Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management

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    Ecological Effects of Plantations of Exotic tree Species on the Understory of Native Vegetation in Yerer Forest Oromia Regional State Central Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-06-28) Beto, Yadesa; Bekele, Tamrat (PhD); Demissew, Sebsebe (Professor)
    A study on the effects of plantations of exotic tree species (Eucalyptus globulus, Cupressus lusitanica, Grevillea robusta, and Pinus patula) on native species both in the above and below ground with compared adjacent natural forest was conducted in the central high land of Ethiopia, in Yerer forest. The aim of the study was to investigate and document the effects of plantations of exotic tree species on the above and belowground native vegetation composition, diversity and density, and soil properties in Yerer forest of central Ethiopia. A systematic sampling design was employed to collect vegetation and soil data in all land-use systems. The vegetation and soil data were collected from a total of 20 transect lines and 60 quadrats, each with a 20 m x 20 m (400m2) area established, that distributed equal 12 quadrats for each five forest land-use systems. Within each quadrat, five sub-quadrats with 2m x 2m (for seedling and sapling), and 1m x 1m (for herbaceous, and soil samples) were used for data collection. In the study, there are three parts, the first part focussing on one of the land uses, the natural forest. In which, a total of 93 woody species in 46 families were identified from 122 quadrats along 22 transect lines in the natural forest only. In the natural forest, the distribution of the density of seedlings > saplings > mature trees, which indicates woody species had s healthy regeneration profiles. In the natural forest, five plant community types were identified with varying degrees of species diversity, richness, and evenness. The species composition similarity coefficients among five plant communities ranged from 36-78%. In the second part, the five forest land-use systems with four plantations of exotic tree species (Eucalyptus globulus, Cuppressus lustanica, Grevillea robusta, and Pinus patula) and adjacent natural forest. From 60 quadrats, a total of 211 native species in 59 families, represented by 134 herbs and 77 woody species were recorded. Among the 211 identified native species, 32 species (15.17%) were commonly observed in all five forest land-use systems (LUS) 66 species (36.49%) only in a single forest (36 species only in a natural forest, and 30 species only in exotic tree plantations), while the rest species were recorded in between two to four forest LUS. The overall native vegetation composition in different forest land-use systems (LUS) ranged from 71 to 181 species. The overall aboveground vegetation species composition in similarity indices among five forest land-use systems (LUSs) ranged from 0.26 – 0.49. The third part focusing on eight land-use systems (natural forest, Eucalyptus globulus, Cuppressus lustanica, Grevillea robusta, Pinus patula, grassland, grazing land, and cropland) to study the soil seed bank composition and density, and soil properties. From a total of 96 quadrats, along 32 transect lines, the soil seed bank results showed, a total of 98 plant species belonging to 42 families and 84 genera were identified. In all the different land-use systems a total seed bank composition, and seed density /m2 ranging between 29 to 57, and 1625 to 3250, respectively. General, The seed bank species composition, and density revealed a significant variation as a function of land-use systems. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the majority of soil physical and chemical properties variables of sand particle size, MC, BD, PD, SP, OC, TN, Avial. P, soil pH, EC, CEC, and exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na) were showed that a significant variation among land-use systems at (P<0.0001). The study results confirmed that plantations with different exotic tree species showed variability in their effect on the understory native species composition, diversity, density, and natural regeneration status. The changes in land use systems under similar climatic conditions significantly influenced the belowground native species composition and density, and soil property.
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    Diversity of Medicinal Plants and Uses in Sayint District South Wollo Amhara Region Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-10-20) Shiferie, Sintayehu; Warkineh, Bikila (PhD)
    Study of diversity of medicinal plants and uses were conducted in Sayint district, South Wollo, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data on medicinal plants were collected from 92 informants (53 male and 39 female). Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, market survey, field observation and group discussion. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. A total of 75 medicinal plant species were identified and from natural vegetation 61 (81%) and home garden 14 (19 %) distributed in 68 genera and 42families. The abundance of medicinal plants was categorized as presently safe (40%), threatened (28%), sporadic (20%), endangered (6.7%) and vulnerable (5.3 %). A total of 53 ailments (35human, 11 livestock and 7 both) were identified to be treated by medicinal plants. From the total identified medicinal plants, 54 of them were reported for the treatment of human ailments and the remaining others were for livestock and both. The dominant life forms of medicinal plants were shrubs 37(50%), followed by herbs 21(28%), trees 10(13%) and climbers7 (9%).The most preferably used medicinal plant parts were leaves 41 (55%) followed by roots16 (21 %). The dominant method of medicinal plant part remedy preparation was pounding and squeezing 26 (35 %) followed by pounding 15(20 %). The most common preferable route of administration of medicinal plant remedy was reported to be oral 39 (52%) followed by dermal 24 (32 %). Drinking was the most frequently used method of application26 (35%) followed by painting or creaming 21(28%). The main sources of knowledge on medicinal plants reported to be elder people and used oral based transfer of knowledge. Anthropogenic factors such as farm land expansion, charcoal production, fire wood, construction, animal grazing and medicine and natural factors were found to be the threats for medicinal plants. Promoting tree growing project and the sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants were recommended. Further studies towards cultivation of medicinal plants of the area were needed.
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    Biodiversity Management in Oaaddegoyo (Traditional Home Gardens) by Kaficho People of Bongaarea (Southwestern Ethiopia) : An Ethnobotanic Approach
    (Addis Ababa University, 2000-06) Woldeyes, Feleke; Demissew, Prof. Sebsebe
    The study was conducted in three villages around 80nga (Southwest Ethiopia) to investigate the role of the local people in managing biological diversity through agricultural activities. The Kafichos, the indigenous people of the study area, are settled farmers who practice traditional home gardening. Their enset based home garden, which consists of a complex mixture of annual and perennial plants, is locally called Oaaddegoyo; and provides them with almost every thing required for subsistence. Data on vegetation (species record, cover-abundance, number of individuals, and plant specimens), and soil samples were collected from sample plots. Ethnobatanic information was gathered by conducting open ended discussions with key informants, owners of home gardens and other family members. The collected plant specimens were identified in the Niational Herbaruim (ETH). The vegetation data was analysed using the computer program SYNTAX and five clusters were recognixed: Ensete·Xanthosoma community, Ensete·Coffea community, Ensete·Brassica community. Ensete·Xanthosoma·Saccharum community and Ensete·Xanthosoma·Nicotiana community. The clusters were compared for the mean values of the soil chemical factors using the ANOVA test. A total of 170 plant species were recorded from the 21 Oaaddegoyo (home gardens) of which 47% were found to be protected or tolerated. Although a decrease in total number of plant species per village with an increase in altitude was observed, the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test result indicated no sighificance difference among the three villages in the number of species per garden. The Daaddegoyo whose framework is made by Ensete ventricosum is strongly linked to the other two land·use systems: Kubbo ('managed forest") and Guudo (Inlact forest). It is a stable agroecosystem that harbours a Significant biodiversity. and this has resulted from innovative processes by local farmers over generations. Therefore, the Oaaddegoyo is an in·situ repository of crop germplasm and deserves protection.
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    Diversity and Ecological Analysis of Vascular Epiphytes in Gera Wild Coffee Forest, Jimma Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa,University, 2013-07) Tafesse, Bedilu; Kelbessa, Ensermu (Professor)
    The diver,sifY (llId ecological allaly:,'i:,' of 1'(M'Clilar epiphyte:,' was s flldied ill Cera Foresl in southwesfem Erhiopia af a/fillides befweell 1600 alld 2400 III a .. d . A loral area of 4.5 ha was surveyed ill coffee alld 1101I-coffee forest vegetafion. Fifty salllplillg plofs, each 30 III X 30 III (900 11/ 1), were used for the purpose of daw col/eeliOIl. A lotal of 59 species of vascular epiphyte:,' were recorded alld of which 34(59%) were holo ep'j)hyte:", 111'0 (4%) were hemi epiphyles alld 22 (37%) :,pecies were accidenwl vascular epiphytes. To :,·tudy Ille allitlldinal dislribulioll of vascular epiphYles. altitudes were classified into higher >2000, //Iiddle 1800- 2000 and Jower 1600- 1800//1 a.s.1. accordillg to Shanl/otl- Wiener Index (HI = 3.411) of tJ. alpha dil'ersily file epiphyte COllll111111ily ill the sllldy area is medium. There was a stjlistically sigmjicalll dljerence belween host bark Iype and epiphyte richlless as determined by Olle~way ANOVA (F(3, 91) "'" 21 .833, p = 0.001). The p(w- hoc fesl shows Ihal there is sigllificallf difference of vascular epiphyles riclme.\'S be/lt"eell Slllooll1 bark willi rough jlack and corky bark (P =0,00 I < 0.05), as we/J as rough alld cork bark (p =0.43 <0.05). Howevefjbelll'eetl rough alld j lack bark (p = 0,753 > 0.05) tmd belll'eenjlack alld corky bark (p = 0.854 > 0.05) 110 SigllijiC(lIIt differellce of epipllyte abwu/allce was observed. ROllgh bark had 38%, corky, 26%. jlack, 25%, alld ollly 11% ~'ascular epiphyles abundance occurred oll :"l1/ooth bark. 71te regressioll correlation test, (lr :: 0,773. p "" 0.0001 < 0.05), showed Ihal the /llIll/ ber of species of vascular epiphytes and hosl DBH size are positively correlaled. The regression correlalioll tel'l (If = 0.28, p == 0.0001 < 0.05), showed Illat tlte /lllIlIber of specie:,' ami hosllree height positively correlated. The host Iree preference of vascular epiphyles was recorded for ollly Villaria volkensii species hosted 0 11 Sy=ygiulII guilleellse Irees. The result of similarily mwlysis indicated Ihal Cera Forest showed Ihe higllesl I'ascular epiphytic simi/aril)' (0.35) lI'illl Yayu Fore:,'t alld shared Ihe least l-'CIscular epiphYlic similarity (0.295) lI'ith Haremw Foresl. It was concluded thai horizOlltal siems and branches, large and rough. jlack alld corky bark type Irees are more s uitable for vaSCII/ar epiphytes seedling allachmelllS alld growth. COllsen'atiol1 and prolectioll of Ihese phorophytes are importalll for the surivivlli of vascular epiphytes ami increase Ilteir ecological importtlllce.
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    Bryophytes in a Changing Landscape: Diversity, Use and Response to Different Land Management Systems in Tulu Korma, in Central-West Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013) H/Giorgis, Tsige; Nemomissa, Prof. Sileshi
    771t! sludy lI'al' cOl/ducled 01 lalldholdings of Ihe Cellier for Indigenous Trees Propagalion and Biodiversity Developmelll of Elhiopia (Restoring) and ils sIIrrollnding area af TIIIII· Korma, in cemral·lI'eJI Elhiopia. In all Ethiopian contexl, there are largely limited slue/ieJ 011 the !nyophyte,\' 0,\' all inlegra/ part of the lIalllrnl vegewtioll lind key componem of ecosyslem function Allhough the jlorislic sllldieJ of Tlilu Korma were carried OUi previollsly. blyophyres and their ecolyslem .~e rllices were 1101 ineluded The currenl sludy lI'aJ focllj' 011 the waler imerception capacity of Jelected lata of lhis group, To measure species riclllleJ,\' and dominallce in b,yophyle COllllllllllilies, we haw: IIsed 24 qlladrall', each having a size of 10,,/ To illveJ/jgare water interceplioll capacily. we selecledfollr ULta. All statistical allalyses lI'ere carried 0111 by R·2.15 lVindoll' and il/bllill Ms Excel. A 10lal of 56 taxa of bryophyles were recordedfrom the stlldy area, IVhile Ihe proportioll of mOl'ses is 44. 111(1{ of livenl'ort is II and hornworl I, Epiphylic bryophytes are Ihe 1II0st microhabital of bryophyles in Ihe study area. The bryophy/e COIIIIllI",ity of the study area is grouped il/lo fi t'(! typeJ. From Jelected fO llr mOJJ specieJ, Leptodontill'" lati/alill'" showed Ihe higheJt waler holding capacity over a period of 4 weeks, To have a high nllmber of bryophyte l'jJecieJ. reJlOrillg areal' need to halle key phYJical featllreJ such as 1II0ist ground. refugia wilh distinct microclilllale, different Jllbslrata. It is ollly a slllall part of Ihe Tlliu Korma shrubland which is resloring leavillg Ihe larger area to disturballces l'lICh as cut/jng Ireel'. ellcroachmelll of agricultural fields alld heavy grazing by livestock. If the currelll Irend continues, Ihe micro·refugia of bryophYles imide Ihe Caril'.m spinanl alld Maylenlls arblllijolia thickets will be lost with Iheir associated b,yophyte l'jJecies (lnd Iheir ecological functions. Therefore, Ihe Restoring area should also inelude the remaining area alld restoralion efforl should also expand to Ihis IlnreslOred portion ofthil' shrub/olld.
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    An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used by Local Pcople in Menz Gera Midir District, North Shcwa Zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) WoldYohannis, Seble; Asfaw, Dr. Zemede
    All ellll/obolal/ieal sludy was conducted 10 docl/menl medicinal plwlI.\· lH'ed by the local people and their indigenous knowledge ill Menz Gera Midir Districl, North Shewa Zone of the Amhara Regional State. Ethiopia. Data were collected from 72 (12 of Ihem key informams) informa",s using semi-structured interviews, group discus!:.-ions and guided field walk. Priority ranking, paired comparil·oll. (IireCI matrix ral/king and by calclilalion of the informam consensus faclOr (ICF) were IIsed ill dow analysis. Ol/e hUlldred fifty five medicinal plant '!'pecies from the natural vegetation (67. J%) and homegardells (32.9%) claimed to be used by the local people for the treatment of human and livestock ailments. A total of I J j species are ",elltiolled for the treatment of only hllman heallh problems, 10 species for Irealllleni of /ivesrock ailmellls only and 30 for both human and livestock diseases. Asleraceae, which cOlllributed 16 species. s/Ood first followed by Lamiaceae with 12 species. The medicinal flora of the study area is composed of 68 (43. 9%) herb. 47 shrub, 29 tree and I I climber species. The IIIOSt frequently used p{alll parll' are leaws (43.9%) followed by roots (31%). The most frequent mode of preparalion of plmll medicine was pounding (27. 9O.Ai) followed by powdering (I6%). The most COIIIIIIon route of administration of tradilional medicine was oral (48%) followed by dermal (28.6%). The highesl ICF values were linked ro problems associated wilh abdominal and gastrointestinal diseases (0.86) followed by dermatological problelll (0.83). Priority ranking showed that people of the area preferred Lupilllls albus, which was the rarest medicinal plant in the study area. Paired comparison offive species ofp/(lIIb showed thm Cucllfbira pepo is the most preferred species by Iradi/ional healers for the trealment of headache. Olea eurOlxlea subsp. cllspidara was shaWl/to be the IIIO!>'t IIIl1ltipllrpo'!"e species. The medicillal planl remurce of the area is I"reatened by agriclllwral expansion to grazing lal/ds andforests, charcoal making, firewood collection and O\·ergra:illg. I"-situ cOllsen'ation and cultivatioll of medicinal plallis in homegardens are recommended as remedial actions.
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    Effects of Eucalyptus Globulus on soil Physiochemical property and Erodibility ; Comparative case study in Wolmera Distric.Oromia Regin
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) Tamire, Samuel; Itanna, Prof.Fisseha
    Human alterations of land use and cover are responsible for different forms of soil degradation
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    Comparing the Nutrient Uptake of Arnaranthus hybridus L. subsp. cruentus (L.) TheIl. and Hordeum vulgare L. on Different Soil Types
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Asefa, Meklit; Itanna, Prof Fisseha
    The purpose of this study was to compare the Nutrient uptake of Amaranthus cmentlles and Hordeum vulgare all different soil types at Ziway.
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    An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Local Communities in Menz Mama Midir Dist rict, North Shewa Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) Woldedawit, Hintsete; Demissew, Prof Sebsebe
    All ethnobotanical study was conducted in Menz Mama Midir Disirici of North Shewa Zone, Amhara Regional Sfa fe, Efhiopia
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    Measuring the Extent of Restoration using Coffea Arabica L. as a Bioassay Plant
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) Chekol, Habtamu; Prof. Legesse Negash
    This study was undertaken as part of the ongo ing biological restoration efforts at the "Center for Indigenous Trees Propagation and Biodi versity Development in Ethiopia" (50·55 Km west of Addis Ababa, 09°01' 188" N; 038~1'566" E). The main objective of the study was to measure extent of restoration over a degraded landscape usi ng CoJJea arabica L. as a bioassay plant. In order to measure this, the phrase " Restoration Bioassay" was coined for coffee plants which were established beneath Acacia abysl'inica, Croton macrostachYlil' and Ellclea divinorum. The trees were regenerated after 5-6 years' of intensive restorat ion acti vi ties. All the vegetat ive and reproductive responses were quantified on randomly se lected 3 to 5 year·o ld coffee plants. Al so, soil samples from the si tes being restored, and those From the non- restoring adjacent areas were collected and analyzed for macro- and micro-n utrients, as well as for texture, moisture, density and elect rical conduct ivi ty. Through thi s study, it was found that mean number of nodes, leaves, as well as internode lengths were significantly (P<0.05) greater for coffee plants establ ished and maintained for 3-4 years beneath the A. abyssinica shades, compared to those beneath the C. mocros/(lchYlIs and E. divillorllm shades. Although no significant difference was found in height growth. mean leaf area of coffee plants that benefited by the shade of A. abyssinica was different, compared to those grown beneath the shades of C. macrostachYlis or E. divinorlll1l. Further, key phys iological and/or economic indices such as number of green berries, fresh weight of berries, s ize of beans, mature red berry harvest per plant, berry to bean ral io, weight of bean per berry. as well as weight per 1000 iii beans were all sign ifican tly (P
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    Impact of Floriculture Effiluents on the Quality of Farmland Soils: A Case Study of Holeta Area, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Kebebew, Gemeda; Itnna, Prof.Fisseha
    SOllie j loriClllfllre illduslries locoled al Ifolela 10WII discllllrge /I/Ilrealed eff'ue/lfs ill/o Ihe surrol/lldil1X eJl virol/lllel1l. As a re.wll excessil'C ferlilizer ol/d peslicide residlles /rO/ll Ille ftlrm (Ire deleriorating Ille soil. 'I11erefore, Illis s flldy was proposed wilh the ohjeclil'e of assessill)! Ille impact of eJjlllellls Fom Poticlllture illdllstries 011 soil ql/(llity. We selected {II'O s flldy .\·iles Ileal' Ihe jloriclIllllre induslryal Ilolela roWI/. The firsl sile used as a conlrol was selected Fom lite efflllelll Fee area arOlllld Ihe ftlrm Il'hcreO'i, Ihe secolld sire sel along lite effluellt j low. II /Owl of 30 samples (/5 Fom each) lI'ere lesled fin' Iheir physicochemical clwracleris/ics SIIClt as soil le:(/lIre, calioll excJwlIge capacily (CEC), exchallgeable base!)' and microllli/riellf IXW(IIllerers. '11/(' dafllwere allaly::ed IIsillg SAS softll'are /0 see iflhere were .,igllijica/l/ differences hetween Ihe COlllrol and impaired siles lit 5% level of signijicallce. Soil/ex/ure, pl/, CHe. exchangeable bases (K. Ca. Mg) showed sif!,lI ificllfIl differellces (1)<0,05) betll'een lite cOHlrol a/ld impaired ,dies. 011 Ihe olher IIalld OC. 'IN. Na and mic/'(Jllll lrielllS (Cu, ZI1. Fe lind Mn) showed illsignijiconl differellce. There is a si?,lIificlflll raise in pI I. K. Ca mul Mg and Sigllijiclfllt decrease ill CF.C ill effluelll affected areas wllieh jildiclile lite quali/y of f armlolld soil around Ihe jloriClllwre indl/s/ry has beell af/ecled. lIence, OCliOIlS slwllld be w ken before the precious soil I/Int 01// 10 be seriollsly pol/llfed Ellvirollmellwl oudil (llId ",osle waleI' mOllagemelll could be possible solUlions 10 millimi::e Ihe direct discharge offer/ili:er rich e(flIl('111.\ inlO lite soil and rhe riiver.
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    Investigating Iron and Zinc Status in Leaf of Potato Grown with Different Applied Fertilizer at Holeta Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) Beyene, Fikerte; Itnna, Prof.Fisseha
    TIl' knOll/I - I a lIIi ronlllri nls on ' nlralion in rap is on a parli ular inl · I"".\'1 du 10 Ifpir n ·galive and posiliv' ·jJe 'IS on r ps on t on hUIIIII7, fran in ,lob t! problelll, Iud in T iron mel zin ' on ' ' nlr Ilion in pOlalo I' \Vn wilh diffi I""nl ,fel'fil iz'rs i ' S ' If' ' in 1i1 ' I'Ofllr ' , P fol is I ' aelin rr wn 01" I ' fo, fran olld zill in pOllIO vorieli ',), a 8 ,11 ' md Jol m' HI ' r ' d ' l rllli/pd b growillg lip /II in 'olllbinofion Ivifh III trlu/" ond inor oni ' r liliz' r, 'OIllP st and inor 'oni ' ' r filiz'r, tnt inor Toni · rfiliz·r 0101'1', Re " nfl IllOlur d I ·ov·' w r ' 'ol7lpl ·d and • 'lro 'I ·d wilh TPA to d ' fermin ' iron and zin , In bOlh lIor ie l i ' ,\' rO\1ln wifh diJj ·r nf 'rfilizer ' lh r ' w' r ' nol 'i mi i onfl dijJer ·nl 'on en/ralions a ir nand zin ob " r ved at (P ~ 0, 0 ), In both vori ' li ·s on ' nfrOlion 0/ iron 'eea·d that if zin , The 'oil under 'Iud ar' a is a idi wilh ujjl 'i ' nt 'oncenlraLion a iron, zin and nitrogen. To have oplimum ran e a iron and zin in vori lie ' Belte and Jolone gro\Vn on Humi ili 'ols inorgoni form a/iron and zin ferlilizers are needed.
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    Soil Seed Bank Study and Natural Regeneration Status at Entoto Mountain and Along the Addis Ababa - Gohatsion Road
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-07) Atenafe, Ergua; Kelbessa, Prof Ensermu
    Soil seed ballks are all imporumt source olilew im/i viduals l or mOlly plm" poplllatiollS (llId COIItribllte to llllure genetic variability, 71le objectil'e of this stl/dy II'OS 10 im'estigate the compositioll olld density of soil seed bank ([millalUral regeneratioll sUltliS {II £lItoto-mOIllIl([i/l ami along the Addis Ababa - Golwtsioll road. A IOral of fortY- lIille quat/mts were established i/l the selectell sites. The quadrat size (10 m x 10 l1I)for tree:,', shrubs {llId herb {lnd lI'ilh seedling (heighl ~ 1.0 m), saplillg (height befween I alld 3 III) ami malllre free/shrub (height > 3 m) laid dowl/ 10 examine similarity between standing vegetation (II/(I seed Ixmkflora as well as lIalllral regel/emtioll of the sllldy site. Soil sample:,' were collectedl romtlie main quadrats measuring J 5 cm X 15 em alld from four soil layers. the litter layer and three .mcee.\',vil'e layers (0-3 cm. 3-6 em, alld 6-9 em), A total of 98 plam species germinated f rom (llIlhe soil samples collected for Ihe investigation. Herbs dominated the SSB represelllillg lIearly 87,ljO/O of Ihe i(/emijiell species. 71/C distriblltion of seeds through the profi le illdic(/(ed a sharp declille ill ablilldallee with depth. The greatest reserves of seeds were ill the sllf:face layer of the soil (0-3 em). Similarity between StfllUJjllg vegetatioll (II/(I SSB show thar there was negligibly loll' similarity (JCS :: 0,204-0.375). However, there was (I general tendency of disappearance of na/ive 1I'00dy species /rom fhe SSfJ as evidenced by the germination of few woody species. 71,is implies thaI reliallce on the SSB for the recove,y ofl1ative woody species is 110/11'01"/ily. Allalysis ofl/a/ural regeneration of woody :,pecies shows Ihal a lotal of 25 WOOlly species (llId 8. 977 iudividual:,//w Il'ere recorded. The highest seed del/silY of naturaJ/y regener(llillg woody pIa illS alld Ihe highest number of specie,~' were recorded ill Eucalyptlls plal/tation foresl. Farmlalld. pasturelaml lind wetlaml habitat types sholl' 110 seedIillg aud/or sapling of woody species, 71lis. ill 111m. indicates IIiat f uture exisleflee of Ihe woody flora characteristic of tropical dry el'ergreell Afromolllaue areas ill Ethiopia depellds Oil/he eOl/sen'a/ iOIl {lml sllstainable ulilizarioll of the few remualll natllral forests,
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    Ecological and Ethnomedicinal Study in Hirmi Woodland Vegetation and the Surrounding Districts Tigray Regional State Northern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-08-07) Girmay, Mehari; Demissew, Sebsebe (Professor); Bekele, Tamrat (PhD); Lulekal, Ermias (PhD)
    Drylands in Ethiopia cover a substantial area endowed with diverse plant resources. However, the landmass has received less attention compared to the moist highlands even if it has high ecological, environmental and economic importance. The present study was conducted in dryland area of Hirmi woodland vegetation to investigate the floristic composition, vegetation structure, regeneration potential of the vegetation and to document the associated ethnomedicinal knowledge of the surrounding community. Vegetation and environmental data were collected from 80 sample plots with a size of 25 m × 25 m designated as the main plots. All vascular plant species were recorded. Woody species ≥ 2 m were counted, cover-abundance values estimated and Diameter at breast height were measured. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from four land use types to investigate the regeneration potential of the study vegetation. The ethnomedicinal data were collected using semi-structured interviews, guided field walks and focus group discussions. A total of 335 informants selected through stratified random and purposive sampling participated to document data related to the use and management of medicinal plants. Shannon-wiener diversity index, cluster analysis and ordination were computed on ecological data using R-software packages. Composition, density, depth distribution and Jaccard's coefficient of similarity were computed for soil seed bank analysis. Ethnobotanical analytical tools including preference ranking, informant consensus factor, direct matrix ranking and t-tests in SPSS were employed. A total of 201 vascular plant species belonging to 163 genera and 66 plant families were recorded. Of these 5% of the total recorded species were endemic/nearly endemic to Ethiopia while 10% of the species were new records to Tigray floristic region. In terms of species number, the dominant plant families were Fabaceae (13.9%), Poaceae (10.5%), Asteraceae (6 %) and Lamiaceae (5.5%). Five plant communities were identified in the study vegetation, namely; Ziziphus mucronata - Acacia polyacantha, Combretum hartmannianum - Terminalia macroptera - Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Anogeissus leiocarpa - Ozoroa insignis, Euclea racemosa - Acacia abyssinica and Dodonaea angustifolia- Flueggea virosa. The ordination result revealed that the identified five plant communities were associated with altitude, slope, sand, silt, soil organic matter, total Nitrogen and disturbance. According to the vegetation structure result, large numbers of individual species were categorized in the lower classes of DBH and height. Anogeissus leiocarpa, Combretum hartmannianum, Ziziphus mucronata, Terminalia macroptera and Acacia polyacantha were the species with high importance value. Some endemic plant species of Hirmi were found recorded in the IUCN red list. The overall regeneration status of the study area was found to be poor. This is attributed to anthropogenic disturbances and grazing pressures. A total of 58 species representing 51 genera and 22 families were recovered from the soil seed bank. Of these, 86.2% were herbs. The total density of soil seed banks from all land-use types was 3,116.7 seeds/m2. The highest species composition was found in the shrubland and the least number of species were found in the bare land. About 85 medicinal plant species used for the treatment of 71 human and 16 livestock ailments were documented. The majority (64.7%) of the medicinal plants were collected from the wild environment, while the remaining (35.3%) were collected from the homegardens, fallow land and farming lands of the community. The highest informant consensus factor values were calculated for abdominal discomfort. Zehneria scabra, Plumbago zeylanica and Zingiber officinale were the most preferred medicinal plants to treat abdominal diseases. Regarding ethnomedicinal knowledge, there was a significant difference between age groups, educational status, marital status and experience of informants; however, religion and gender did not exert statistically significant differences. Overgrazing, deforestation and expansion of agriculture are the number one threats to the medicinal plants. Homegardening, fencing and plantation were among the conservation techniques used by the local community. In general, the study area is under poor regeneration status. To overcome this challenge, integrated management measures including monitoring, education and application of restoration techniques by taking into consideration the significant environmental factors associated with species diversity, IUCN threat level, ethnomedicinal services, regeneration potential and status of species are recommended to preserve and restore the study vegetation.
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    Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by Local Communities In Kebena District Gurage Zone Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-06-25) Tsegaye, Michael; Lulekal, Ermias (PhD); Debela, Asfaw (PhD)
    An ethnobotanical study of the knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants by local people in Kebena district was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021. The objective of the study was to gather and analyze information on the use, management and conservation of medicinal plants as well as status of indigenous knowledge of the local people. Data were gathered from local people, local healers and knowledgeable elders of the study area. A total of 80 informants (50 men and 30 women) aged between 25-80 years were selected via purposive and snowball sampling from ten Kebeles. Relevant information was collected by using semi-structured interview, market survey, field observation and focus group discussion. The Lamiaceae and Asteraceae stood first by contributing 6 (9.23%) species each; followed by Fabaceae and Solanaceae 5 (7.69%) species. From the total collected plants, 59 species were used for the treatment of 41 human ailments and 6 species were used to treat both livestock and human ailments. Herbs were the most utlized growth form followed by trees and shrubs. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (46.05%). The common route of administration was oral (58%) followed by dermal and nasal. There were plants with higher informant consensus factor due to the wide range of human and livestock diseases that they are claimed to treat. There is high preference for Urtica simensis Steudel for treating anthrax, while paired comparison showed Lepidium sativum L. to be the most preferred species for treatment of human stomach ache. In addition, the apparent disinterest of the young generation in traditional medicine has become a major problem for the continuity of the knowledge of medicinal plants. The effort of local people in conserving medicinal plants is minimal since much of the medicinal plants were easily available and people have beendiscouraged to use traditional medicine. To tackle the depletion of knowledge from further loss and the loss of medicinal plants, recognition of traditional healers and cultivation of medicinal plants, participating government offices and NGOs is recommended
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    Distribution of Selected Species of Dry Afromontane Forest In Relation to Climate Change in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-09-08) Chernet, Fedhii; Nemomsa, Sileshi (Professor); Warkineh, Bikila (PhD)
    DAF encompasses nearly 50% of the Ethiopian forest resources with high biodiversity values. Dry Afromontane Forest (DAF) is under serious threats from deforestation, harvest of wood products, fire, encroaching agriculture, over grazing and climate changes related factors. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of key selected DAF species in relation to climate change. We used modern MaxEnt species distribution software to assess the current distribution of these two species (Celtis Africana, and Juniperus procera) and to predict their future distribution under different climate change scenario. We gathered species occurrence data from the Ethiopian National Herbarium (ETH) for the selected species, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Google earth for herbarium collections that lack geographical location data. Moreover, bioclimatic variable data were collected from the website We used MaxEnt model to predict current and future distributions of the species and to identify the most important factor(s) that determine the distribution of the species. Our results indicate a future highly suitable habitat of Celtis africana shift from central and south western areas of DAF to small parts of central region. Moreover, a highly suitable habitat of juniperus procera shift can occur from northern, central and mostly around eastern parts of DAF. This shift in distribution is primarily a factor of climate change. This study highlights the urgent need of species based conservation measures to avert the loss of species and avoid its cascading effects on biodiversity and sustainable human development.
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    Ecophysiology of Faidherbia Albida; Effect of Pruning on tree Water Relations, Cambium Dynamics and Understorey Wheat Productivity in Ejerssa Joro, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-04-18) Assefa, Awol; Fetene, Masresha (Professor); W. Muthuri, Catherine (Professor); Gebrekirstos, Aster (PhD)
    Faidherbia albida (Delile) A. Chev.; is one of the most compatible agroforestry tree species commonly found in agricultural fields in semi-arid region of Ethiopia in association with wheat (Triticum aestivum), teff (Eragrostis tef) and maize (Zea mays). Farmers heavily prune the tree for various purposes. The impact of pruning on tree water relations, cambium growth, and leafing phenology is not well understood. This study was therefore designed to investigate the impact of pruning F. albida on tree water use, cambium dynamics, leafing phenology and understory wheat productivity. A field experiment was conducted at Ejerssa Joro Kebele, Lome woreda Oromia Regional State between April 2015 and October 2017. Three of the trees were pruned mimicking the farmers practice while others three were left unpruned as a control. Sap flow rate and sap volume was determined using heat ratio method (HRM). Radial cambium growth was measured using micro dendrometer, leafing phenology was scored every month. Split plot design was employed with 1m2 areas under both tree managements at 1, 3 and 5m distances and from three directions. Soil moisture from different distances as well as under and outside of the tree canopy was measured. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) levels, air temperature, relative humidity (RH) were measured. Soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed from different distances of pruned and unpruned tress from inside and outside of the tree crown of pruned and unpruned trees. Wheat growth, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured under each tree management. Wheat productivities (aboveground biomass and grain yield) were measured after the wheat was harvested in October 2015 and 2016. Results showed that both diurnal sap flow rate (78.9 ms-1) and sap volume (4590 L month-1) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in unpruned compared with pruned trees. Sap volume from unpruned trees were higher during the dry season as well as when the tree canopy was fully foliated from December to March each year. On the contrary, sap volume was very low when the trees were pruned and during defoliation in unpruned trees, mainly around the onset of the main rainy season. The highest daily sap volume being 110.7 L in unpruned tree compared to 53.5 L in pruned trees during the dry period, as the result pruning F. albida reduced sap volume up to 52%. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in leaf water potential between midday and predawn in pruned and unpruned trees. However, the difference in midday and predawn leaf water potential in pruned and unpruned were statistically insignificant. A higher cambial growth was observed towards the onset of the dry period in both tree managements. A higher cambial growth was observed in unpruned both in dry and wet season compared with the pruned one. Both temporal and spatial variations of leaflet number per twig were scored. The highest mean leaflet remaining per twig (up to 23) was scored during the dry period (October–January) when the tree crown was fully foliated. However, number of leaflets declined towards March and May each year followed by complete defoliation from May to June each year. The leaf iv number/twig remaining in June and October was significant (p<0.05) in 2015. Higher rate of assimilation (A) of wheat leaves was recorded (4.8μmolm-2s-1) at 1 m distance under unpruned F. albida but declined with increasing distances away from the tree trunk. Rate of assimilation of wheat leaves showed significant (p<0.05) difference between 1 m and 5 m distance of same tree. Total chlorophyll content (based on SPAD readings) of wheat grown under unpruned F. albida was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to under pruned trees. However, no significant difference was observed in RWC of wheat leaves under both tree managements and along the different distances. Soil organic carbon, nitrogen and available phosphorous under unpruned trees were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared with the soil under pruned tree of similar distances. Wheat grain yield under unpruned F. albida tree was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared with outside of same tree as well as under and outside of pruned tree. The grain yield found at 1, 3, and 5m distances from the trunk of pruned tree was lower by 26, 27 and 29%, respectively, than the grain yield of wheat under unpruned F. albida at similar distances. The highest biomass (3.29 t ha-1) was found under unpruned F. albida and the lowest (2.10 t ha-1) was found outside of pruned tree. Pruning reduced wheat biomass by 30 and the grain yield by 27%; however, the difference in aboveground biomass within unpruned tree under and outside the tree canopy and outside of pruned F. albida was insignificant. The results showed that pruning F. albida canopy reduces the complementarity benefits of wheat productivity and significantly reduces tree water uptake. In general, the crown of unpruned F. albida improved microclimate condition such as reduced PAR level significantly and reduced air temperature up to 6%. A higher soil moisture content as well as majority of soil macronutrients found under unpruned were higher which contributes to enhance understorey wheat productivity. Therefore, farmers should be encouraged to retain the branches of F. albida in order to optimize agricultural productivity and to increase yield where evapotranspiration is the liming factor in semi-arid Ethiopia.
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    Plant Diversity, Ethnobotany and Barcoding of Medicinal and Cosmetic Plants in Kalu and Bati Districts of Amhara Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-06-22) Abdurhman, Nurya; Asfaw, Zemede (Professor); Demissew, Sebsebe (Professor); DeBoer, Hugo (Professor)
    The study was conducted in Kalu and Bati Districts, South Wollo Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. It was aimed at documenting plant diversity in selected forest patches, ethnobotany and barcoding of medicinal and cosmetic plants. Vegetation data were collected from 50 and 30 sampling plots (20 m × 20 m) for Anabe and Gerfa-ourene forest patches respectively using transect method. For shrubs and herbs 5 m x 5 m and 1 m x 1 m subplots were laid within each quadrat respectively. Ethnobotanical data were collected by administering semi-structured interviews with randomly sampled 300 informants, through direct field observation, 20 focus group discussion and in eight local markets. For DNA barcoding sequences, samples were collected both in voucher form and by silica gel and analyzed at the laboratory of Natural History Museum, University Of Oslo, Norway. Agglomerative hierarchical classification with the application of R-computer programing (R Version 3.0.2) was used to identify plant communities. Simple preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) were calculated to analyze the ethnobotanical data. Genomic DNA was extracted from silica-gel-dried leaves, voucher specimens and powdered medicinal plant samples to generate barcodes for ITS, rbcL and matK using specific primers and PCR amplification. All barcode sequences were queried using NCBI BLAST to cross-check morphological identifications. From Anabe and Gerfa-ourene forest patches a total of 128 plant species which belong to 114 genera and 60 families were recorded. From the total, 108 of the plant species representing 97 genera and 52 families were collected from Anabe Forest patch whereas 84 plant species representing 75 genera and 46 families were from Gerfa-ourene Forest patch. From the hierarchical cluster analysis, the vegetation in Anabe and Gerfa-ourene Forest patches were classified in to three plant community types each. The ethnobotanical study in Kalu District revealed 129 medicinal plant species that belong to 108 genera and 59 families. In Bati District, however, 94 traditional medicinal plant species belonging to 78 genera and 49 families were reported. The majority of human remedy preparations were from leaves (43% in Kalu and 29% in Bati) followed by roots (11% in kalu and 17% in Bati) and the highest ICF values were recorded for back pain in humans in both districts (0.94 in Kalu, 0.96 in Bati). The highest FL values of human medicinal plants were recorded for Withania somnifera (93.5%) in Kalu District, and Terminalia brownii (95.96%) in Bati District. About 30.34% of the medicinal plants in both districts were cited for women’s health problems and for herbal cosmetics.The amplified products were used for sequencing and 154 samples were sequenced for three barcode regions (ITS, rbcL and matK). BLAST was used to compare sample sequences to the reference database and sequencing success was high for rbcL (97.4%) and ITS (96.1%), but lower for matK (76.0%). Anabe and Gerfa-ourene Forest patches are rich in species composition having 128 plant species which belong to 114 genera and 60 families. Both districts are rich in their medicinal plant composition having 145 medicinal plant species that belong to 116 genera and 62 families. Kalu and Bati Districts are rich in “women’s plants” and herbs used as cosmetics (44 species, which belong to 39 genera and 31 families). DNA barcoding method was attempted for identifying 154 medicinal and cosmetics plant materials including from markets with high percentage of success.
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    Invasion of Prosopis Juliflora (Sw.) DC. and its Ecological Impacts in Afar National Regional State, Northeast Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-07-18) Shiferaw, Wakshum; Demissew, Sebsebe (Professor); Bekele, Tamrat (PhD); Aynekulu, Ermias (PhD)
    The ecological impacts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. on ecosystem properties have been reported to be severe especially on grazing land and woodland. The objectives of this study were to quantify the land use/cover changes in Awash Fentale and Amibara districts, (2) investigate the effects of climate variability on the phenology of P. juliflora, (3) assess effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on species composition and diversity, (4) investigate the effects of P. juliflora on soil physicochemical properties, and (5) assess effects of Prosopis juliflora on soil seed bank compositon and density. A combination of remote sensing data and field observations were used to analyze effects of Prosopis juliflora invasion on land use and land cover changes from 1986 to 2017 in Amibara and Awash Fentale districts in Afar National Regional State. Data for phenology of Prosopis juliflora including leafing, flowering, green, and mature pod proportions (%) per tree per month were collected for a year in 2017. For floristic analysis, data were collected under four distinct habitats, namely Prosopis juliflora thickets (PJT), P. juliflora mixed with native species (PJM), non-invaded woodlands (NIWLs), and open grazing lands (OGLs). Quadrats were laid using systematic random sampling technique. In each habitat, soil samples for soil seed bank were also collected from litter layer, 0–3 cm, 3–6 cm, and 6–9 cm. In Amibara and Awash Fentatle districts, during 1986–2017 area under farm land, water bodies, grassland, area invaded by P. juliflora increased, while barren and woodland areas decreased. Overall, 7886 ha of woodlands and 221 ha grazing lands were converted to Prosopis juliflora invaded land during 1986–2017 in the study area. During 2017 growing seasons, the lowest proportion of mature and green pods per tree of Prosopis juliflora were recorded in Bega (dry season), but the highest in Belg (spring) season. The highest proportion of flowering per tree was recorded in November-December, while the lowest proportion of flowering per tree was in January-February. Invasion by Prosopis juliflora significantly changed diversity, evenness and species richness. The mean values of Shannon diversity index and species richness under PJM (H’ =2.22, R= 13.94) and NIWLs (H’=2.23, R =13.44) were significantly higher than that of PJT (H’=1.96, R=11.50) and OGLs (H’=1.84, N=9.56). Invasion by Prosopis juliflora also significantly reduced density of native woody species. In this study, 102 trees ha-1 of native woody species were recorded under P. juliflora thicket, but 1252 trees ha-1 of native species were recorded under non-invaded woodlands. In Teru and Yalo districts, the mean density of soil seed bank in non-invaded grazing lands (813 ± 375 seedlings / m2) was significantly higher than the soil seed bank density of Prosopis juliflora invaded lands (545 ± 156 seedlings / m2. Invasion of Prosopis juliflora had significantly affected soil pH, exchangeable Na+, water soluble Ca2+ + Mg2+, water soluble Na+, and exchangeable sodium percentage in Teru and Yalo distrcits. Thus, invasion of Prosopis juliflora significantly increased soil pH (1.5%), but decreased exchangeable Na+ (24.2%), exchangeable sodium percentage (21.6%), and water soluble Ca2+ + Mg2+ (39.9%) than non-invaded open grazing lands. Based on these results it is concluded that Prosopis juliflora drastically alters vegetation and soil properties. If the present change continues, pastoralists grazing lands will be lost. To reverse these situations, integrated management of Prosopis juliflora should be implemented through participation of all stockholders and multidisciplinary research approaches.
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    Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in two Cultures: Hadiya and Yem Peoples, Snnpr, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-06-06) Woldemariam, Gideon; Demissew, Sebsebe (Professor); Asfaw, Zemede (Professor)
    This investigation was carriedout between 2013-2016 in five districts of SNNPR (Anlemo, Duna, Gibe, Gombora and Yem) with the objective of documenting and analyzing traditional medicinal plants (MPs) and the health care knowledge of the society. Vegetation data were gathered from 123 quadrats each 30x30 m laid in different land use types in the districts. Clustering was undertaken to identify plant communities, Shannon-Weiner Index was calculated to evaluate the diversity of species, Sorenson’s coefficient was calculated to assess similarity in species, and ordination was performed to identify the effects of environmental factors plant communities. Ethnobotanical data were gathered from 399 general and 102 key informants through individual interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation, market surveys and guided transect walk. Quantitative ethnobotanical tools including Preference Ranking, Direct Matrix Ranking, Informant Consensus Factor, Fidelity Level, Use Value, Relative Impotrance and Use Diversity indices were calculated to identify most culturally important MPs. A total of 468 species of vascular plants were recorded from vegetation data. Five plant communities were identified in Hadiya and three in Yem. The communities had diversity indices between 3.35-4.89 and evenness 0.87-0.97. Monte Carlo test showed that altitude, slope, aspect and disturbance in Yem, and three of the former in Hadiya had significant effects on the distribution of plant communities (p<=0.001-0.03). The most frequently reported growth forms were herbs (45%) for human health and shrubs (30%) for livestock health and they were mainly collected from wild habitats. The Hadiya and Yem people most frequently used leaves for treating both human and livestock ailments. Asteraceae for human and Fabaceae for livestock health were MPs richest families in all districts. The top perceived threats of loss of MPs in all districts were agricultural expansion, firewood and charcoal while modernisation was considered responsible for loss of MPK. Dermatological human ailments scored the highest ICF (0.95) in Gombora while ailments of gastrointestinal system & visceral organs scored the least ICF (0.82) in Yem. Reproductive & urogenital livestock ailments had the highest ICF (0.92) in Duna while musculoskeletal, sensory & miscellaneous category had the least ICF (0.78) in Yem. Among MPs that scored 100% FL for human ailments were Vernonia myriantha, Stephania abyssinica, Securidaca longepedunculata, Englerina woodfordioides and Inula confortiflora in Anlemo, Duna, Gibe, Gombora and Yem, respectively. Similarly, among EVMPs that scored 100% FL were Croton macrostachyus, Kalanchoe schimperiana, Securidaca longepedunculata, Asparagus africanus, Haplocarpha rueppellii in Anlemo, Duna, Gibe, Gombora and Yem, respectively. The calculated UV and RI showed that C. macrostachyus is the most culturally important species, most exploited and locally threatened in all districts. MPK was significantly different between Yem (mean =13.40) and Hadiya (mean = 10.35) (p < 0.001). Gender, marriage, age, religion and informant skill had significant contribution to MPK of human and livestock health in Hadiya (p =< 0.001-0.048) while the former four variables were not significant in Yem indicating MPK is variably dependent on these variables in the study sites. Conservation of MPs was found to be associated with gender and age in both Hadiya and Yem (p = 0.001-0.003). The people of the study area were known to utilise TMPs side by side with the mainstream biomedical system for maintaining both human and livestock health. The remnant forests and different land uses are still reservoirs for high diversity of medicinal and other useful species in the study area. Conducting phytochemical screening and clinical trials of the MPs with high informant consensus and FL including Englerina woodfordioides, Stephania abyssinica, Securidaca longepedunculata, Lysimachia ruhmeriana and Vernonia myriantha is suggested in the first priority line for their efficacy, safety and standard uses.