Development Study

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    An Investigation of the Challenges and Prospects of Public Participation in Local Development Kirkos Sub City in Addis Ababa City Administration: The Cases of Woreda 4, 5, and 9 of Kirkos Sub City
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Wondifraw Desalegn; Filmon Hadaro (PhD)
    In the case of the three chosen woredas in Kirkos sub-city, Addis Ababa city administration, the study looked at the practices and possibilities of community engagement The volatility of commodity prices in the supply chain has a significant impact on edible oil producers in international trade. The price of edible oil is influenced by various factors, including supply and demand, weather conditions, geopolitical tensions, and currency fluctuations. These factors can cause sudden and unpredictable changes in commodity prices, which can affect the profitability of edible oil producers. According to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global price of vegetable oils increased by 20% in 2020 due to supply disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report also highlights that the volatility of commodity prices can lead to food insecurity and poverty in developing countries that rely on imported food. One example of how commodity price volatility affects edible oil producers is seen in the case of palm oil. Palm oil is one of the most widely used cooking oils globally, with Indonesia and Malaysia being the largest producers. In recent years, palm oil prices have been volatile due to factors such as weather conditions, changes in government policies, and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. In 2019, for instance, palm oil prices fell sharply due to oversupply caused by increased production from Indonesia and Malaysia. This led to a decline in profits for palm oil producers who were forced to sell their products at lower prices than they had anticipated. According to a report by Reuters, some Indonesian palm oil companies had to delay or cancel expansion plans due to low prices. Another example is seen in the case of soybean oil. Soybean is one of the most important crops globally and is used as a source of protein for animal feed as well as for cooking oil production. The price of soybean oil is influenced by various factors such as weather conditions, trade policies, and demand from China. In 2018, for instance, soybean prices fell sharply due to trade tensions between China and the United States. China is one of the largest importers of soybeans, and the imposition of tariffs by the US on Chinese goods led to a decline in demand for soybeans. This, in turn, led to a decline in soybean prices, which affected the profitability of soybean oil producers. To mitigate the impact of commodity price volatility on edible oil producers, various strategies can be adopted. One such strategy is to diversify the sources of raw materials used in production. By sourcing raw materials from different regions, edible oil producers can reduce their exposure to supply disruptions caused by weather conditions or geopolitical tensions. Another strategy is to hedge against commodity price fluctuations by using financial instruments such as futures contracts or options. These instruments allow producers to lock in prices for their products and reduce their exposure to price volatility. In conclusion, the volatility of commodity prices in the supply chain has a significant impact on edible oil producers in international trade. The examples cited above demonstrate how sudden changes in commodity prices can affect the profitability of these producers. To mitigate this impact, various strategies can be adopted, including diversifying sources of raw materials and hedging against price fluctuations using financial instruments. Keywords: Community participation, Sub city, city Administration, projects.
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    The Impact of Sporadic Local Ethnic Conflict on Livelihoods: The Case of the Booran Oromo and the Garri Somali in Moyale Woreda in Booran Zone of Oromia Regional State.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2008-06) Mulugeta, Tilahun; Tafesse, Tesfaye (PhD)
    As its central aim, this study attempts to examine the impact of sporadic local ethnic conflict on livelihoods. This is a case study to show that how conflict between the Booran and the Garri affects their lives and livelihoods. It also tries to critically look different theoretical approaches to assess the genesis, root causes and aggravating factors of the conflict. The methodology used is collecting information from primary and secondary sources, organizing/ reorganizing and analyzing this information. The ever groWIng conflict has resulted in a large number of human causalities and the disruption of social institutions that normalize ethnic tensions and conflicts. Displacement by way of migration to other territories including to neighboring countries, and destruction of property (livestock, residences and wells and pasture), damage on the ecological system are commonly experienced capital impacts of conflict. Recommendations are made as to how conflicts resolved in the long run.
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    The Study of the Problems and Prospects of Implementing Basic Education in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2001-06) Workneh, Tesfa; Teferra, Seyoum (Prof.)
    The main purpose of the study was to make a diagnostic study on the process of implementing basic education in Ethiopia and detect change in the system, identify the level of the problems, the short coming of the system, the pressing problem which need to be solved and the area in which more efforts and investment are required for improvement. The study was designed to answer four basic questions. The questions were: 1). What are the extent of coverage and access to basic education? 2) Wluu are the trends and patterns of education at inequality in participation rate? 3) What is the level of internal efficiency of the system? 4) Wlwt strategies should be employed to attain basic education? The study utilized a descriptive survey approach and involves both primary and secondary sources. The statistical data of the 11 regional states and the date obtained through questionnaire and structured interview from Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions were analyzed using relevant statistical tools. The analysis of data revealed that 1) Coverage and access to basic primary education is limited and dominated by overage children and the two sides of access, provision and utilization, are in red. 2) The trend and pattern of regional disparity in participation rate continued to persist in the usual North-South and the effect was accumulating over time. Concerning the mechanisms of inequality related to gender, inequality is observed in initial participation, in process and out come. 3) The internal efficiency of the system was found to be very low due to high wastage caused by repetition and drop out rates. The low internal efficiency (wastage) is more due to dropout and the holding capacity of the system was decreasing over time. Finally, the need for norms and standard on which school distribution is based, enfo rcing compulsory attendance law, redu cing opportunity costs, in creasing the role of private sectors, intensifying literacy programs, community sensitization, alternative patterns of p rimary school provision, identifying priority area zones, building partnership and mobilizing resources and creating supportive policy environment are recommended as interventions for promoting equitable access and efficiency to attain basic education and give the broad and some what abstract goal of basic education for all a practical meaning and substance.
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    Assessing Community Based Ecotourism Among Guji Oromo Pastoral Community in Nechsar National Park, Southern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Woyesa, Tamagn; Senbeta, Feyera (PhD)
    A study was carried-out to assess the possibility of community based ecotourism in Nechsar National Park among Guji pastoral community in Southern Ethiopia. To this end, data was collected through interview, focus group discussion and from written sources. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative approaches. The study results show that the park is in critical conditions as previous conservation effort didn't bear any significant improvement to neither the community nor biodiversity resources. Various ecological crises are vividly observed in the park. The pastoral Guji community residing within the park is completely dependent on Nechsar National Park resources as main source of livelihoods such as pasture and water for their livestock; and has never been part of government conservation efforts. The study identified that the previous attempt made to achieve conservation in Necsar National Park based on traditional top-down approach recognizes Guji Pastoral community as a threat to conservation. There are challenges of implementing community based ecotourism in the park as far as the Guji community is concerned. As a result the community has never been part of government conservation and tourism based benefit in the park. The effect in community eroded sense of ownership and developed negative perception towards the park activities. In addition the research suggests the need of incorporating intangible cultural resources of Guji community which can be used as an asset for conservation and tourism attraction adding on already identified traditional (natural) attractions in Nechsar National Park. The study recommended the implementation of community based ecotourism in Nechsar National Park recognizing Guji community as active part of the conservation effort in and around the park. It also argues the possibility of enhancing protected area conservation through community based conservation to guarantee sustainability. Key Words: Community Based Ecotourism, Conservation, Protected area, Stakeholder, Community, and Settlement.
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    Features of Urban Poverty: The Case of Woreda 11, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2000-05) Habte, Ermias; Gebre, Seyoum (Ass. Prof.)
    Poverty has been regarded as a typical feature of most households in Ethiopia. But the poor constitute significant differences among themselves as poverty itself is more subj ective and re lative concept. The study attempted to analyse major characteristics of urban poor households by taking an empirical case study of one administrative unit (wereda) from Addis Ababa. The study tries to asses the various estimates of poverty made particularly after the period of transition. There are no clear indications of declining poverty particularly in urban areas. The need for further study and much greater effort for poverty alleviation is marked by some of the recent studies. This study shares the same views based on the survey results of selected urban households in wereda 11Addis Ababa. It is also noted that conscious and deliberate measures of poverty reduction should lie at the centre of any development strategy. However such measure requires knowledge about characteristics and magnitude of the poor. Therefore this paper is an attempt to investigate major characteristics of poverty at a micro scale
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    Financing Urban Infrastructure and Services in Ethiopia: The Case of Solid Waste Management in Adama (Nazareth) town
    (Addis Ababa University, 2001-06) Tadesse, Dereje; Ayenew, Meheret (PhD)
    This study reports the situation and financing of solid waste management sen'ices in Adama town of Oromia Region (Ethiopia). The study showed that the town is currently providing inadequate solid waste management services. The town administration collects and disposes less than 15 percent of the wastes generated by the town annually. It is also found out that the solid waste collection and disposal systems are backward and are not economical as well. The institutional arrangements' for the management of both liquid and solid wastes are also very weak. The town administration allocates a marginal budget to this service which is less than 10 percent of its total budget as opposed to towns of developing countries that commit between 20 and 40 percent of their budget for the same. Low budget and low performances are generally attributed to scarcity of resources. However, problems of insufficient mobilization of the available resources and misuses are found to be equally serious according to this study. This shows that studying the financing system of urban services is an important area to reckon since it is helpfit! to look for ways by which the service may be improved by using the available resources differently. It may also be of advantage to check whether the available meager resources are effectively and efficiently used for the priority and basic needs of the town. The study also suggests some lines of action that are essential to improve the current inadequate solid waste management service of Adama town.
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    The Impact of Improved Technology on Crop Productivity: A Case Study in Basona Worana Wereda, North Shewa, Amhara Region
    (Addis Ababa University, 2000-05) Dejene, Minliku; Demeke, Mulat (PhD)
    This paper tries to examin e the impact oj improved technology on Ja rm productivity and income oj Jarm households. Further, yield and income difference between adopters and non -a dopters resulting from the level oj technology adoption. Theoretical and empirical findings suggested that crop yields particularly that oj wh eat whose p roven t echn.ology (improved seed varieties) are available showed marked produ ctivity. Techn ology adoption by Jar increased the income oJJarmers that use commercialJertilizer both with local alld improved seed. The reason Jor technology adoption is that yield could not be increased to satisfy the present Jood requirements oj the population, given the decline in sOilJertility and poor agronom ic practices. Agricultural productivity in the Ethiopian cOIUext suffered from low input application., deterioration in the soil nutr ients, inappropriate agricultural policies, recurrent drought, etc. All these Jactors adversely affect Jood production and productivity a nd thus have made the countly to heavily depend on Jood imports and Jood aid. Although the past package programs prove the possibility oj increasing yield, its coverage and the purpose to wh ich it served had never changed the life oj th e rural poor in particular and th e overall the sector's peljormance, at la rge. That is to say, those package programs prior to the early 1990 's served only the small portioll oj the rich Jarmers. In understanding oj the problem, th e present government put into effect thenew extension program known as the PADETES with the objective of increasing farm productivity of the mass of the small farmers through widespread application of improved technologies and farmers' participation in the process of planning and implementing in the choice and adoption of available technologies. Since its implementation reports showed that it was possible to increase farmers ' yield by more than two-fold. Having examining the hitherto theoretical and empirical findings, this paper tried to link its results with these facts. The results of this study ji-om the sample of 175 households in Basona Worana woreda of Amhara North Shewa showed that farmers with better land, farm oxen, educational status, etc are adopters of improved technology. All adopters were found better both in yield and income levels than nonadopters. Wheat and barely yields showed significant productivity improvement. Further, it is tried to show farm income differential between adopters and nonadopters through employing financial analysis method. It is important to note that problems related to the input and credit market, poor extension and research links, and institutiollal problems, among others arrested the level of technology adoption and hence the increase in farm productivity. Therefore, it is essential to mitigate albeit solve these problems so as to attain the objective of food self-sufficiency and food security at the national or household levels.
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    The Role of School Improvement Program in Enhancing Quality Education at Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa, Arada Sub-city
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-06) Damtie, G/yohannes; Nega, Mulu (PhD)
    The general objeclive oflhis study was 10 invesligale Ihe role of school improvemenl program in enhancing qualily of educalion al secondary schools. A mixed approach with purposive and simple random sampling lechniques was used 10 selecl leachers and slUdenls ji'om secondary schools of Arada sub-cilY in Addis Ababa. The principal objeclives such as 10 examine SIP sIal us, idenli/Y ils impacls and assessing Ihe improvemenls made by Ihe program had been evaluated carefiilly. The surveyed dala were analyzed using SPSS The findings of Ihe sludy reveallhal relalively encouraging achievemenls have been made allhe school level, wilh respecl 10 Ihe learning and leaching domain. However, achievemenl in Ihe school environmenl and community involvemenl domains were found 10 be velY low. Furthermore, lack of reward for those who performed well it, lack of awareness, and praclical involvemenl of Ihe community, lack of awareness among sludenls, and leachers, turnover of man power and lack of qualified operalional man power were idenlified as Ihe major challenges in implemenling SIP. The findings also indicaled Ihal Ihere are no inlegraled efforls of all slakeholders in Ihe implemenlalion process. This indicales Ihal Ihe school improvemenl programme has become a well arliculaled program in Ihe docUinenl, bUI il is nol as ji'uiljul as il was expecled on Ihe gro1lnd. In ils Ihird year implemenlalion stage and signijicanl land marks, improvemenls were nol observed so far in all domains, ji'om Ihe Jour domains Ihe mosl discouraging being the school environmenl and Ihe communily involvell7enl domains.
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    The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment at Amanuel Hospital
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-06) Tesfaye, Atsede; Zeleke, Befekedu (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employees' job satisfaction level and their organizational commitment. The participants of the study were employees working at Amanual Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa in the year 2015/2016. Data were collected from 320 (158 males and 162 females) sample respondents selected using simple random sampling through two standardized questionnaires:. In addition, data were also collected from eight participants through interview who were selected using purposive sampling. Furthermore, data through document analysis was used to get data regarding the turnover rate of employees in the organization. Data were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation, single sample t-test, independent t-test, one way ANOVA and multiple regression. The one sample t-test result revealed that the level of employees' job satisfaction was ambivalent and the organizational commitment of employees' was low while the data obtained through interview showed that the level of employees' job satisfaction was low. The multiple correlations between predictor variables (components of job satisfaction) and organizational commitment was found positive and significant (R=.385). The components of job satisfaction explained nearly 14.8% of the variation in employees' organizational commitment. From the different components of job satisfaction benefits, nature of work and pay were found to be significant predictors of organizational commitment. These three components explained 12.9% of the variation in employees' organizational commitment. Based on the research result employees' job satisfaction was positively correlated with their organizational commitment, financial benefits and the nature of work were the major determinants of employees' job satisfaction and their commitment to the organization , the employees' job satisfaction and commitment were found low which may hinder the effectiveness of the organization to accomplish its missions were the main conclusions of this study. Finally, based on the results and conclusions recommendations were given for managers, policy makers and researchers to improve the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees. Key words: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, Amanual Hospital
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    Practices and Challenges of Stuff Development in Private Secondary schools of Adiss Abeba City Administration
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-06) Gebeyhu, Ethiopia; Kedir, Hussien (PhD)
    Practices and challenges of management development in private secondary schools of Addis Abeba city administration. In private sector organizations are run by private individual owners. For its managements and development that not only a lot huge finance, it also requires knowledge, skill and altitude. In private school especially secondary level many responsibilities from teachers, parent’s students and the society in highly demanded. Therefore this study aims to analyze the practices and challenges of management development in private secondary schools in Addis Abeba. A descriptive survey method was employed to conduct the study. Sample of the schools were selected by random sampling techniques depending on the school location. The subject of the study are 90 department head teachers, 18 vice principals of the school, 18 supportive staff and 9 main school principals in nine private secondary schools. The data gathering tools used were questionnaire, interview and document review. From the result of this study it was found out that the private secondary schools have not set the MD in the school program and are not revising their program regularly. However the MD in private secondary schools needs to have great attention of the respected government authority. The principal should measure and follow up of the effect of the MD program. Beside to this, the principal and other management bodies should upgrade their potential. Finally, the result revealed that for the training and development program need high emphasis from the concerned government body especially MoE and the private school owners. .