Maternity and Reproductive Health Nursing

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    Child Birth Service Quality in Public Hospitals of Shashemane Town, Shashemene, Qualitative Study, 2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Gemechu, Roba; Teshome, Roza(Assistant Prof., PhD Fellow)
    Background: Medical care accessibility and availability are both essential but insufficient for enhancing mother and neonatal health outcomes. In fact, they are not guarantees of more service utilization or higher satisfaction among clients. The quality of care a woman receives during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum affects her health, the health of her baby, and her likelihood of being cared for in the future. The study was aimed to explore childbirth service quality in public hospitals of Shashemene town, Shashemene. Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was conducted from February 30 – march 30 at public hospitals of shashemane town. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit women and hospital staff who fulfill the inclusion criteria for in-depth interview, key informant interview and observation. Women on Labour, mother who received labour and delivery care and staff in managerial position were study participants. The total participant for in-depth interview, observation of care and key informant interview were 12, 6 and 3 respectively. Both observation and interview were conducted using semi-structured guide. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and imported to ATLAS.ti 9 software for coding and analysis assist. Thematic data analysis were used for categorizing and interpretation of data. Result: The finding revealed the quality of childbirth service at facility. Which includes inadequate human and physical resource like number of staff, room and bed, cleanliness of room. In addition, provision of care is not inline to developed guideline; for example painful procedure, partograph use and inadequate labour follow-up. Moreover the finding from women’s perspective were strengthen the study finding in relation to communication and relationship with care providers which is explained as poor, undignified and disrespectful care were experienced by mothers. Conclusion and recommendation: The study identified many challenges and experience on quality of care related to childbirth service from both care providers and mothers. Prioritized financing on infrastructure, supportive staff supervision and capacity building on compassionate and respectful care for staff should be considered to enhance quality of service
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    Women’s decision-making process on their mode of birth among pregnant women with previous cesarean section in Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2023: a qualitative study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Molla,Mekdes; Derbie,Leul(Assistant professor, PHD candidate),Fantahun,Addishiwet (MSc)
    Background: Women who have had previous cesarean delivery face a decision to birth option in a next pregnancy. Vaginal birth after caesarean is an alternative choice for most women with a prior cesarean section (CS) whereas its uptake is low. Reflects the limitations imposed on decision making. This decision making process varies for individuals and may result from considering several factors. In Ethiopia, no qualitative research is conducted, particularly on women’s decision making of their birth mode following previous CS. Objective: To explore decision-making processes on mode of birth among pregnant women with previous cesarean section in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2023. Methods: An explorative qualitative study was conducted from February 20 to march 20, 2023 among women seeking antenatal care. A total of 20 Participants were selected purposively and interviewed using semi-structured guide until data saturation reached. Thematic analysis was used. ATLAS ti 9 qualitative software was used to support the analysis and management of the data. Result: Three themes were identified: Women’s involvement in decision making, factors affecting Women’s decision making and women’s decision-making process. Women put forward their plan of mode of birth for next pregnancy immediately following caesarean delivery. Out of women who have a decision most decide to attempt Vaginal delivery after cesarean (VBAC). Conversely, some women plan repeated CS (RCS) because of labor pain experience and concern towards vaginal birth. However women’s decision is only in their mind and not discussed with their antenatal care providers. The process of decision making involves judging the experience, wanting VBAC or RCS, seeking information and wanting a supportive health provider. Conclusion: However women made the decision about their mode of birth themselves, their decisions were not based on thorough understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal versus cesarean delivery, rather on their previous experiences and their attitude in combination with other factors. Supporting women by providing clear, appropriate and adequate medical education timely will help women to make informed decisions that are consistent with their values and preferences.
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    Assess decision-to-delivery interval and associated factors among mothers who underwent emergency cesarean section at selected public hospitals of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia,2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Teklie,Nigatu; Deribe, Leul ( PhD Can.), Hailu,Hanna(BSC, MSC)
    Background: DDI for ECS is a matter of quality obstetrics care service. Unnecessary delays may end up in morbidity or mortality of the mother and/or the fetus. Therefore, the delivery interval must be within a reasonable time and the recommended one is within 30 minutes. The study area lacks information. Objective: Determine DDI and associated factors among mothers who underwent emergency cesarean section in the chosen governmental institutions of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia, 2023. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in governmental hospitals of Addis Ababa city with total sample size of 348. Each respondent was recruited by means of probability sampling technique. The information was gathered based on the pilot study of interviewer-administered tool and document review after written consent secured from every respondent. The gathered information’s were coded and entered in Epi-data version and analyzed using SPSS version 26. The binary logistic regression method was employed to detect risk factors related to crash c/s. Statistically, significance was determined by a P-value of less ≤ 0.05. Result: The total magnitude of DDI that was done within the recommended period was 23% [ 95% CI (18.9-27.6] and the Median time was 45(7-155) min. Fetal distress was the most common indication for ECS. The following factors were significantly linked to the decision-to- delivery interval: surgeon status [25.019;95% CI (10.602,59.037], indications other than fetal distress [AOR = 2.775; 95% CI (1.395,5.518], type of anesthesia [AOR=13.597;95% CI (4.969,37.209]. Conclusion: The study finding indicates that the magnitude of the crash c/s for ECS according to the international recommended time interval was very low. Therefore, hospitals and obstetric care providers should be alert and conscious of immediate life-threatening conditions
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    Assessment of Quality of care for sexually transmitted infections services on syndrome case management and factors associated with quality of service at public health institutions in Asella town, Arsi zone, Ethiopia, 2022.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Eshetu,Kimem; Berhe,Semariya (Ass.Prof., Phd Fellow)
    Background: In most parts of the world, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a serious public health issue. Quality of STIs services is key in managing and preventing transmission and more complications of the infection(1). Objective:- The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of care provided for sexually transmitted infections related to quality of services on syndrome case management and associated factors in Asella town public health institution, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study based on an institution was carried out. A total of 129 study participants provided information. The study participants were chosen using a purposive sampling technique. A semi-structured questionnaire was used by trained interviewers to gather the data. The data was gathered between March 1 and April 25, 2022. The collected information was verified for accuracy before being coded and loaded into SPSS. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis, factors with a P-value of 0.05 or higher were deemed significant. Results: - surplus half of clinicians treat sexually transmitted infections correctly (78.4%). Good quality sexually transmitted infections services were provided. Being not knowledgeable clinicians (AOR=0.014, 95% CI (0.001, 0.211)), The quality of STIs services was significantly asssociated with health facility (AOR=7.78, 95% CI: (2.24, 26.97) and treatment strategy (AOR=4.23, 95% CI: (1.36, 14.47) Conclusion:- Over all the quality of care for STIs of Syndrome Management was good by the availability of National STIs syndrome management guidelines, examination lights, adequate availability of STIs drugs, and adequate knowledge of clinicians to treat sexually transmitted infections correctly. The quality of care is affected by some factors, the Clinician's training, and the Speculum examination is the most important ones
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    Barriers and enablers for women with disabilities to access sexual and reproductive health services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A qualitative study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Tilahun,Sewnet; Sendo,Endalew Gemechu (Ph.D., RN, Asst. Prof.),Adugna,Haweni (MSC, Asst.Prof.)
    Background: Despite having a fundamental right to access medical facilities and programs with similar range, efficacy, and guidelines to those provided to others, people who are disabled still have difficulty accessing sexual and reproductive health care in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Objectives: This study aims to explore barriers and enablers for women with disabilities to access sexual and reproductive health services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted among purposively selected reproductive age (18-49) group women with disabilities living in Addis Ababa who were members of the Ethiopian National Association of Persons with physical disabilities and Ethiopian National Association for Blind. Ten individual in-depth interviews, as well as 2 focus group discussions, were conducted utilizing an interview guide. Data were audio recorded,transcribed verbatim and iomorted to ATLAS.ti 9.The analysis was conducted with thematic analysis by using inductive coding approaches. Result: Barriers that could prevent an individual from taking the step to seek SRH service which include negative attitudes in communities, structural hurdles in HFs, financial constraints, transportation issues, and lack of information regarding SRH programs. Enablers that made accessing SRH services and care easier include Social support and network, Access to education, Positive providers' attitudes, and women's self-confidence/Assertiveness. Conclusion and Recommendation: The study revealed that women with disability encountered numerous challenges and some enablers when receiving SRH treatment and care. To address the barriers and encourage enablers, SRH care Guidelines and programs need to take into account women with disabilities, and actions to eliminate economic barriers to service utilization and promote positive interactions with community members and healthcare providers should be implemented.
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    Folic Acid Supplements Prescribing Practice During Protective Period and its Associated Factors among Health Professionals in Selected Governmental Health Centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Mengist ,Yaschalew; Tesfaye,Jemberie(Ass. Prof.), Lijaemiro,Hana(Msc)
    Background; supplementing folic acid (FA) before and in the 1st month of the conception is an essential preventive factor especially for neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital anomalies. However, in Ethiopia it is not given attention by policy makers, poorly administered at the right time by healthcare professionals, less utilized by pregnant women and/or women planning conceive. As a result, FA deficiency and insufficiency are a major public health issue in Ethiopia. Objectives: a goal of a research was to assess folic acid supplement (FAS) prescribing practice during protective period and its associated factors among health professionals in selected governmental health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods; Institutionalized cross-sectional survey was carried out in Addis Ababa public health centers with a total sample size 396 from February20-May22/2023. To choose the respondents systematic random sampling methods was used and after each respondent's signed consent, a row data was gathered using a pretested self-administered questionnaires. The data was coded, interred to Epi data and transferred to Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 27 software. Then binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis method was used to show the associated variables with FA prescribing practice using a confidence interval of 95% and significance value<0.05). Result: The total prevalence of folic acid prescribing practice during periconception period was 64.4% [95% CI (59.68-69.12]. But those prescribed during protective period was 26.7%. Ever not attended birth of neonate with NTD, not prescribing dose of 4mg folic acid (FA) for women with NTD, type of women whom FA was prescribed were associated with FA prescribing practice during protective period. Conclusion and recommendations; the healthcare professional’s prescribing practice during protective period was still very low, needs more attention in order to FA strengthen FAS.
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    Lived Experiences of Infertile Couples who Seek Treatment at Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023 G.C
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Zewde Haymanot; Teshome Roza; Abere Kerebih
    Background: In almost all cultures, having children and raising them are significant aspects of life, and for African women including Ethiopian women, it is their most important duty. Infertility is a medical condition that can touch every aspect of a couple’s life with a wide range of sociocultural, psychological, and financial problems for individuals as well as couples. There is a scarcity of literature in the country focusing on couples experiencing infertility and going through a treatment journey. Objective: This study aims to explore the lived experiences of infertile couples focusing on psychological, sociocultural and financial aspects among couples who seek treatment at Saint Paul hospital millennium medical college, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2023 G.C Methods: a qualitative study with a phenomenological study design was employed from February 20- March 20/2023 among 15 infertile couples who seek infertility treatment at Saint Paul hospital millennium medical college. Study participants were selected purposively and the interviews were conducted with a face-to-face in-depth interview using a semi-structured interview guide. The analysis was conducted with thematic analysis by using both a priori codes (from the query guide) and emerging inductive codes approaches. ATLAS ti V 9 qualitative software was used to support the analysis of the data. Result: Five themes and 14 sub-themes related to couple’s lived experiences of infertility were identified. Including (i) Emotional-psychological impacts; (ii) impacts on relationships; (iii) cultural impacts (iv) treatment related challenges and (v) coping mechanisms. These result shed light on the multi-dimensional impacts faced by infertile couples. Conclusion: According to this study, infertile couples seeking treatment encounter a number of psychological, sociological, and economical issues that have a grave impact on their mental health and general wellbeing. Therefore, including psychosocial interventions or counselling in the fertility treatment and receiving financial assistance from governmental agencies for the expense of treatment may lessen the burden of infertility.
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    Impact of Internet and Social Media Platform use on Youths' Risky Sexual Behavior in Addis Ababa University Undergraduate Students Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023: a Qualitative Study.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Birhanu Helina; Tesfaye Jembere; Adugna Haweni
    Background: Any sexual activity that raises one's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as HIV, or of having an unintended pregnancy is considered risky. Health and social consequences can result from exposure to sexual content. A significant wellspring of this openness is the social media (SM) platforms, which are broadly utilized by youths. The internet has multiplied how young person’s access information on any subject matter including sexual contents. Objectives: To explore the influence of internet platform use on youths' risky sexual behavior in Addis Ababa university students, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: A qualitative method, phenomenological study design was employed in Addis AbabaUniversity, Ethiopia. Information was retrieved from participants selected using a snowball purposive sampling technique through open ended in-depth interview and key informant interview in Addis Ababa University selected campus and using a topic guide which is initially based on a review of literature until saturation reached. The Data was analyzed in thematic analysis approach. Result: The results of this study showed that, internet and social media platform usage has its own influence on risky sexual behavior both negatively and positively; providing inaccurate information, exposure to Sexual Explicit Media, predispose to early sexual initiation, leading to skewed perception on risky sexual behavior also behavioral change and to the positive side it is seen as a source of sexual information which the youth students couldn’t get from their surroundings. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there were several internet-related issues that influence students' risky sexual behavior at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. The young participants in this study spoke about a variety of negative effects of internet use on their sexual lives. Measures should be taken by concerned body to dispel or at least to reduce these negative impact and have a proper use of this platform in a fruitful way.
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    Adolescent Communication to their Parents on Sexual and Reproductive issues and Associated Factors Among Secondary School Students in Meki Town, East Shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia: Mixed Method Study 2023
    (Addis Ababa Unaiversity, 2023) Furo Barke; Berhe Semarya; Genzeb Siraye
    BACKGROUND: Adolescents are more vulnerable than any other age group to a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Adolescents are exposed to various sexual and reproductive risks due to lack of communication with their parents, such as early-unprotected sex, early pregnancy, school dropout, sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) and human immune virus (HIV). OBJECTIVES: To assess adolescent parent sexual and reproductive health communication and associated factors among secondary school students in Meki town, East Shoa, Oromia, Ethiopia 2023. METHODS: Institution based convergent mixed method was applied. The study was conducted from February 20- March 20/2023 among 392 students at Meki town. The quantitative data was collected using pretested structured self-administered questionnaire by systematic sampling technique. Data was entered using EPI data version and then transport to SPSS window version 25 for statistical analysis. The association was determined using 95% CI and p value (<0.05) for multivariable logistic regression. The qualitative data was collected using interview guides(open-ended). The response was tape-recorded. In-depth interview was conducted among purposively selected parents. Thematic analysis was used using Atlas ti 9 software. Result: The proportion of respondents who had communicated with their parents regarding SRH issues on at least two components was 156 (39.8%). Being grade 10 student (AOR = 0.44: 95% CI; 0.225-0.862), merchant mothers (AOR =2.76: 95% CI; 1.36-5.62), attitude toward SRH (AOR= 0.182 95% CI, 0.1-0.333), adolescent had SRH information (AOR=3.28; 95% CI 1.3- 8.23) and knowledge of SRH issues (AOR=1.75: 95% CI: 1.03-2.98) were significantly associated. Five themes were discussing about SRH components, Source of SRH information,approach to Improve SRH discussion, SRH reason and challenges for not discussing and SRH discussion age and satisfaction. Conclusion and Recommendation: There was insufficient adolescent-parent communication regarding SRH components. The main reason from both quantitative and qualitative study was cultural barriers, fear of parent response, lack of trust in adolescent, morally unacceptable and shame to talk. The Ministry of Health has to give focus and facilitate health care professional, different government sector, and nongovernmental organization to work on it.
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    Barriers to Male Partner Involvement During Labour and Delivery: in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital and Teklehaymanot health center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2023 G.C: Client’s and Midwives’ Perspective: a qualitative study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Hailu Shewit; Teshome Roza; Birhan Yeshi
    Background:Despite initiatives to encourage male partners' participation in childbirth, Male partners rarely involveduring childbirth in low and middle-income nationsincluding Ethiopia.And almost all qualitative studies in Ethiopia examined the barriers to male partner involvement from the perspective of male partners and health workers. while women's barriers to male partner involvementwere left unexplored. Objectives: This study aimed to explore barriers to male partner involvement during labour and delivery from the perspectivesof clients and midwives in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital and Teklehaymanot health center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023G.C. Methods: Qualitative exploratory and descriptive study design was conducted in TASH and Teklehaymanot health center from March 1-April 1,2023 G.C. Atotal of twenty-six (26) participants (10 midwives & 16 clients) and two (2) key informants were purposively selected. Face-to-face in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were used to collect the data using interview guiding questions. And data were analyzed with a thematic analysis approach using ATLAS ti9 software. Result: This study has explored different forms of barriers to male partner involvement during labour and delivery. These are institutional, sociocultural, perceptions, awareness, and fear Conclusion and recommendations: The result of this study indicates that the barriers differently hinder male partner involvement during labour and delivery. And this denotes the need for addressing the deep-rooted sociocultural practices and perceptions to implement male partner involvement during labour and delivery. Community-based awareness creationon the benefits of male partner involvementand roles of male partners,creating a couple-friendly environment and use of materials like curtain/large screens to assure women's privacy in health institutions, and couple-oriented counseling on male partner involvementwere recommended based on the study findings.
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    Human Papillomavirus Knowledge, Perception, and Willingness to Receive Vaccination Among Female University Students in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia,2022:a Mixed Method
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Regasa Teferi; Gemechu Endalew(Prof); Tesfaye Jembere(Prof )
    Background: -Cervical cancer is considered as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among females worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection associated with increased cancer risks. Effective HPV vaccines are recommended for females in the adolescent years, but uptake has been less than optimal. Objective: - To assess HPV knowledge, perception and willingness to receive vaccination among female students in Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2022. Method: - Institutional based convergent mixed method was applied. The data were collected from February 7 to April 15, 2022. A total of 398 female students were recruited for quantitative and 12 for qualitative study and data saturation was used as a guide to decide number of participants. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select study participants. The data was entered into Epi Data version 4.6. and analyzed using SPSS version 25 (quantitative data) and thematic analysis (qualitative data). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine associations of variables. Result: - In this study, 161(41%) of the students had good knowledge, 226(57.5%) had more favorable perception regarding to HPV and its vaccine and 30% of the respondents were willing to receive the vaccine. Year of study, having history of sexual intercourse, having family history of vaccination and perception towards HPV and its vaccine were factors associated with students’ willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Misconception about HPV vaccine and lack of awareness about health risk associated with HPV were identified as factors that hinder students from receiving the vaccine in qualitative study Conclusion and recommendation: - Considering poor knowledge of HPV and its vaccine and willingness of the students to receive the vaccine, educational programs are required to aware female students in Ethiopia about HPV and related diseases as well as its vaccine. Inclusion of HPV vaccine in national immunization program which is in line with WHO recommendation should be considered as 118(30%) of the participants show willingness to get vaccinated.
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    Assessment of Antenatal Care Clients’ Willingness for HIV Counseling and Testing in Asella Governmental Health Institutions, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-05) Fikre Tadesse; Aga Fekadu(MSc)
    Background:- It has been well established that mother to child transmission (MTCT) accounts for the majority of HIV infections in children below the age of 15 years in developing countries. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is an important entry point for HIV prevention and for early access to treatment, care and support. Willingness for accepting HCT is the key component and a starting point of overall HIV prevention efforts and represents a critical opportunity for stemming the tide of the HIV epidemic. Objective:- The main objective of this study was to assess the willingness of antenatal care clients for HIV counseling and testing in Asella governmental health institutions. Methods:- Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted on 321 pregnant women attended antenatal care during the study period using interviewer administered, pre-tested, structured questionnaire from March to April, 2012 in Asella governmental health institutions. Data was collected by convenient sampling technique after ethical clearance was obtained from the concerned authorities and then entered in Epi-info and analyzed using SPSS software. Result:- A total of 321 pregnant women (response rate 100%) attended antenatal care in Asella hospital and Asella health center were included in the study. Among the studied women 291(90.7%) were willing for HCT, and 30 (9.3%) were not willing for HCT. The strongest association with willingness for HCT rested with parity, number of ANC visits and perceived risk of HIV. Primipara women were about 12 times more likely willing for HCT than nullipara mothers (AOR=12.33, 95% CI=1.25,121.57), and also those who had 2 and above ANC visits were 9.6 times more likely willing for HCT than those who had only 1 ANC visit (AOR=9.64,95% CI=1.93,48.28). Women who were perceived themselves not at risk of acquiring HIV were more likely willing for HCT than those women who perceived themselves at risk (AOR=0.08,95% CI=0.01,0.41). Conclusion and Recommendation: This study revealed high-level of awareness about HIV, HCT, MTCT and PMTCT of HIV among pregnant women attended ANC in the study areas. Relatively increased proportion of willingness for HCT was seen when compared to other studies and it has to be encouraged more, since it is a cornerstone for PMTCT of HIV. Health education targeted on pregnant women on HCT, MTCT and PMTCT of HIV using different resources and male partner participation would have paramount importance and would be important factor to scale up HCT acceptance more at all levels.
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    Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Midwives towards Care of New Born with ASPHYXIA in Addis Ababa Health Services, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-06) Sentayehu Tsedale; Berhane Emebet(BSC)
    Background: In resource-rich countries, the incidence of severe perinatal asphyxia (causing death or severe neurological impairment) is about 1/1000 live births. In resource-poor countries, perinatal asphyxia is probably much more common. Data from hospital-based studies in such settings suggest an incidence of 5–10/1000 live births. Knowledge and skill of midwives has a great impact in prevention and management of perinatal asphyxia and decrease neonatal mortality rate. Yet there is no studies were conducted in Ethiopia to assess the knowledge and practice of midwives towards care of new born with asphyxia .Therefore this study was designed to investigate the level of knowledge and identify the resuscitation skill on new born with asphyxia. Objective: Assessment of knowledge and practice of midwives towards care of new born with asphyxia in Addis Ababa health services. Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa health service. There are 265 midwives who work in Addis Ababa health services since the attributes being measured are not distributed normally the entire population was surveyed. Among776 the health services in Addis Ababa 58 have midwives; 6 public, one army, one police and 22 private hospitals, 23 health center and 5 private clinics. All midwives from all institutions was included in the study. Data was collected from 253 midwives at the health service using self administered structured questionnaire. Data collectors were trained on how to use the data collection instrument, approach study participant. Result: On this study 253 midwives were participated .The result of the study showed that the level of knowledge of asphyxia was low. Only 37.5% of midwives attained high overall knowledge score. Statically significant association was found between high knowledge score and service year>21 year (OR=3.17895% CI=1.068, 9.466) p-value 0.038 compared to service year<21 years. Overall practice of midwives scoring favorable practice was 53.4% .the finding revealed Statically significant association between high score practice and age of midwives45-54years of age (OR=8.308 ,95%CI 1.557,44.32)P=.013 and place of work health center (OR=1.895 95%CI 1.o72,3.349)p=.028 when compared to other place work. Conclusion and Recommendation Generally overall knowledge and new born resuscitation practice of midwives were low in Addis Ababa health services. So incorporating and new born resuscitation in continuing education and professional training programs is recommended. Strength and integrate new born resuscitation with routine service through providing training for all midwives.
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    Assessment of Factors Affecting Postnatal Services Utilization Among Reproductive Age Mothers in Funeteselam Town, Jabitehnan Woreda,West Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia,2013;Community Based Cross-Sectional Stydy,2013.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Workineh Yinager; Argaw Zeleke (MSc)
    Background: Due to low maternal healthcare utilization, many numbers of women die each year within the first hours, days and weeks after childbirth. To avert this, one of the eight Millennium Development Goals called improving maternal health is widely applied through out the world especially in developing countries which have low coverage of maternal services due to several factors. Therefore, the factors at different levels affecting the use of these services need to be clearly understood by assessing factors which affect the utilization of PNC services. Methods: A community based cross sectional study design method was used in Funeteselam town from November to May 2013 by using systematic sampling techniques. Data was first cleaned, edited, coded and entered into computer via epi Info version-3.5.1 and it was analyzed using SPSS version -16, and logistic regression used to assess the association of variables. Result: The woman's own educational status, marietal status, occupation status, obstetric history, plan to utilize PNC services, long waiting time and decision making problem were significantly associated with the utilization of PNC. As a result of such factors especially lack of awareness, and self decision, proportion of women who had received PNC after delivery was (20.2%). Conclusion and recommendations: the findings of this study showed that postnatal care services utilization is low in the study area due to no/little knowledge, being healthy, being busy, long waiting time, far from house, decision making dynamics, and with out reason. This calls service providers, administrative organs, and health-policy makers to design short and long term strategies for awareness-raising programmes and educating the community about the benefit of PNC services for both mothers and infants at grassroots level.
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    Assessment of Factors Affecting Utilization of Antenatal Care in Dessie Town ,Amhara Region ,Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2011-06) Assefa Zenebework; Demissie Asrat(Prof)
    Background: Every year, approximately 500,000 women die and some 62 million women suffer from pregnancy and delivery related problems at the height of their productivity and family responsibility. Around 80% of maternal deaths are the result of complication arising during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. However, most of such deaths can be prevented by proper utilization of maternal health care services provided in health institutions. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal carein Dessie Town. Methods: The community based cross sectional study was conducted on the assessment of factor affecting utilization of antenatal care among 682 reproductive age group women in Dessie town,2011. Single population proportion formula had been used to determine the sample size. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select the study subjects. The town has ten kebeles and of these, four kebeles were selected through simple random sampling technique. After obtaining the total number of households from selected kebeles, participants were selected through systematic random sampling technique based on population proportion to size method.Before data collection, pre-test were undertaken on 10% of the total sample size i.e. i.e. 68 mothers on non-selected kebeles in Dessie town to control the quality of data and the restructuring of questionnaire. Then, a face to face interview was carried based on the structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by using Soft ware Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and possible association were made by using Chi-square and P-value. The findings were statistically interpreted and comparison was made with other findings. Result-A total of 682 mothers who gave birth within one year were interviewed among them 630(92.4%) of mothers have used ANC in their previous (last) pregnancy. which showed that there is a high coverage of antenatal care in Dessie town. Associations were sought between ANC service utilization during pregnancy by different socio demographic, obstetric and delivery characteristics. Women having college & university (post secondary) education have used antenatal care 8 times greater compared with women who have no formal education, AOR=8.2(1.1, 65). There was significant association between total number of children & antenatal care that is for each additional child, the probability of having antenatal follow up increased by twice , AOR= 2(1.4, 3.0). Conclusions & Recommendations- In conclusion, this study showed better utilization of antenatal care as compared to the national coverage. Family income, women education, number of children were important determinant factors for ANC. Mothers’ educational level, monthly family income, religion, number of children, showed statistically significance association with antenatal care. Education was found to have an impact on the use of antenatal care services suggests that improving educational opportunity for women may have a large impact on improving utilization of ANC services in the nation.
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    Assessment of Primary Dysmenorrheal Risk Factors and its Effect on Students Academic Performance among Female Students in Debreberhan University.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-06) Hailemeskel Solomon; Demissie Astrat Prof)
    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecologic compliant among adolescent females. There is a wide variation in the estimate of primary dysmenorrhea 50 to 90%. The disorder is the most common cause of short term school and class absenteeism, loss of class concentration and test taking skill by adolescent women. Objective: To assess associated risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea and its effect on student’s academic performance in Debre Berhan University, North shoa zone, Amhara regional state from September 2011- May 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Debre Berhan University from September 2011 to May 2012 using multistage stratified sampling technique to select 440 female students. A structured and pretested self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The severity of dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by using verbal multidimensional scoring system and visual analog scale (VAS). The data was double entered into Epi Info version 3.1 and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. Data were analyzed using X2 test and logistic regression analysis. P-value<0.05 at 95%confidence interval (CI) for Odds Ratio (OR) was considered statistically significant. Result: a total of 440 students had participated in this study. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 368(85.4%). About 123 (28.5%) had mild, 164(38.1%) had moderate and 81(18.8%) had severe primary dysmenorrhea. 88.3% of dysmenorrheic students reported that primary dysmenorrhea had negative effect on academic performance. Of these 80% reported school absence, 66.8% reported lose of class concentration, 56.3% reported class absence, 47.4% reported lose of class participation, 37.8% reported limited sport participation, 31.7% reported limitation in going out with friends and 21% reported inability to do homework. Risk of primary dysmenorrhea was approximately 7 times higher in students who had monthly income of less than 150ETB (AOR= 6.671); 6 times higher in students who had history of attempt to lose weight (AOR=6.085); 14 times higher in students who had history of depression or anxiety (AOR=13.607); 3 time higher in students who had disruption of social network either of family, friends or people they love (AOR= 3.218); 19 times higher in students who consume more than four glass of tea per day (AOR= 18.938); 7 times higher among students who consume one and more than one coca or Pepsi per day (AOR= 6.786); 47 times higher in nulipara (AOR= 47.318) and 27 time higher in students with a family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR= 27.228). In the contrary students’ interval and duration of menstruation, student’s age at menarche and body mass index were not significantly associated to primary dysmenorrhea. Conclusion and recommendation: there is high prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea among Debre Berhan University students. The condition has a negative impact on student’s academic performance and it is found to be a significant health problem in students that requires attention. Future studies will be important to better identify risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea and lighten its effect on students’ academic performance.
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    Job Satisfaction and its Determinants among Midwives Working in Government Hospitals and Health Centers under Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau , Addis Ababa ,Ethiopia,2015.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Tamru Eyasu; Cherie Amsale(Phd)
    Background: Job satisfaction of midwives has been and becoming a growing concern to health service organizations in both developed and developing countries. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working in government hospitals and health centers under Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Methodology: Institution based cross-sectional study with quantitative methods were conducted among midwives working in Addis Ababa government hospitals and health centers under Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau, Ethiopia, from March to April 2015. A total of 234 midwives were recruited from three randomly selected government hospitals and from 46 health centers found in six randomly selected sub-cities. A structured, pre tested, anonymous questioners were used to collect data and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. RESULT: From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Significant determinant of job satisfaction were found to be Sex [AOR=4.70 (95%CI: 1.36-12.37)], working unit [AOR=0.04 (95%CI:(0.001-0.45)], Educational status [AOR=5.74(95%CI: 1.48-40.47)], Marital status [AOR=3.48 [1.01-11.97)], supervision [AOR=4.33 (95%CI: 1.53-20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38-50.10)]and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37-22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from coworker relation and the standard of care they provided to clients. Conclusion & recommendation: Half of midwives in the study population were satisfied with their job. Heath organizations and other stake holders should consider the factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction and try to reduce them by implementing innovative strategies to increase job satisfaction.
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    Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude towards Cervical Cancer and Screening among Female Students at Menlik ll Health Science College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Hailu HaileMichael; Gemechu Endalew (prof)
    Background:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide.About 83% of the cases occur in developing countries, representing 15% of female cancers .InEthiopia, prevalent cancer among women between 15 and 44 years of age with age specificincidence rate of 15.6/1000.Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease; itsprevention, among other ways, is throughscreening and detection of premalignant stages of the disease and treatment. Detection of thecervical cancer however requires knowledge of the disease and cervical cancer screeningprocedure so that people can be aware and positive towards screening but in Ethiopia little hasbeen explored about knowledge and attitude of women towards cervical cancer screening.Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of Female Students aged >18 years towardsCervical Cancer Screening in Menlik II Health Science College of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia fromMarch 23 to April 30 2015. Methods:A cross-sectional institutional basedstudy was conducted on a sample of 292 FemaleStudents aged>18 years in Menlik II Health Science College of Addis Ababa Ethiopia usingsimple random sampling method .Data on knowledge status of mothers regrinding cervicalcancer screening, attitude of female students towards cervical cancer screening and otherpertinent variableswere collected using self-administered questionnaires .The gathered data wasanalysis the software SPSS version 20. ResultsGenerally the knowledge was poor, attitude was positive to majority of respondents. Theresults showed that 65(22.2%) had poor knowledge, 180(61.4%) had satisfactory knowledge andonly 48(16.4%) had good knowledge. Overall 168(57.7%) of the respondents were positiveabout cervical cancer screening. Conclusions and recommendations:The study has shown that there is a lack of knowledgeoncervical cancer towards screening for premalignant cervical lesion.There is a need to promote cervical cancer screening among women by Informing or teach themon their susceptibility to cervical cancer and encouraging a belief that active and regularscreening can detect cervical cancer at the pre-cancerous stage, hence enabling them earlytreatment and prevention of cancer development. There is also a need for provision of Affordablescreening services all over the country to enable women, after being motivated, to go forscreening.
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    Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Utilization and Associated Factors among Reproductive –Age Women in Debre Markos Town,North-West Ethiopia,2021:a Community Based cross Sectional Study.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-06) Dessie Yihunnie; Gemechu Endalew(Prof); Tesfaye Jembere (MSc)
    Background: Pregnant women will reduce the risk of neonatal tetanus infection by receiving two doses of maternal tetanus toxoid vaccine. In Ethiopia, however, low levels of immunization coverage, mostly due to missed opportunities, are a concern. Objective: To assess tetanus toxoid vaccine utilization and associated factors among reproductive age women in DebreMarkosTown,North-West Ethiopia,2021. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 505 mothers who had given birth in the last 12 months from February 08 to March 08, 2021, in Debre Markos Town. A two-stage stratified sampling technique was applied. The participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. Data were entered into Epi-Data manager Version 4.6.0 and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25 software. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with their 95% CIs were used to identify factors associated with TT utilization. Results: In the final analysis, the total tetanus vaccine intake (TT+2) doses were found to be 71.2 %. Mothers who were attended primary education [AOR: 0.07,95% CI: (0.01-0.6)], mothers whose husbands had secondary education [ AOR: 0.26, 95% CI: (0.08-0.84)], mothers attended 2-3 for ANC visit [AOR: 0.05,95% CI: (0.01-0.3)], good quality service served [AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: (1.057.5)],appropriate behavior of health workers[AOR:6.2,95% CI:(2.2-18.7)]and who visited wit health extension workers[AOR: 7.6, 95% CI: (2.3-25.3)] were significantly associated with TT vaccine utilization. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the study was conducted in a town, only three out of every four participant women received the current TT vaccine during their previous pregnancy. The most influencing factors in TT vaccine use were mothers with low educational levels, low husband’s educational level, attended 2-3 ANC visit during pregnancy, poor standard of health care service, improper actions of health professionals, and mothers visited with health extension staff.
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    Work Related Stress Experienced by Midwives Caring for Expectant Mothers with Comfirmed COVID-19 During Child Birth at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2021: A Qualitative Study.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-05) ShiferawYared; Teshome Roza (PhD); Fantahun Addishiwet(MSc)
    Background: CIVID-19 is a new disease that infects a large number of people, killing a ratio of whom every day in the world. The nature of the health institution and healthcare system are considered as a high risk and intensive work area for work related stress. But still there is limited data about work related stress of midwives especially during COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. Objective: To explore the work-related stress experienced by midwives caring for expectant mothers with COVID-19 during child birth at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: This study was performed by descriptive phenomenological research design.11 midwives were purposively selected who gave care for labouring mothers confirmed with COVID-19, at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, from 08 February to 08March 2021, with in depth interview. The analysis was conducted with thematic analysis and ATLAS. ti 8 qualitative software was used to support the analysis. Results: The results of this study were summarized in to three major themes. Firstly,psychological feeling which consisting of negative and positive feelings ofrespondents to wards accepting the anti-epidemic tasks. Secondly, work related stressors which included effects of the epidemic, administrative gaps, nature of the epidemic and its concerns, work load, nature of work, and lack of needs were the main causes of for work related stress from this study result. Finally, coping strategies which contained distraction, expression of feelings, normalization and refusal to dwell on the experiences. Conclusion: This study showed that the midwives experienced a variety of workrelated stressors during care of child birth for pregnant mothers with COVID-19.Through proper planning by authorities, it is possible to manage possible causes of work-related stress for midwives and improve their mental health status.