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    Species Composition Distribution and Ecology of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Relation to Malaria Transmission and Control in Dembiya District Northwestern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-05-04) Tarekegn, Mihretu; Dugassa, Sisay (PhD)
    Malaria is an important vector borne disease transmitted by the infective bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas in Ethiopia. Malaria vector control requires field and clinical data on malaria transmission and ecology of local vectors. A six-year retrospective malaria data set from health facilities was analyzed to determine trends in malaria prevalence in the two malaria-prone areas of Dembiya District, Northwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria during the peak transmission season in the two Kebeles of Dembiya district. A longitudinal entomological study on the species composition and ecology of adult and immature Anopheles mosquitoes was conducted from June 2018 to May 2019. Larvae and pupae of Anopheles mosquitoeswere collected from different mosquito breeding habitats using a 350 ml standard dipper, and physicochemical characteristics of the larval breeding habitats were measured in conjunction with larval sampling. CDC light traps, pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs) and artificial pit shelters were used to collect host seeking and resting Anopheles mosquitoes from indoors and outdoors. Using morphological keys, collected Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to the species level and An. gambiae s.l (sensu lato) were further identified to sibling species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to examine the blood meal source of blood fed Anopheles mosquitoes, and to detect Plasmodium species using circum-sporozoite proteins (CSP). A WHO test tube bioassay was used to assess the susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis to four insecticides such as pyrethroids, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and fenitrothion. Malaria is endemic in the area according to retrospective malaria data from health facilities. Over the past six-years, the overall prevalence of malaria cases was 22.4% (484/2157). Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 75.1 % (367/484) of the malaria cases in the study area, while P. vivax was responsible for 18.2% (88/484) the malaria cases. The remaining 5.9% (29/484) were mixed infections. Malaria parasites were found in 3.5% (26) of 735 blood smears stained with 3% geimsa and microscopically examined slides. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were responsible for 65% (17) and 19% (5/26) of the malaria infection, respectively, with 15% (4/26) being mixed infections. Males (18/382; 4.7%) were 2.6 times more likely to be infected with malaria than females (8/353; 2.3%) (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.041- 6.412; p= 0.041). A total of 1,629 Anopheles larvae and 185 pupae were collected from different breeding habitats. Eight species of Anopheles mosquitoes were identified from female mosquitoes that emerged from field collected larvae and pupae, including Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, An. coustani, An. christyi, An. squamosus, An. demeilloni, An. danicalicus and An. cinereus. Anopheles arabiensis (59.2%) was the most common followed by An. pharoensis (35.3%). Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were identified from 2,055 field collected adult specimens during this study: An. pharoensis, An. arabiensis, An. coustani, An. demeilloni, An. cinereus, An. funestus, An. ardensis, and An. squamosus were identified from both Guramba Bata and Arebiya study sites, whereas An. garnhami, An. christyi and An. nili were identified only from Guramba Bata. Anopheles pharoensis was the dominant species identified in both Arebiya and Guramba Bata study sites, accounting for 46.4% (953/2,055), while An. Arabiensis was also relatively dominant in both study sites (38.3%; 776/2055). Anopheles larvae were more abundant in drainage canals (14.7 ± 3.5 larvae/dip) than in other types of breeding habitats such as river side pools (2.0 ± 0.9), hoof prints (3.0 ± 1.2), swamps (3.8 ± 1.2), and puddles (2.7 ± 2.7) (F8,99 = 9.85; p<0.001). The presence or absence of Anopheles larvae was associated with physical characteristics of larval breeding habitats such as turbidity (mid turbid) (AOR = 66.03; 95% CI: 2.01-2168.24, p= 0.019) and presence of grass (AOR= 12.62; 95% CI: 1.29-122.78, p= 0.029). The mean outdoor density of Anopheles mosquitoes collected with a CDC light trap (4.8 ± 1.8 mosquitoes/trap/night) was slightly higher than mean indoor density of Anopheles mosquitoes (4.3 ± 1.7 mosquitoes/trap/night) in Arebiya study site. Similarly, in Guramba Bata, the mean density of outdoor Anopheles mosquito collected with CDC light trap (8.1 ± 2.6 mosquitoes/trap/night) was higher than indoor Anopheles mosquito density (5.5 ± 1.7 mosquitoes/trap/night). The human blood indices (HBI) of indoor and outdoor hosts seeking An. arabiensis were 17.4% and 15.3%, respectively. The overall sporozoite rate of An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis and An. coustani was 0.3%, 0.9% and 5.9%, respectively. Whereas, the annual Entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of outdoor hosts seeking An. arabiensiswas 4.7 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles arabiensis was resistant to deltamethrin and permethrin. In conclusion, the dominant Anopheles vector species in the study area were An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis.The season, and type and physicochemical characteristics of the breeding habitats, influenced the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis and An. coustani showed relatively strong exophilic, exophagic and zoophilic tendencies in the study area, which was likely influenced by decades of indoor malaria interventions with IRS and ITNs. Anopheles arabiensis has developed resistance to pyrethroids and deltamethrin that have been used over the years. As a result, malaria control and elimination programmes should target outdoor biting and resting Anopheles mosquitoes with appropriate resistance management measures.
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    The Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus L. 1758) of Three Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes Physico-Chemical Conditions Phenotypic and Reproductive Characters and Response to Elevated Fry Rearing Temperature
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-28) Endebu, Megerssa; Getahun, Abebe (Professor); Tessema, Misikire (PhD)
    Fishery and aquaculture development along with sustainable use of natural resources play significant role in alleviating the problems of nutritional insecurity and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The ecological status of Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes; which provide substantial economic, environmental and social benefits across diverse ecological settings; and the potential of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. 1758) populations in aquaculture development were not comprehensively studied. This study was thus undertaken to assess the current and past physico-chemical conditions of Lakes Chamo, Koka and Ziway, phenotypic and reproductive characters of O. niloticus populations of the lakes, and potential of the fish populations for aquaculture development. Field, laboratory and experimental data were obtained using standard methods over a period of three years, and analyzed using various computations, and compared against previous records and standards. The study demonstrated that water physico-chemical parameters varied significantly between seasons, and within and between the lakes. The findings have shown that some of the parameters were higher than previously reported levels. Anthropogenic associated factors including water turbidity, soluble reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-N concentrations varied among the lakes and across seasons. Invasion of water hyacinth and wetland vegetation cover also varied considerably across the lakes. Phenotypic and reproductive characters, and response to elevated fry rearing temperature of the three O. niloticus populations from the three lakes were also investigated. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in most of the morphometric character indices, meristic counts, mean length and weight, Fulton's condition factor, length at first sexual maturity (L50), absolute fecundity, peak breeding seasons and response to heat treatment among the three O. niloticus populations. The current values of some of the parameters, like L50, decreased from previous reports, indicating urgent need for implementation of proper fishery management. Possessing desired phenotypic and reproductive qualities in aquaculture, populations of Chamo followed by Koka appear to be potentials for further genetic improvement. Further research is required to investigate whether the fish populations could maintain those characters in pond cultures. To improve sex reversal efficiency by heat treatment, sensitive individuals can be selected and their degree of sensitivity can be improved through continuous selection of progenies from temperature sensitive parents. Generally, there is an urgent need for proper agricultural practices, proper municipal and industrial waste management practices, protection of wetland vegetation and delimitation of the lakes' buffer zones to sustain the services of the lakes.
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    Studies on the Status and Species Composition of Termites in Different Land Use Systems and their Management on Maize in East Wollega Zone Western Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-01-18) Beyene, Temesgen; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    In Ethiopia, agro ecological based termite infestation emerged with the spread of invasive termite species. In response, various species and assemblage were come to exist in Ethiopia, western and Eastern Wollega areas since 1904. Therefore, continuous studies on various aspects are crucial in termite prone sites. Hence, the current study was aimed at species composition and status of termites in different land uses and their management on maize in east Wollega zone; Nunuqumba, Diga, Limu and Nekemte districts from August 2017 to December 2021.Qualitative survey using questionnaire was employed for data collection from 90 smallholders in each districts. Termite encounters are surveyed and identified. Data was analyzed using SPSS. For soil physicochemical analysis of four land uses and three patches in each land use having a plot size of (100 m x 100m) three mound in each patch and soil sample from 0-20cm, 20-40cm and 40-60cm mound position and adjacent soil in each patches was collected and composited from purposively selected sites in Fitbako kebele. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications and adjacent soil was used as a control. There are 16 treatments replicated three times. The sub-samples composited soil was analyzed with reference to National soil research center of Ethiopia. Cultivated land termite soil, adjacent and non-mound soil nnutrients composition and their effect on maize plant growth in the presence or absence of NPK in green house condition were experimented with soil collected at the depth of 0-30cm in which adjacent and non-mound soil were collected 5m and 20m away from the mound respectively. Maize variety BH-661 and NPK fertilizer were the materials .In the experiment three kg sample soil was added to each pots, the experiment was laid out in (CRD) with 12 treatments replicated three times and termite genera, termite mound, adjacent and non-mound soil physicochemical value , plant growth traits at 2,4 and 8 weeks and yield parameter data were collected and analyzed.For the determination of botanical efficacy on termite management the locally available botanicals , Croton macrostachys(Hochst), L. Jatropha curcas and Phytolacca dodecandra L leaves were collected dried under shade, grounded in to a fine powder, sieved and stored. The experiment was conducted on irrigation and rain fed field (3 mx7.5m) arranged in (RCBD) with four replication. Botanical powder 300 g was weighed and soaked in 1000 ml distilled water and filtered and collected to vii 200ml beaker, from the beaker 20 ml was powered to syringe and injected to each hole 10 days before planting and at different growth stages of maize and data of termites, galleries and mounds were recorded two days before planting and every two days after treatment application at all growth stages of maize plant and at harvest, maize cobs were collected and yields were analyzed. A total of 295 termite specimens collected were Termitidae in its four Sub families and nine genera. These termites are traditionally known and are high in low altitude of grazing land and low in high altitude of disturbed forest, Standard quadrat Survey also revealed high termite density (n), galleries and mound in grazing land followed by cultivated land and disturbed forest. They are recorded from Nunuqumba and Diga districts. Mound constructing termites improve mound soils texture and enable retaining of pH, OC, OM TN, P, K, Ca and Mg than Adjacent and Non-mound soil. Soil nutrients retain was contributed by Macrotermes, Pseudacanthotermes and Odontotermes. Nutrient rich mound soil favour plant growth and resulted in high mean plant growth trait at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, subsequently, grain yield weight of maize at harvest show significant (p<0.05) result than in non-mound soil. However, termites are regarded as pests of agricultural products and structures. Termite management relay on chemical insecticide and mound destruction. Botanical termite management involved , Croton macrostachys(Hochst), L. Jatropha curcas and Phytolacca dodecandra L leaf extract at the rate of 20ml/plant separately or combined used were deterring termites. The three mixed botanicals extract were more effective than two mixed botanicals. The present study concluded that agroecology and land use systems impose similar termite genera compositions to occupy similar location, study of termite agroecology and land uses therefore contribute to understand and plan termite management. Overgrazing due to high traffic of grazing animals favour abundant termite genera compositions in grazing land. The location and the red soil type of Nunuqumba and Diga districts favored termite prevalence. Mound Soil nutrient mixed with NPK induces extraordinary growth .Therefore, applications of NPK fertilizer on plots having termite mound is not recommended. Termite control with mixtures of plants such as C. macrostachys, J. curcas and P. dodecandra extracts can be used as part of an integrated termite’s management (ITM).
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    Studies on Status of Stored Grain Insect Pests of Major Cereal Crops Grown in Sebeta Awas Woreda Oromia Regional State Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-01-29) Tadesse, Eshetu; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    Cereals crops are mostly cultivate for the purpose of consumptions and commercial uses. Cereals crops also are cultivated for the industrial raw materials. The study insects pest and local community perception on their pest status in Sebeta Awas Woreda, Oromia Regional State was carried out from August 2018 to August 2019. The main objective of the current study is to investigate the status of stored grain insect pests of major cereals grown in the Sebeta Awas District. .A total numbers of 125 respondents were randomly selected for both quantities and qualitative data collection through questionnaires and interviewees. The data were analyzed by using simple descriptive statistical methods such as frequency and percentage. All the respondent background information and dominant cultivated crops were collected from each respondent. The majority of respondents were male and their main source of income was from crop cultivation Cereal crops such as Barely, Wheat, Sorghum, Teff and Maize were the dominantly cultivated crops in the study area. All respondents reported that they had pest problems. The major pests were insects, nematodes, rodents, birds and wild animals. The majority of respondents faced pest problems (insects). Cereals crops were most susceptible to damage by insect pests. Cereal crops such as Barely, Wheat, Sorghum, Teff and Maize were damaged after storage at the warehouse by different kinds of insects such as termites, lesser grain borer , warehouse moth and maize weevil. Thus proper controlling methods need to be used to reduce grain loss in storage due to insect’s pests. The most common methods used were application of pesticides, mechanical control, biological control, physical control cultural control and chemical control. Most respondents were able to use cultural and chemical control methods in the study area.
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    Assessing Lepidopteran Diversity in three Selected Land-Use Types in Chebera Churchura National Park and its Surroundings South Western Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-06-30) Hailay, Gebreegziabher; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    Following the order of Coleoptera, the Lepidoptera is the second largest order of insects. Currently, Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) comprise about 46 superfamilies, 126 families, and 180,000 species. Lepidopteran biodiversity in three selected land-use types was studied from January 2020 to June 2020, 2020, and around Chebera Churchura National Park, in the southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s region, Southwestern Ethiopia. Three selected land-use types: riverine forest, wooded grassland, and Mosaic habitats were studied. The effects of the diversity of plants on the diversity and abundance of lepidopterans were also studied. Metrological data trend analysis was also studied to investigate the effect of rainfall and temperature on population fluctuations. A sweeping net was used to collect adult butterflies and a light sheet trap was used to collect adult moths. The results showed that 184 species (79 butterfly species and 105 moth species) in 16 families (five families of butterflies and 11 families of moths) were recorded. The Nymphalidae were the most numerous of the five butterfly families studied, while the Hespariidae were the least numerous. Moth families Crambidae, Erbidae and siphingidae were the dominant and Pyralidae was the least. Species richness, composition, and abundance were variable in the different land-use types. Thus, the riverine forest had the highest number of lepidopteran species with 147 species and 5,203 individuals, followed by wooded grassland with 106 species and 3174 individuals and Mosaic habitat with 52 species and 1610 individuals. The Chi-square test results showed that the diversity of butterflies and moths differed significantly between the three habitats. Linear regression was calculated to study the role of the diversity of plants on the diversity of moths and butterflies and the results showed that the effect was not significant. The diversity of Lepidoptera captured varied with the month of sampling and the highest number was recorded in January and the least was recorded in June and the trend of rainfall showed increments and the temperature decreased from January to June. The Sorensen index of similarity and Jaccard’s index of similarity were observed among the three habitats and the highest similarity was found between riverine forest and wooded grass land with 70% for moth habitat and the highest similarity was found between wooded grass land and mosaic habitat with 34% for butterfly habitat. Generally, the habitat was good for moth and butterfly diversity.
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    Assessment of Possible Integrated Management Alternatives for Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Lepidoptera Nocutidae) on Maize at Melkassa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-03-07) Degife, Besufkad; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    Maize is an important crop that is produced in Ethiopia but still falls short of its potential due to biotic and abiotic factors. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith) has been one of the yield limiting factors in Ethiopia since its introduction in 2017. This experiment was conducted at Melkasa Research Centre to asses an integrated management of fall armyworm during the 2020 rainy season. The experimental design was split plot design where the two maize varieties (Melkassa 2 and Melkasa 4) were main plot treatments, while different control options were sub-plot treatments which include T1 (Sole maize), T2 (Neem), T3 (Avaunt 150 SC), T4 (intercropping with haricot bean), T5 (Neem +intercropping with haricot bean), T6 (Avaunt 150 SC + intercropping with haricot bean), T7 (Avaunt 150 SC +Neem and T8 (Avaunt 150 SC +Neem + intercropping with haricot bean). The result obtained indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the maize varieties in all measured parameters across all maize growth stages. Treatments such as T3, T6, T7 and T8 which contain Avaunt were effective in reducing egg and larval densities of S. frugiperda. In terms of percent infestation, plant score damage and cob damage score, treatments which also contain Avaunt had the least infested, less damaged maize plants and cobs. In a field survey for natural enemies, lady bird beetles and ear wigs were detected. Earwigs were only found from seedling to tasseling stages, while lady bird beetles were detected throughout the growth stages. In laboratory analysis the parasitoids Telenomus remeus Nixon (Platygastridae) (egg parasitoid) and Cotesia icipe Fiaboe, Fernández-Triana, Nyamu, & Agbodzavu (Braconidae) (larval parasitoid) were found at seedling stage, while C. icipe and Charops ater Szépligeti (Ichneumonidae) both larval parasitoid were found at vegetative stage. The highest yield was obtained in T7 (Avant +neem) with the yield of 7555.08 Kg/ha, followed by T3 (Avaunt) which was 7208.4Kg/ha. From the study, it can be concluded that all control measures with Avaunt (T3, T6, T7 & T8) can be used as S. frugiperda control methods and Avaunt (indoxcarb) 150 SC can be recommended to be farmers to integrated with other controls alterenatives.
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    Frequency of Color Vision Deficiency Among Students of Andode Secondary School in Bole Sub- City of Addis Ababa Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-07-10) Baye, Melese; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay (Professor)
    The visual system, in the human eye receives physical stimuli in the form of light and sends these stimuli as electrical signals to the brain, which interprets them as images. The complex color perceptions, human eye which are initiated by rods and cones in the retina and completed by impulse integration in the brain. The color blindness is inability of identifying colors and its prevalence varies between populations. The aim of the present study was to determine frequency of color vision deficiency among students of Andode Secondary School in Bole sub- city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted from March to May 2021. 948 students from grade 9, 10, 11, and12 participated in the study. Among these, 568 were females and 380 were males and their ages range from 15 to 23 years. Students who have volunteered and a written consent from their parents or guardians were included in the study. The test of color vision was used Ishihara 24 plates and subjects were asked to sit in a room with sufficient light and read the figures/symbols on the plates from a computer screen placed 75 cm away from the subject. The data were manually arranged and frequencies were calculated. Among the 948 students tested, 26(2.74%) have color vision defect, and these included 19(2%) males and 7 (0.74%) females . These 19 males with color blindness include, 2 (0.21%) achromatopsia, 12 (1.27%) deutan, 4(0.42%) protan and1(0.11%) unclassified(combined form). Female colorblind includes achromatopsia 2(0.21%), deutan 3(0.32%), protan 1(0.11%) and 1(0.11%) unclassified. The plate number 16and 17 Students can read are grouped under unclassified different from what red-green colorblind students read. The prevalence of color blindness was observed higher in males than in females. Teaching institutions screening students is recommended for color vision deficiency, so that they can provide the necessary assistance to such students.
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    The Effects of Compost Application on Growth and Yield Performances of White Lupin (Lupinus Albus L.)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-08-04) Melese, Agegnehu; Negash, Legesse (Professor)
    Lupinus is a diverse genus in the legume family (Fabaceae).Its common name used in Europe and Australia lupin for both native and domesticated species, while the common name for native Lupinus in North America is lupine.Taxonomically,lupins are classified within the order fabales,family Fabaceae,trible Geniseae and genus lupinus and the number of species in this genus is expected to be over 1000.However ,the commonly agreed number of the existing lupin species is around 280. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of compost on growth and yield of L. albus in pot experiment. A total of 100 plastic bags (depth 20cm, diameter 10 cm) were filled using, 50 bags contained 1kg of vertisol, and 50 contained soils mixed with compost. The study found out that vertisol mixed with compost at rates of 120 quintal ha improved the vegetative growth of L.albus by 51% and yield increased by68 . In contrast, no significant difference in seed germination (p < 0.05) was observed between the two treatments for all the germination parameters measured. In particular, differences in mean germination time and germination vigor were not significant between seeds germinated in vertisol mixed with compost (VR+Comp) or in vertisol only. Maximum mean plant height (cm), internodes length (cm), branches/plant, leaf number, leaf area (mm2), root collar diameter (RCD) (cm), number of capitulae/plant, number of seeds, 1000 seeds weight (gm) and total dry weight (gm) were41.5, 11.9, 7, 26, 43.2, 1.3, 8, 164, 0.5, 2.2, and 1.9, respectively, for plants grown in VR+comp.The corresponding measurements for the control plants were25, 5.3, 3.0, 19.2, 26.2, 1.2, 4, 90, 0.3, 1.8, and 1.2, respectively. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that application of compost significantly (p< 0.01) improved almost all the growth and yield components of L. albus.
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    Investigation of Honey Production Systems Available Potential and Challenges in Haramaya District of East Hararghe Zone Oromia Regional State Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-08-20) Garomsa, Habtamu; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    The study was conducted to investigate honey production system, available potential and beekeeping practices at Haramaya districts. The main purposes of the investigation were to identify and document the existing honey production system, opportunities, challenges and beekeeping management practice of the district. For this purpose, data were collected from six Kebeles selected purposively and the respondents were selected based on simple random sampling techniques.Thus,39,36,29,25,11 people and 10 bee keepers were selected from finkile, tinike, ganda haaji, ifabate, ganda shangale and adele, respectively using proportional allocation giving a total of 150 bee keepers and interviewed using questionnaires, focal and group discussions. The data was analyzed by descriptive method of data analysis (percent, frequency, mean, standard deviation) using Microsoft excel and SPSS. From this study, two types of beekeeping systems were documented, namely traditional beekeeping systems and Modern beekeeping systems. About 98% of respondents practiced traditional beekeeping. Only 2% of the respondent practiced traditional and modern beekeeping system. The mean bee colony holding size of the respondent was about 66.2 house hold. There was one major honey flower season in the study area (November to December). Based on the results of this study, the major challenges of beekeeping were pests and predators, agro-chemical, lack of beekeeping equipments and materials, gender factor, long dry season and poor infrastructure.The opportunities sourced from the study area includes, flowering bee plants, perception of the societies, endogenous knowledge and presence of bee colonies i.e. The presence of all those things make the research more simpler. Due to high potential for honey production it is recommended to exploit the potential of the district more efforts should be put to create awareness of people on beekeeping, encourage farmers to practice hand weeding instead of using herbicid chemicals and integrate the indigenous knowledge with main stream science and introduce new practice in the area where by farmers knowledge is not productive and sustainability guarantees. There is high honey production in the area but the societies found in the district need awareness about the uses of honey.
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    Medicinal Plants Used by the Ayehu Woreda Communities Awi Zone Amhara Regional State Ethiopia Threats and Conservation Methods
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-09-21) Menberu, Yohannes; Negash, Legesse (Professor)
    Ethiopia has a long history of employing traditional medicinal plants to treat a wide range of human and Livestock illnesses. The present study on medicinal plants was conducted to document local, plant-based medicinal knowledge of communities, conservation methods and the threats affecting these medicinal plants in Ayehu- Guagusa Woreda, Amhara Regional State Eastern Ethiopia. A total of 54 informants (aged between 20-80) were selected so as to provide information on medicinal plant use from 8 sampled kebeles. Of these, 6 male key informants were selected purposively based on recommendations obtained from elders and also younger members of the communities. Other informants (28 males and 20 females) were selected randomly by lottery method. Semi structured interviews, field observations, group discussions, and a guided field walk were used to collect data. Preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, and the informant consensus factor were utilized to analyze the data .Also, fidelity level calculations were run so as to assess the importance of a given medicinal plant for the intended Purpose. A total of 50 different medicinal plant species collected and identified.42 species (84%) were used to treat human illnesses, 5 species (10%) were used to cure livestock illnesses, and the remaining 3 species (6% ) were used to treat both human and livestock diseases. From the total medicinal plant species, 16 ((34.04%), most of them 0f 6 (34.04%), were herbs, and least of them 2 ((29.79%were species of climbers. The most commonly used plant parts were 35 (33.98%) leaves followed by 30(29.13%) roots. The most commonly used method of preparation was crushing (50 %), squeezing (13.75%), and chewing (12.5%) of the different plant parts. Oral administration 60.6 % followed by dermal administration was the popular route of administration reported (22.7 %).most of the medicinal plants (46%) have been harvested from the wild, the effort of local people to conserve medicinal plants is limited. To relieve the rapid loss of medicinal plants, associated indigenous knowledge, we recommend that urgent measures be taken by the concerned government institutions. Strategic approach should include systematic awareness creation through schools, local institutions as well as through accepted leaders of the communities. Awareness creation should be supported by concrete conservation and development activities by way of technical support for selecting, domesticating, propagating and cultivating threatened medicinal plants.
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    Inheritance Variation in some Human Morphogenetic Traits Among School Age Children of Kale Primary School Kolfea Keraniyo Subcity Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-11-03) Mulugeta, Tseganeh; Beyene, Dereje (PhD)
    Morphogenetic characters are physical characters of an individual which are inherited and expressed in different ways. Therefore, this makes it ideal to know the extent of variation among population. However, few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia to know the extent of variation that exist in different races. The study was focused on six morphogenetic characteristics such as tongue rolling, ear lobe attachment, hair line distribution, bent little finger, hitchhiker’s thumb, and palmaris longus muscle (PLM) among the students of kale primary school Addis Ababa Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to find out the inheritance variation of some morphogenetic traits among children of kale primary school having age between 13-18 years. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 325(170 males and 155 females) volunteer students to explore the extent of variation in some morphogenetic traits and to give awareness about the application of morphological variation of the human external ear and that could be translatable for forensic recording of fugitives. The investigator collected the required information by observing the subject and the result was analyzed and association study of traits were conducted by using chi-square test of independence with alpha value of 5% level of significance to identify which trait has association with gender. The study presented distribution of traits in the following order, widow’s peak 116(35.7%) where most males 63(37.1%) exhibit this trait, tongue rolling 242(74.5%) and it was dominated by males 128(75.3%), free ear lobe 217(66.8%) it was also found more in males 115(67.6%), straight thumb 188(57.8%) the difference between gender was found marginal, bent little finger 59(18.2%) which was dominated by females 42(27.1%) and PLM presence 313(96.3%) and absence of this muscle was frequently observed in females 10(6.5%) and as we understand from this study, 96% were found to have PLM muscle, which indicates that there is a sufficient tendon that is essential for various medical procedures. Association evaluation showed no significant association was found between all morphogenetic traits and ages, however, it was found that there is significant association between gender and bent little finger(Χ 2=15.950, p<0.001) and between gender and absence of PLM(Χ 2=6.345, p<0.005). Since the study was conducted in heterogeneous population it is suitable for biomedical, anthropological and forensic studies.
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    Prevalence of Visual Deficiency and Color Blindness Among High School Students the Case of Menelik II Preparatory School Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-30) Shiferaw, Solomon; Wube, Tilaye (PhD)
    Acuity of vision is the ability of the eye to determine the precise shape and details of an object. Normal vision refers to a state in which parallel light rays entering the eye form images on the retina when the eye is in a completely unregulated state. Refractive errors affect a large proportion of the population worldwide, irrespective of age, sex and ethnic group. They can easily be diagnosed, measured and corrected with spectacles or other refractive corrections to attain normal vision. The eye is very important to perceive colors using photo receptors found in the retina. Color deficiency describes the inability or decreased ability to identify colors or perceive color differences under normal lighting conditions. The cause of color vision deficiency can be acquired or inherited. Certain diseases, drugs and chemicals may cause color blindness. It can also be caused by accidents or trauma which produces swelling of the brain in the occipital lobe. Most of the inherited color vision deficiencies are due to the inheritance of mutated gene on the X-chromosome. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of visual deficiency and color blindness among high school students. Regular students of 824 Menelik II Preparatory School participated in the study. Visual acuity was tested by using Snellen chart and that of color vision test by using Ishihara 24 plates. The result shows that 92 percent of the students had a normal visual acuity. On the other hand, a small percentage i.e. nearly eight percent had mild visual deficiency where they were unable to discriminate all the letters in Snellens chart. More males showed the mild visual deficiency compared to females (39 vs 28), However, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.179). Regarding color vision, 32(3.88%) males and 29(3.51%) females were found to be color deficient. The difference between male and female students with color deficiency was not statistically significant (p=0.701). Of the total subjects found to have color deficiency, 24(2.91%) males and 18(2.18%) females were deutans; whereas, 8(0.97%) and 11(1.33%) males and females were protons respectively. These data imply that 42(5.09%) of the subjects were deutans and 19(2.30%) were protans. Out of the 61 students who showed color vision deficiency 69% had the Deutran type while 31% had the Protan type. None of the students were Protanopan. Deutranopia was more common among males while the reverse was true for protan. The overall difference between deutans and protons was statistically significant (p=0.003).Therefore, the result of the present study showed that visual deficiency should be given importance.
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    Serum Immunoglobulin Levels In Healthy Ethiopian School Children
    (Addis Ababa,University, 1982-06) Gebremariam, Zinabu; Belehu, Ayele (PhD)
    Serum concentra tions of immunoglobulins I G, IgA and Ig in 258 healthy Et hiopian school children and 82 heal hy adul s residing in Addi s Abeba were measured by the radial immunodiffusion t e chnique . The results a r e presented as geomet r ic mean values in mg/100 ml and a s pe rt ent of the adult mean values . A statist ical a nalysis showed that the IgG and IgA conc ent r ations a age s 8 and 7 r e spectively were lower than the adul t values . The inference drawn from t hese results is that t he IgG and IgA l evels do not reach the adult l e v e l un til a fter the age of 8 and 7 respe ctive l y . I n cont r as t the IgM l e v e l was found t o reach the adult lev e l be fore the age of 7. No truly significant diffe rences were obse rved in immunoglobulin levels which could be a t t ributed to s ex, intestinal pa r a sitic infec tion or soc io-economi c st at us . The mean v alue s for IgG and IgM obta ined from this study were found to be h i gher than the r e fer enc e v a lues being us ed in the country a t t he moment . I t is t hus sugge st ed that mean immunoglobulin conc e n tr ation val ue s obt ained from this study be used a s r e f e r ence v a lue s until furth e r study i s made and more r e fin ed refe r ence va l ues are set .
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    Study of Malaria Antigens in Blood and Urine Using Solid –Phase Radioimunoassay.
    (Addis Ababa,University, 1983-06) Bein, Kifiai
    The aim of study was to investigate the presence of malarial Antigens in the body fluids (blood and urine) and consider their Application in the immunodiagnosis of malaria.
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    Prevalence of Bars Shisha Houses and Khat Shops and Assessment of Student-age Adolescent Substance Use Around three Selected Governmental Secondary Schools Located Within Akaki Kality Sub City
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-11-11) Dessie, Addisu; Wube, Tilaye (PhD)
    Substance abuse is the use of a substance such that the substance use causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problem occurrence. The attempt of this study was to assess the prevalence of bars, shisha and khat houses and student-age adolescent substance use practice in three selected secondary schools located within Akaki Kality Sub city. Relevant data were collected by employing different data collection instruments. eg. counting, direct observations and interview. Around all the three selected schools there were 61, 139 and 6 khat shops, bars and shisha houses, respectively. A total of 741 khat, 670 alcohol and 19 shisha using student-age adolescents were recorded in this cross sectional study. The majority of the substance users were males with numbers of 717 vs 24 for khat; 614 vs 56 for alcohol; and 19 vs 0 for shisha in comparison with females. The number of substance use incidences increased as the distance from the school increases and it also varies as time changes. Frequency of substance use also varies between morning, midday and late afternoon periods of the day.
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    Assessement of Prevalence of Bars Khat and Shisha Houses and Substance Use Practices by School-Age Adolescents Around High Schools in Gullele Sub City Government
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-13) Tesfaye, Mesfin; Wube, Tilaye ( PhD)
    The study assessed the prevalence of school-age adolescents substance use (alcohol, khat and shisha) within vicinities of three high schools in Gullele sub-city. The study was an effort to assess availability and accessibility of addictive substances and the extent of adolescents of school-age use of such substances. Data were through counting, direct observations, random sampling and conducting interview. A total of 210 bars, khat shops and shisha houses were identified around the studied high schools. Of these, 114 were bars, 72 khat shops and 24 were shisha houses. On the other hand, 772 (589 males and 183 females) alcohol users, 416 (319 males and 97 females) khat users and 117 (85 males and 32 females) shisha users of school-age adolescents were recorded. Most substance users were identified around Dilber High school followed by Miraf High school and Kechene Debereselam High school. The number of houses, and substance user school-age adolescents increased as the distance from the school increases. As far as sex is concerned, females were less involved in substance use than males. In the categories of time of the day, substance use practice by school-age adolescents was highest during the late afternoon and lowest during the morning.
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    Assessments of Socio-cultural Importance of tree Plant Species Growing in Five Ethiopian Orthodox Churches at Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-11-05) Nigussie, Tigist; Edessa, Sutuma (PhD)
    The purpose of the study was to assessSocio-Cultural importance of Tree plant Species growing in five Ethiopian orthodox churches at Addis Ababa. Descriptive methods of data evaluation and analyses were employed.) As a result, Even though it has economic importance narcotic or psychotropic plants and short life trees are not grown in the church compound. Seedling planting was part of the plan during the church planning. The study shows number of trees was reducing but the church environment was better compared to other environments. socio cultural importance of trees were described-trees serve as sources of clean and cool air and were able resist drought and heavy wind in the church compound and reputation to the church environment, reduce disease prevalence such as malaria, serve as source of herbal medicine and reduce medical expenses, people gather under church trees fresh air shed to celebrate holidays, people take a break under it, it also provide multiple benefits and shelter for wild animals. In conclusion, the Ethiopian ortodox church was contributing to the microclimate church environment and the city too. Government and other community even individuals can learn a lot from this best practice.
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    Effects of Student Centered Methods on Achievements of Students in Learning Biology the Case of Meskerem Secondary School
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-11-05) Shumi, Tamiru; Edessa, Sutuma (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to improve the Biology Achievement of Students through Student-Centered Teaching Methods in Biology Classes. The student-centered teaching method of teaching prepares the students to solve problems, makes them creative, and uses information from their environment and other sources to make a better life for themselves and society. The rank of students’ biology achievement in Biology class was very poor as observed the students’ scores. The sample includes respondents selected by using a simple random sampling technique from the randomly selected two classes of Meskerem Secondary School grade 10 students and biology teachers selected by using purposive technique. Grade 10 students and biology teachers of the schools were the source of the data. Data was collected by using students’ tests and teachers’ interviews. The collected data was analyzed and interpreted statistical by using tables, graphs, percentages and t-test. The study also revealed that biology teachers were habituated to implement teacher-centered teaching methods of teaching. The students’ biology achievement that learned through student-centered teaching method was improved than the teacher-centered teaching method in grade ten biology classes. In general, the Student-centered teaching method was an approach to learning which focus mainly on the interests of the students and transfer the focus of activity from the teachers to the learners. It increases learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the students by imparting to their skills and the basis on how to learn a biology subject.
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    Studies on the Assessment of Honey Production Practice and Constraints of Honey Production in the Wachalee District Oromia Regional State North Shoa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-10-15) Lemma, Berhanu; Getu, Emana (Professor)
    The most well-known and utilized harvestable products from honey bees is honey. Honey is the sweets substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions on living plants, which the bees collect, transforms and store in honey combs. The study was conducted in Wachalee district, North Shoa Zone, Oromia region to studies on the constraints of honey production. The district was stratified into three Agro-Ecologies and stratified random sampling procedure was followed to select the peasant association on their agro-ecological zones. A total of 90 respondents (15 beekeepers per kebeles) from the three agro-ecologies were selected by using simple random sampling techniques was used to select respondents among society for questioner prepared. Both primary and secondary data collection methods were used for this research and the primary data were collected by using direct investigation of researcher to observe the status of honeybee colony and per house holding society. The researcher uses graphs and tables to present the survey data and analysis was made by mathematical explain to situation as it is. Beekeeping in the study area is dominantly practiced by male and about 87.8% of interviewed households were married and the remaining 12.2% was single. Traditional, transitional and modern frame hives were the three types of honeybee production system in which 64.4% of the respondents use only traditional hive, 10% use traditional and transitional hive, 24.4% use traditional and modern hive and only 1.11% use traditional, transitional and modern frame hives. The average annual honey yields per hive per year from traditional beekeeping in mid-land is higher than the high land and low land. The average annual honey yields per hive from traditional, transitional and modern bee hive were 6.49kg, 10.47kg and 16.4kg respectively. The major constraints that affect the honeybee production in the Wachalee districts are: pest and predators mis-use of agro-chemicals and absconding of bees. The major pest and predator include: - ants, wax moth, spider, lizard, birds, mites and hamagots. To sustain the beekeeping activity there should be introducing affordable and appropriate beekeeping technologies with all accessories, strengthening the appropriate beekeeping management practices, and finally mobilizing women and beekeepers in to sub-sectors through training.
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    Studies on the Spatial Ecology of Malaria and the Impact of Mass Trapping of Anopheles Mosquitoes on Malaria Transmission in Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-07-06) Debebe, Yared; Tekie, Habte (PhD); Ignell, Rickard (Professor); Rose, Sharon (PhD); Hopkins, Richard (Professor); Dugassa, Sisay (PhD)
    The sustainability of current indoor vector control methods is challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria mosquito populations and the behavioural shift of vectors, resulting in increased outdoor biting activities. As a result, there is a dire need for novel vector control tools, which complement the existing strategies, particularly targeting the outdoor-active mosquitoes. Effective control of mosquitoes outdoors can be achieved through in-depth understandings of their spatial and behavioural ecology. The effect of landscape elements on the resting site selection of the outdoor Anopheles mosquito population was assessed. Fine-scale characterization of landscape factors within 10 m radius from resting clay pots was conducted and their association with the number of resting anophelines was determined. Canopy cover, distance from the nearest focal house, and land cover type significantly influenced the aggregation of resting mosquitoes. Canopy cover was the strongest predictor for both the number and presence of Anopheles mosquitoes in the clay pots. Female Anopheles were most frequently found resting in the pots placed within the banana plantations, and at sampling points that were ≥75 m from the focal house. To identify the factors underlying hotspots for higher vector densities and malaria incidence, and associated landscape features, monthly entomological monitoring, and fourstage repeated seasonal malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in two rural villages in southern Ethiopia. Moreover, characterization of the landscape features in and around every household of the study villages was conducted. Spatial analyses using Getis-Ord Gi* statistics were used to identify hotspots for malaria incidence, as well as malaria vector density and associated sporozoite prevalence. The result from the regression models revealed that household occupancy, location and housing conditions were the main iv predictors of vector density, entomological inoculation rate, and malaria incidence. The spatial analyses revealed that statistically significant hotspots for malaria vector densities and Plasmodium-infected individuals were identified at village edges. The impact of mass trapping of Anopheles mosquitoes using odour-baited traps was assessed in a controlled before-and-after study design in two rural villages of Southern Ethiopia. Baseline monthly entomological and seasonal cross-sectional malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the two villages for a year. Then, mass trapping was implemented in one of the villages immediately before the beginning of the rainy season, while the monthly entomological monitoring and the seasonal malaria prevalence surveys continued in both villages for nine months, throughout the long and short rainy seasons. The impact of the mass trapping was then assessed by computing the relative reduction of entomological indices and malaria incidence in the intervention village in a seasonal comparison with the control village. The mass trapping resulted in a significant reduction in the population of the primary malaria vector in the area, An. arabiensis and the associated entomological indices (the human biting-, sporozoite-, and entomological inoculation rates) in the intervention compared to the control village. This resulted in a relative reduction of malaria incidence by 61 %, 44 %, and 49 % in the long rain, short rain, and dry seasons, respectively.