling method and filled by them. For the in-depth interview of qualitative design, from Black Lion Hospital, One PR director, three department heads and three senior experts had been interviewed. Frequency and percentage statistical techniques were used for quantitative data analysis by using SPSS statistical software; while, the qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The outcome of the data analysis revealed that the practices of public relation in Black lion Hospital are limited to some activities of PR; there is shortage of man power and budget in the PR department. There is also lack of organized, appropriate PR activities and developing strategies and implement appropriate communication tools that can be accessible to all Hospital Community and clients as quickly as possible. The research shows that Black Lion Hospital Mangers and experts provided that there are critical challenges like Insufficient budget allocation, the PR organizational structure permits Low number of professionals, on the Side of Hospital Managers The importance of PR is underestimated, There is no PR code of conduct and PR does not play management function and advisory role in Black Lion Hospital on the other hand the practitioners are assigned according to their skills and knowledge of public relation, this is the good part of the finding. Finally, the researcher forwarded recommendations to conduct and establish the organizational PR strategies and Implement diversified and appropriate PR activities that create opportunities to raise awareness and mobilize the public toward the issues wanted to be communicated and enables the PR practitioners to perform as per the planned activities and to implement diversified and appropriate PR activities and to overcome challenge.
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    The Utilization of Public Relation to Promote Tourism in Gambella Regional State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-11) Pel Both Bol; Anteneh Tsegaye (PhD)
    The utilization of public relation to promote tourism in Gambella regional state and this aim has also accomplished through the following specific objectives: to explore the practice of public relations within the Gambella cultural and tourism in promoting regional culture. to determine the purpose that prompt culture and tourism to combine role of public relations and the other departments, to examine the role of public relations within Culture in Gambella and Tourism Bureau. Even though, there are few researches conducted regarding public relations practices in some institutions in Ethiopia, the utilization of Public relations seems lack of attention by Gambella culture and tourism researchers. Since Culture and tourism has their own publics; they need to give emphasis on communication of both internal and external stake holders. Most of them did not have professional public relations practitioners and the practice functioned by either delegated departments or in a simple routine activity of the bureau. The study used mixed research method. To explore the eco-system or practical level of the profession, the role, importance and purpose of the practice, both primary and secondary data were collected and used. The primary data was collected through self-developed questionnaire and interview, whereas the secondary data was collected to relating reviews. Legitimacy theory was used as a theoretical foundation of this study. The collected data has been analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The study shown that the professional public relation practice in Gambella culture and tourism bureau was nominal, the utilization of public relations practice is to disseminate information from the organization to its publics and the purpose of the practice is more of publicity rather than managerial functioning of the profession. As a result of this research, the researcher summarized, and concluded as well as forwards the important recommendations to improve the practice. Some of the recommendations included as following. Gambella Regional state’s tourism needs professional public relations practice to communicate and manage good relationship with their publics in order to promote the regional culture to attract tourists. To perform the public relations practice in a better way, the practitioners need to know the purpose.
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    A Content Analysis of Children’s Tv Program: the Case of Addis Media Network (Addis Tv) “Yenege Frewoch” Children’s Show
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-09) AbdilkidusTemam; Tenaw Terefe Asst. Prof.
    This study aims at analyzing of contents of children’s Tv program on Addis Media Network(Addis tv). Through critical observation and interviews with the producers, editors, and head ofthe show, an effort is made to understand the content of the AMN (Addis Tv) children's program.Content analysis and in-depthinterviews were employed to produce the necessary data for thestudy. In the context of this study, the qualitative content analysis of 10 children's programs 20%0f the total sample were selected through purposive sampling techniques which are broadcastedfrom January 2021 to December 2021 was done. In addition to this an in-depth interview heldwith the program editor, producer, and department head.The findings of the research verified thatAMN (Addis Tv) children’s Tv show has some constraints towards domestic oriented contentsspecially in the area of films, music, fairy tales and using puppets based stories. The outcomes ofthe individual in-depth interviews revealed that as there are some challenges which tackle themto produce a good children’s Tv show.
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    Investigation into Public Relations Legitimacy, Perceptions, and Practices in the Banking Sector of Ethiopia to Promote Corporate Reputation and Trust: Empirical Evidence from Awash Bank
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-10) Abel Solomon; Anteneh Tsegaye (PhD)
    The aim of the study was to investigate the compliance of Awash bank’s PR in terms of legitimacy and with what is perceived by its customers. In particular this study was conducted with the objectives to identify how Awash bank has legitimized PR to promote its reputation and trust, the perception of customers towards the PR works by the bank, existing PR strategies practiced in promoting reputation and trust of Awash bank. The study used mixed research approach mainly descriptive design and case study as a strategy of research. To achieve its objectives, the study collected primary data from 4 employees and 242 customers of the bank’s head office by using questionnaire, interview and document review as data collection instrument. A total number of 242 respondents participated in the study i.e. from the target population. The researcher used connivance sampling to take 242 customers and purposive sampling to take 4 interviewee participants who are currently working in the head office of Awash bank. Besides, the head office of Awash bank was selected purposively to be part of the study. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical and content analysis method. The finding of the study reported that PR is essential part of the bank’s effort to build its reputation and trust and thus legtimized it by including under CSR division of the bank. Accordingly, the bank is well aware of the need for PR implimentation. However,there is weak customers’ perception (only 59.1%) on the PR works of Awash bank because of its insufficient involvement in social responsibility activities, TV and radio based promotions were commonly practiced PR strategies and limitation to correspond PR activities with the needs of the public were obtained which intern affected reputation and trust of the bank. So as to improve the legitimacy, perception and practice of PR in building reputation and trust of Awash bank: considering farmers in PR tasks, and measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of PR practiced are suggested.
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    The practice and challenges of Ethiopian Broadcasting corporation court news reporting: in the case of Ethiopian Broadcasting corporation news channel
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01) Adanech Alemayehu; Yohannes Shiferaw (PhD)
    The goal of this study was to explore the practice and challenges of court news reporting in Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation news channel. The study was informed by theories of social learning, agenda setting and media's social responsibility role. Qualitative and quantitative methodological approach has been applied in order to address the study topics posed. Twenty reporters, producers and editors filled the questions that are designed to answer the research goal. Furthermore, five reporters and editorial bodies from EBC’s news channel were interviewed. The findings of the study indicated that EBC provides minimal attention to court news. The specific legal proceedings that are being reported on by the media are ones that are either in the best interest of the media or in the best interest of the government. And also the media is far from its declared standards of story selection, as few types of court stories have dominated the total story coverage. The media has given a frequent attention to the coverage for terrorism and corruption. corruption crime accounted for 55 percent of television coverage. 40 percent of the coverage dealt with terrorism. In contrast, the subjects that were arguably most significant and whose outcomes had the most impact on a broad number of people which are murder, robbery, sexual assaults and other civil rights issues combined took up barely less of all the coverage. The research also revealed that journalists wholly depend on court authorities and documents as sources. There have been a number of challenges in which court reporters have stated that the difficulties they confront in their line of work is internal and external. One of the issues is that the organization does not pay the deserving attention to court news. There is also information gap, which is another area that needs improvement. Finally, recommendations are made based on the research findings. Based on the finding the researcher recommended that, the coverage of court stories on EBC ought to alter its focus away from the coverage of cases involving corruption and terrorism and toward other court tales that risk the safety and tranquility of society. This would take the place of the primary emphasis that is currently placed on providing consistent coverage of instances involving corruption and terrorism. Key words: court news, court cases, court categories, plaintiffs, hearings and media coverage
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    Assessing the practice of Corporate Communication: In the case of Ethiopian Airlines Group
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-09) Boja Deyase; Gashaye Belew (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was assessing the practices of Corporate Communication in Ethiopian Airlines Group. It is through the activities of Corporate Communication that company contact with its customers. Knowing its immense value, many organizations of the world have been practicing for their Corporate Communication activities. The researcher selected this topic because of the passion with it and personal experience. In addition to these, the topic is relevant and interesting to study. Thus, the aim of this study was assessing the practices of Corporate Communication in Ethiopian Airlines Group. To achieve this objective cross sectional descriptive data analysis was collected from 121 employees of the departments Integrated Marketing Communication, Sales Promotion and Corporate Communication. Accordingly, researcher based on strong synergy they have to provide detail information genuinely in a proper way selected these departments randomly and purposively. Hence, responses were carefully analyzed. This study employed mixed method of research approach in order to answer research questions. For the successfulness of this study, the researcher utilized various tools of data gathering techniques. Accordingly, structured interview were carried out with the managers of Ethiopian Corporate Communication Department based on their knowledge and experiences they have. Thus, interview was recorded and additional notes were taken. In addition to this, company‟s website was also visited. Accordingly, from the document analysis the study was used annual reports, magazines as well as public relation tools like press release, brochures. This study is also carried out by observing the relationship of Corporate Communication Department with other units of Ethiopian Airlines Group. The finding indicated that Ethiopian Airlines Group employees were very much aware of the importance of Corporate Communication in their day-to- day activities. Primary data gathered from the interviews; the target audience were the managers of Ethiopian corporate communication department. Secondary data gathered from the company‟s social media platforms were (Face book, Tweeter, LinkedIn, and YouTube) and monthly digital publication. In addition to these, this study also concluded based on the Corporate Communication tools employed, the challenges encountered, and the perception of managers and practitioners towards the practices of Corporate Communication in Ethiopian Airlines Group. Moreover, frequent assessments about Corporate Communication practices shall be made. Finally, recommendations were forwarded for the betterment of the practices of Corporate Communication Department in Ethiopian Airlines Group. Keywords: Concept of Corporate Communication, public relation, stakeholders, Ethiopian
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    The Ethiopian National Defense Media‘s Practices of Journalism
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-04) Haile Asnake; Mekuria Mekasha (Ass Prof.)
    This study scrutinized the practices of journalism in Ethiopian National Defense. A conceptual model derived from the review of literature that focuses on hierarchical model (organizational professionalism and occupational professionalism discourse) was employed. To analyze the exercise and determining factors of professionalism, the researcher employed qualitative research methods, practitioners interviewed and focus group discussion with the directors and the producers from selected division of the military media, communication & indoctrination stuffs. In addition to that Qualitative Contents analyses method was implemented to portray how journalism practiced especially news and programs that has been aired. The three divisions were selected purposefully and totally 18 informants were participated. The response was analyzed thematically. The result of data analysis showed that the ENDF media practitioners executing their journalistic professionalism only organizational reference points of view, neglecting public concern and social responsibility. The study also further found out that, journalists within the ENDF organization are carrying out their professionalism in responsible manner and managing the organizational strategies in a way of building the image of the media presence. To keep the reputation of the military institution, nevertheless, some public issues and public interest news are seen under the layer of National Security. The findings further suggest that based on reporters‘ perception, forces outside the media have direct influences on organizational-level pressures. News contents and coverage decisions are passed down from the forces within the news organization, which influence practices of journalism. The findings will offer insight for scholars, journalists and public relations professionals, media policy makers and media ownership.
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    Assessment on the Practice of Public Relations in Organizations: the case of Ethiopian Football Federation
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-01) Hawariyaw Petros; Yohannes Shiferaw (PhD)
    The main objective of the research was to assess the public relations practices in the Ethiopian Football Federation. To attain the objective of the research, mixed research method were applied. The participants of the research were selected purposively. For the qualitative method, all four of the PR staffs were involved for in-depth interview. To get quantitative data for the research sixty questionnaires were distributed for other permanent staffs of EFF to collect quantitative data. The major findings were, media briefing and press release, dissemination of information about competition with different clubs within the country and national team competition with other international teams, bridging between different department within EFF, answering questions raised by the public and building positive image about EFF are the major practice of PR. On the other hand, shortage of staffs, insufficient budget, miss-representation of PR at the top management, perception of mangers and other workers towards PR and unhealthy inter directorate relationship are the major challenges faced by PR directorate. Again, the study revealed that website, social media streaming like YouTube, TV, radio, printing medias are the major tools that the PR directorate. The study also identified that the PR is not directly represented at management level. In relation with professionalism respondent reported that staffs are professionals for the PR practice
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    Crisis Communication During the Covid-19 Pandemic: the Case of the Ethiopian Investment Commission. (2019-2022)
    (Addis ababa University, 2022-10) Hikma Ahmed; Anteneh Tsegaye (PhD)
    The main aim of this study is to assess crisis communication management employed by the Ethiopian Investment Commission during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic; specifically to assess the crisis preparedness strategies of the commission in protecting its reputation, to examine the extent to which the crisis communication management strategies were aligned with the corporate strategies, to analyze the crisis communication strategies employed through the crisis phases, to evaluate stakeholders‘ engagement strategies during the crisis. To answer the research question, mixed methods research, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods, was chosen. The researcher looked into 5 randomly selected newsletters for content analysis. Distributed 20 questionnaires among stakeholders to have their perspective on the response of the EIC on the COVID-19 pandemic and did an in-depth interview with 2 key informants to better understand how the crisis was handled from the commission‘s community perspective. The results of this study showed EIC didn‘t have a crisis communication strategy manual even before the COVID-19 pandemic. EIC also lacked experts in the field of communication; EIC‘s primary communication channels were letter exchanges, telephone calls, and other online communication channels such as zoom calls and emails. Email and online communication channels were the most successful among the rest. In addition, the commission lacked experts in the communication team; the last finding of this study showed that EIC understood crisis management infrastructures are important and is investing financial, human resources, and other capital to build these infrastructures
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    Analyses of Audiences‟ perception to “Netsa-Hasab” TV talk show program: The case of Walta Media and Communication Corporate.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-05) Hiwot Aklilu; Tadesse Zinaye (Ass.t Professor)
    This study was conducted under the title of “Analysis of audiences‟ perception on „Netsa-Hasab‟ talk show program on Fre - hiwot School NO.2 teachers in Addis Ababa” „Netsa-Hasab‟ is a talk show that has an interview format. The study has implemented the „uses and gratification theory‟ to determine why audiences watch the show, the perception of the audience on the show and overall approaches of the program presentation. In order to achieve the research objectives data was collected through focus group discussion and the sampling procedure was purposive. Four FGD that involved 24 participants were formed and the groups were arranged purposively. In addition, in-depth individual interview was conducted with the program producer. The gathered data finally were thematically analyzed.The finding of the research shows that Netsa-Hasab‟s hard way of presentation, evidence capacity, the questions and amazing performance of the host are attractive parts of the talk show. This implies that, the respondents regardless of their differences understand the talk show almost similarly.Majority of participants watch the show and like it. Others watch sometimes even they don‟t like the show. Far from the show there are other factors that affect audiences‟ satisfaction towards Netsa-Hasab talk show such as economic and civil unrest. Due to TV is more reliable and formal, audiences have not yet accepted internet access (YouTube) as a regular means of attending such weekly talk show. Also uncountable choice of media platforms make the audiences bored easily than the previous time.The results of the study revealed that live contexts play a major role in interpreting messages. Respondents make meaning depending on its proximity to their daily life. Subject, gender, age, political ideologies and discussion with others are among the factors which shape interpretations of the message from the show. However, there can be a complete misunderstanding of the intended message by some respondents depending on that both the producer and receiver of the message have different political ideology.
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    The Role of Facebook as a Public Relations Tool in Ethio Telecom: a Case Study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-02) Mulu Girmay; Amanuel Gebru (PhD)
    This study is conducted mainly to assess the trends in the role of Facebook as a public relation tool in Ethio Telecom. It followed a triangulation approach by combining in-depth interviews with ten Ethio Telecom public relations practitioners and a content analysis of 5 months posts of Ethio Telecom Facebook page. The samples of the in-depth interview for the study are purposively chosen from the organization's communication division, which is in charge of overseeing the organization's social media activity. As a result, ten people were interviewed in-depth, and 316 Facebook postings that were shared on the organization's official Facebook page between January 1 and may 31, 2022, were examined. The study's findings indicate that Ethio Telecom use Facebook often as PR tool; however there is more one way communication resulting in less interaction to increase the relationship and foster closer relationship between the organization and its public. The interaction is more from the organization to the customers and the public with few responses from the customers. There is a need for more two way interaction between the organizations and their publics. False information on Facebook is one of the issues the organization faces in its activities, and its Facebook efforts lack plans and are mostly focused on information distribution. Facebook is widely used in society, is easy to use, and takes less time to complete tasks than other platforms, which are the reasons why the organization decided to use it. Regardless of the findings, the organization under study should strive to achieve a more balanced and interactive use of Facebook as a public relations tool.
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    Integration-in-use in the Ethiopian Real Estate Industry: Empirical Evidences from Sunshine Construction and Noah Real Estate Marketplace Interface.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-11) Abebe Areru; Samson Mekonnen (PhD)
    Integration-in-use is a recently developed concept that is based on the wider concept of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC). A new model and concepts of IMC were generated by Samson (2020); Samson and Angelopulo (2021); Samson and Angelopulo (2022) in a low involvement product category in the Ethiopian beer market context. With an expanded area of application, this study strives for holistic investigation of IMC in a high involvement product category – real estate – with empirical evidences from Sunshine Construction and Noah Real Estate marketplace interface. The interpretivist research paradigm and qualitative research method is employed. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with purposively selected customers and marketing communication practitioners of the focal companies. The findings reveal that companies design and integrate various brand contacts in their marketing communications with the aim of influencing customers’ purchasing decisions. The customers, however, integrate brand contacts originating from various sources, including but not limited to the focal companies as perceived useful in their purchasing decisions. Two models that describe brand integration-in-use contexts of the customers and the companies are developed based on the findings of this study. Though, planned, product and service brand contacts from the focal companies are valued and integrated by the companies and the customers, product and service brand contacts are given high emphasis by both parties. Thus, this study concludes that there is certain degree of alignment between the brand contacts integration by the companies under the study and brand contacts integration by their customers in the real estate marketplace interface. Interesting and unique findings of this study are a newly emerged constructs such as product geographical location, experts, finance, and ownership document. These were often overlooked in the existing literature of IMC across industries and geographic regions. The recommendation is the revision of IMC models and constructs in different companies and testing the new models and constructs emerged in this study in different market contexts.
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    Analysis of Audiences’ Feedbacks on Online News; Focus on ETV Arat Meazen in Facebook.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01) Walelgn Tamir; Tenaw Terefe (Ass. Prof.)
    This study investigates the tone of audiences‟ feedback on ETV Arat Maezen political online news. Audience reaction is a key component in the study of impacts on audience attitude. The study employed qualitative methodology and used primary and secondary source. The primary sources were in-depth interview, interview guide question, and secondary sources books, and research thesis were used. All in-depth interviews were semi-structured and selected purposively from social media journalists. The interview guide questions are conducted in semi structured and open ended questions, who work in Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation. Moreon use and gratification and audience reception theory are selected as the theoretical framework for the research. Therefore the researcher uses both qualitative methods of an interview and textual-document analysis instruments as quntitative method. Based on the research questions and data collected from interviewee‟s perception, comments of feedbacks of the audience, positive negative and neutral tones of feedbacks are identified. In the study feedbacks of the audience on the ETV online news shows that sometimes Ethiopian Television is not doing in favor of the public interests in political reforms.