Social Psychology

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    Helping Behaviors and the Perception of Helping Intentions among Employees at Oromia Regional Offices, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-05) Hawi Tarekegn; Dawit Mekonen (PhD)
    The goal of this research aimed at investigating helping behaviours and intentions among employees at Oromia regional offices, Ethiopia. Employees were selected proportionally from six randomly chosen Oromia regional offices by contemplating the distribution of gender in each office. The questionnaire included Prosocial Tendencies Measure–Revised (PTM-R), Prosocial Behavioural Intentions Scale (PBIS) and Empathic Concern questionnaire in addition to socio-demographic questionnaire. 263 study participants—167 men and 96 women—completely filled the distributed questionnaire. Collected data were examined with inferential as well as descriptive statistics. This study's results suggested that respondents considerably demonstrated dire prosocial activity in reaction to the crisis or emergency caused by COVID-19 pandemic, ongoing drought, political instability and conflicts in the country. They also highly engaged in compliant prosocial acts in response to requests made either verbally or nonverbally by those who were affected by the aforementioned situations. Females outperformed males in terms of emotional, anonymous, public, and overall prosocial behaviours. The employees' religious practises, marital status, educational background, and monthly income all had a significant impact on their public prosocial behaviours. Likewise, anonymous prosocial behaviours were reliant on marriage, education level and monthly income; emotional prosocial behaviours were determined by religion, education and income, while dire prosocial behaviours were correlated with respondents' religious experiences and monthly income. All prosocial behaviour subtypes and intentions were strongly and positively connected, except for the fact that both compliant and dire prosocial acts were not substantially connected with public and altruistic prosocial behaviours. The study participants' prosocial behaviours were significantly and positively connected with their prosocial intentions and empathetic concern. Moreover, the respondents' empathy for others was a positive predictor of their readiness to help others.
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    Social Media Use, Peer Pressure and Aggression: The Case of Secondary School Students, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Aster Getachew; Mitiku Hambisa (PhD)
    Social media usage, peer pressure, and aggression have been global concerns for the past year and a half and are expected to continue in the coming years. Adolescence is influenced by it and has a higher risk of acquiring aggression. It has been witnessed that there were interventions tried by stakeholders to alleviate its consequence on secondary student/ adolescence, but the most important one is to understand how adolescence is aggressive with social media usage and peer pressure. So the primary goal of this study was to look into the relationship among social media use, peer pressure, and aggression. The study employed a quantitative research approach and a correlational research approach. The primary goal of this study was to look into the relationship between social media use, peer pressure, and aggression. The questionnaires were composed of three scales that were distributed to 403 random samples of secondary school students in Addis Ababa City. All participants filled out the questionnaire appropriately. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation, Pearson product momentum correlation, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and standard multiple regression. The result indicated that first, peer pressure and aggression had a moderately positive relationship (r =.285, P<.001). Second, social media use and aggression had a moderately positive relationship (r =.267, P<.001). Likewise, aggression was found to be predicted significantly by peer pressure and social media use, which jointly accounted for 28.9% of the variance, respectively. Moreover, by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), statistically significant results were found in aggression, peer pressure, and social media use with respect to demographic variables such as gender, education, family income, living conditions, and monthly income. The implications of the findings were discussed. The study recommends that the Addis Ababa City Administration Education Office identify the risk factors and design an intervention model for preventing the targeted study population from school-related hazards. Key Words: Aggression, Social Media, Peer Pressure,
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    Altruistic Behavior among Religious Believers: Does Religious Orientation Matter
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Zewdie Teferra; Mitiku Hambisa (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to explore the altruistic behavior among religious believers using a phenomenological qualitative design. Purposive, non-probability sampling was used to recruit participants. Data was collected from MMKC believers through In-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Nine participants were selected for a semi-structured interview, followed by two focus group discussions with six and seven members each. Five major themes emerged from the thematic analysis: views and lived experiences, influence of religious orientations on altruistic behavior, motive to altruistic behavior and challenges of altruistic behavior. The study found that altruistic behavior is influenced by religious orientations, with convertees showing a higher degree of altruistic behavior. The findings from this study could contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the factors that influence altruism in different socio-demographic groups, particularly within religious communities. Key Words: Altruism, Religious orientation, Pro- social, Denomination, Church
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    The impact of duration of unemployment on depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and alcohol users among graduate unemployed youths of Yeka sub-city
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-11) BethelehemTarekegn; Daniel Tefera (PhD)
    The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and alcohol users of unemployed BSC/BA graduates of colleges and universities. It specifically examines the level of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and alcohol users experienced by unemployed graduates, explore gender difference on depression, anxiety, self-esteem level, and alcohol users, and the relationship b/n depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alcohol users and duration of unemployment. To that effect, a quantitative design was used. A total of 291 respondents were involved on the study who was selected by stratified random sampling methods. Quantitative methods of analysis were applied. Quantitative data was generated from the collected questionnaires which was screened and included (during data cleaning) on the study finding. It was analyzed using SPSS V.20, and elaborate the data in narrative form. Frequency and percentage were used to see general pattern of demographic profile and level of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alcohol users of the respondents. Independent sample T-test was used to see if there was a gender difference in dependent variables. MANOVA was used to provide information if there is a relationship on the duration of unemployment and dependent variables. The participants of the study were 134 males and 157 were female. According to BDI II, severe and extreme level of depression was seen on 57.7% of graduate unemployed youths. The remaining 42.3% was moderate and low. 55% of them were on mild and moderate level of anxiety. The majority of respondents, 77% were on a moderate level of self-esteem. Out of 291 participants, 22.3% don’t drink alcoholic beverages. According to CAGE questionnaire, out of the alcohol consumer respondents 100% of the alcohol user respondents are levelled as clinically significant alcohol consumers. The result of t-test indicates that there is no statistically significant mean difference between male and female on depression, anxiety, self-esteem and alcohol intake level of respondents. Regarding the duration of unemployment, there was statistically significant difference on the duration of unemployment depression, anxiety, selfesteem and alcohol users.
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    The Lived Experience of Female Adolescent Students With Regards to Social Media Use in Addis Ababa and Its Perceived Psychosocial Effect
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Kidist Teshome; Dame Abera (PhD)
    This study examines the lived experiences of female adolescent students in Addis Ababa that use social media platforms on regular basis, with a focused analysis on the perceived impact of their use on their psychosocial wellbeing. As more and more people are seeking to increase their social engagements online, research professionals have expressed a growing concern over the need for understanding the psychosocial impacts of social media use. At the same time, there is a dearth of qualitative research exploring the association between social media and psychological and social ailments. However, most lack the appropriate context to be applicable in a country like Ethiopia, as there are considerable cultural, social differences and individual peculiar understanding.Employing a phenomenological framework, the purpose of this study was to investigate the lived experiences of adolescent females in Addis Ababa with regular use of social media. Semi-structured interviews were used to generate rich, detailed descriptions of the phenomenon. Data analysis from narrative dialogues illuminated three essential themes: (a) Common use of specific social media platforms across participants along with a significant amount of time spent by the participants per day on those platforms. (b) increased occurrences of mood variations like feelings of anxiety and low mood along with reduced self-esteem. (c) A common feeling that it has significant impact on their productivity and academic performances. Conclusion and Implication of this study underscores the need for Interventions regarding regular adolescent engagements on these platforms particularly using youth education and with active involvement of parents, teachers and policy makers to play a role to counteract the negative consequences of regular social media use.Female Adolescent Students and Social Media…
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    Burnout and its Coping Mechanisms among Health Workers in St. Paul’s Hospital, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01) Zewditu Sisay; Mulat Asnake (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess burnout and its coping mechanisms among health workers. The study was conducted in St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, in Gulele sub city Addis Ababa. The study aimed at exploring the prevalence of burnout faced by health workers working in SPHMMC, identify burnout level between departments, identifying coping strategies used by respondents to cope with stressful situations in their day to day life, identify coping strategies based on gender, and provide recommendation. The target populations of this study were professional nurses and midwives employed in SPHMMC. The study involved a quantitative research, and stratified random sampling technique that was used to select the respondents of the study, the 55 departments of the hospital further stratified in to three groups, high flow, mild flow, and low flow on the base of the amount of patients they provide service to. Among the total of 972 nurses and midwives who are active in their work, 312 were selected to be participant of this study and to select the participants Solvin’s formula was used which is a random sampling technique. However, because of non-response from 312 questionnaires distributed 288 were gathered and used for the study. The data was gathered using a questionnaire, by adapting Maslach’s Burnout Inventory and COPE Inventory scales. Then the data was analyzed using a descriptive statistics that consist of frequency, and percentage, as well as computing variables by comparing means using independent sample t-test and one way ANOVA. Finding of the study showed that, there is a medium level of exhaustion (44.1%), and low level of de personalization (58.3%), and a high level of personal achievement in respondents (53.1%), as a result the study concludes that there is no burnout in SPHMMC. The study findings on the level of difference between the strata’s shows that burnout level between the three strata does not have a significant difference (F2, 228 = 2.265, .176, and .816, p > .005), as a result, equal variance was assumed. Further, because the findings indicate that there is no burnout problem, the coping strategy of participants assessed separately to other stressful situations. And the study discovered that health care workers in SPHMMC use more problem focused strategy to cope with burnout in their work with a 2.6498 mean. The study further assess coping strategy based on gender and find that; for problem focused coping, there were significantly no differences between male and female, as such there is equal variance. For emotion focused coping the result indicate that there are significant differences, hence, there is no equal variance between male and female. And f for avoidance coping also the result shows significant differences, therefore, there is no equal variance between male and female respondents in using avoidance coping strategy.
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    Behavioral Outcomes of Children Left Behind Due to Parental Migration in South Wollo, Ethiopia (Implications for Intervention)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Getnet Tesfaw; Abebaw Minaye (Ass. Prof.)
    This study investigated the behavioral outcomes of LBC as a result of parental migration in Southern Wollo , Ethiopia. Accordingly, a concurrent mixed method was employed to address the objectives of the study. A total of 360 children whose mother, father, and both parents migrants were selected from two woredas in southern Wollo by using a stratified sampling method. 360 children living with both parents were also selected in the same weredas for comparison purposes. For the qualitative data 12 caregivers,18 teachers, and 13 LBC were also selected purposely. Behavioral outcomes of children were assessed by using the strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ). Interview and focus group guides were also used to explore the perception of caregivers, teachers, and left-behind children about parental migration and its consequences. The findings demonstrated that a significant mean difference was found between LBC due to parental migration and children living with both parents t (718) =24.64, p <0.01. The mean score of the behavioral outcome of LBC as measured by SDQ was significantly higher than children of non-migrating parents. A statistically significant mean difference was also observed between the migration status of parents (the migration of fathers, mother migrants, and both parent migrants) F= F(2, 357)=19.18, P<.01. The results suggest that a mother migrant and both parents migrant left behind children experienced behavioral outcomes significantly higher than children whose fathers migrated. Children of migrant mothers and both parent migrants showed nearly similar and higher behavioral difficulties as compared to children of father migrants. Furthermore, a significant mean difference was observed among the children left behind and cared for by different caregivers grandparents, mother only, father only, relatives, non-relatives, and children living alone ) F(5,354)=21.64, P<.01. The score of behavioral outcomes of children cared for by mothers and grandparents showed significantly lower than the other groups of caregivers providing care for LBC. Children cared for by mothers and grandparents look more advantaged than the other groups of LBC. The qualitative data from teachers and caregivers showed that LBC experienced isolation, longing, sadness, and lack of motivation in schooling following their parents’ migration. Children also reported that even if they understand the reasons for their parents' migration they faced various behavioral, social, and emotional. To conclude compared to children of the non-migrating parent, children of migrating parents showed behavioral problems. To mitigate the problem, families, governmental and non-governmental organizations that have a stake in children's lives shall play an important role. Intervention strategies should also be designed for children affected by parental migration.
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    Family Functioning, Peer Pressure and Aggression: In Some Selected High Schools in Shaggar City, Burayyu Administration
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Ifa Ebisa; Mitiku Hambisa (PhD)
    The objective of this study was to examine the association among family functioning, peer pressure, and aggression in selected high schools in Shaggar City, Burayyu Administration. A sample consisting of 372 adolescents (225 females and147 males) ranging in age from 15 to 25 years was randomly selected from four schools through stratified random sampling and simple random sampling method. The participants responded to the Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Peer Pressure Scale and Modified Aggression Scale. Descriptive analysis (frequency, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation, linear regression, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA) were used to analyze quantitative data, and thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings showed that (1) there was moderate level of aggression, and family functioning while peer pressure was high level among the students. (2) According to the correlation's findings, aggression and peer pressure are significant, positive, and strongly correlated. In addition, there was a significant, negative, and weak relationship between family functioning and aggression. (3) Peer pressure accounted for 76.5% of the variance in aggression. (4) The ANOVA's results showed there was a statistically significant difference in family functioning with respect to the educational level of the mothers of the respondents. Likewise, there was a difference that was statistically significant in peer pressure with respect to the father's occupation among respondents. The results also showed that there was a difference that was statistically significant in peer pressure and aggression with respect to income. The implications of the study were discussed. Key Words: Family Functioning, Peer Pressure, Aggression, Adolescent
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    The Relationship Between Religiosity and Social Media Addiction Among Queens College Students, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-07) Tamiru, Yonatan; Andualem, Tamire (PhD)
    This is a quantitative study performed to see The relationship between religiosity and social media addiction among queens college students. The study was performed in Addis Ababa, Queens college's three randomly selected campuses. The sample size for the study was 382 students and 22 samples were excluded due to the error which occurs during the data collection process and finally, 360 samples were used as sources of data. The study used two standardized questionnaires to assess social media addiction level and strength of religiosity. Kimberly Yong’s global addiction test questionnaire and Santa Clara’s strength of faith questionnaire were used to assessing social media addiction level and the strength of religiosity respectively after a pilot test was conducted on 45 randomly selected students from Queen’s College to check its reliability. The study reveals there is no statistically significant difference in social media addiction levels between males and females. On religiosity score, female participants register higher results than males, and individuals’ level of religiosity is negatively related to their level of social media addiction.
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    Pattern, Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Online Sports Betting on Students: The Case of Secondary School Students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-01) Andarge, Abel; Abera, Damen (PhD)
    A great number of individuals amongst the urban youth and adolescents of Ethiopia are becoming more and more involved in gambling activities. Gambling is exacerbated due to the advent of online sports betting. Online sports betting does not require a specific gambling terminal to bet and a bettor can place a bet from any location via the internet which makes it more appealing for the current technology attached youths and adolescents. Therefore this study investigated the pattern and prevalence of online sports betting and its associated risk factors of problematic gambling among preparatory school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted on 146 preparatory school students who have at least once placed a bet. The study showed that most betting participants were male. The study also showed online sports betting is becoming more and more popular among youths and adolescents because it is technology related which made it easy, efficient, effective, and private according to the study participants. Social media platforms also played an important role in the online sports betting industry because they were the main source of information regarding the odds of the game before placing abet. Risk factors of problematic gambling were also investigated because they are necessary to design effective intervention plans to prevent the negative consequences of gambling. The findings of the study reveal that personal factors like self-esteem and drug abuse, social factors like peer influence and family gambling habits, and environmental factors like advertisements and the opening of numerous betting stations in several places have strong and positive correlations with problematic gambling. Key words: Online Sports Betting, Gambling, Problem Gambling, Pathological Gambling, Risk factors and Corporate Social Responsibility
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    An Evaluation of the Planning System of the Adult Literacy Programmed of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 1992-06) Dessie, Yalew; Ghedai, Abebe (PhD)
    This study has attempted to evaluate the planning system practiced in the literacy progr8Jllme of Ethiopia. It tried to investigate whether there is substantial relationship between the programme planning system experienced in the literacy programme of Ethiopia and the planning system advocated by unesco sponsered conferences, and different adult educators. The study used a combination of descriptive and analytical research methods. The data for the study were obtained from three sources i.e. review of related literature, the documents issued in the programme, and interview. Puprosive sample of people, in the Department of Adult Education, were used in the process. Unstructured interview instruments were developed and used in the study. As a consequence of the nature of the instrument used, the findings of the study were presented by way of qUQlitative explanations about the adequacies and inadequacies of the planning system deployed. According to the findings of the study, the literacy programme was massive C8Jllpaign thQt sought to make all adult men and women in the nation literate within around seven years. In this perspective, the programme's plan resembled to be ambitious. The intention of the government to promote the literacy programme was mainly for political purposes which appear to be narrow in its scope. In the planning process of the literacy programme, no study of the melieu had been executed to integrate the national necessities with the needs expressed by the different social groups. A Single model was· used without any adaptation being made to different geographical areas or the needs of different social groups. The planning system exercised in the literacy programme was based on a centralized model as that of the formal ed~cation. This approach is contradictory to the principles of adult literacy programmes. The needs and problems of the local communities were largely overlooked and not reflected in the curriculum designed. This. imply that the curriaulum was not functional and responsive to the local needs of adult participants. Several problems were inherent in the progr8JllJlle as a result of the defects of the planning system used.The programme planning and the implementation pattenms applied in the literacy programme were not adopted and adhered to the basic principles of functional literacy that have been widely acknovdedged for effective literacy programmes. The implication the writer has drawn from this is that the effectiveness of , the literacy programme is doubtful. Over and above, the progralJlllle has been characterized by acute shortage of specially trained literacy workers 1n the field of adult education. This suggests that the programme's activities were mainly based on mere chances. Very little attention has been given to the training of literacy agents compared to the formal education in the country. Consequently, it is difficult to expect effective qualitative outcomes from the programme. In conclusion, there are clearly noticed differences between the planning system experienced in the literacy and the planning system vlidely advocated by different adult educators. On the basis of the findings of the study recommendations were made with the premise of improving the programme planning system. Moreover, the paper suggests for the restructuring of the exieting adult lieracy programme of the nation.
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    Motivational Orientation, Learning Strategy and Academic Achievement Among High School Students in Northern Shoa
    (Addis Ababa University, 1996-06) Gemeda, Tola; Husain, Abraham (PhD)
    The first purpose of this study was to investigate gender-related grade level differences in academic motivational and learning strategy cornponents among 81h , 91h , 10lh and 111h graders in Northern Shoa region . The second purpose was to examine the relations between these motivational and learning strategy variables and academic achievement at each grade level. An Amharic version self-report measure of student intrinsic value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, cogniti~e strategy use, and self-regulation was administered to a random sample of 391 boys and 366 girls from 5 randomly selected secondary schools and data-on academic achievement were obtained from school records . Analysis of variance, correlation and regression analyses were employed on the data. ANOVA results indicated statistically Significant grade level difference (at .05 level) only in self-efficacy between 81h and 111h graders. Statistically significant gender differences were found in self-efficacy, test anxiety, cognitive strategy use and self-regulation. All significant differences were in favor of males. There was a significant interaction between grade and sex only in cognitive strategy use. Results of correlation analyses indicated that self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and academic achievement while test anxiety was related to these variables negatively at each grade level. Regression analyses revealed that self-efficacy and test anxiety were the best predictors of academic achievement at all grade levels. The motivational and learning strategy components, when combined together, revealed statistically significant relationships with academic achievement in all grades. It was concluded that the differences in students' motivational orientations and learning strategies were not only due to grade level and sex, but also due to other variables which influence students' motivational beliefs and learning strategies. Students with motivational orientations involving self-efficacy and intrinsic value use appropriate learning strategies and appear to be successful learners. Very test anxious students seem to use defective learning strategies and show poor academic performance. Practical implications of the findings are indicated.
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    Employee’s Attitude towards Women Leaders at the Ethiopia Federal Police Crime Investigations Bureau
    (AAU, 2021-08) Legesse, Abiy; Asnake, Mulat
    The purpose of this study was to assess the employee’s attitude towards women leaders at Ethiopia federal police crime investigations bureau. For this study quantitative research design were selected. The total numbers of participants were 300, of which 203 were males and 97 were females were selected through systematic random sampling method. The quantitative data were gathered through questionnaire. Accordingly, 300 questionnaires were distributed to employees and all were returned with 100% response rate. Collected data analyzed through (SPSS) version 20. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentage, one-way ANOVA and linear Regression. The finding of the study indicates the participants have a negative attitude toward female leaders. Male respondents have a negative attitude than female. Civil servants have a positive attitude than military (police officers). On the other hand, intercept (P-value 0.000, CI (2.254; 3.548)), gender (P-value 0.002, CI (0.071; 0.307)) and education background of the respondents (P-value 0.052, CI (-0.119; 0.001)) were statistically significant at .5% of level of significance. Besides, One-way ANOVA results indicate that gender, age and position are statistically associated with attitude at 5% of level of significance. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher made suggestion for cultural dominance and recommendations that can be utilized as a further spotlight on how we might improve our society's present gender-related attitude in general
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    Assessment of the Perceived Impact of Peer Pressure on Female Secondary School Students in Some Selected Schools in Addis Ababa
    (AAU, 2021-12) Mulu, Feven; Minaye, Abebaw(PhD
    Currently, peer pressure has become a concern for many secondary and preparatory school students as well as parents in Ethiopia. It is believed to be the biggest factor in determining preparatory school students’ academic performance. The major objectives of the study was to assess the influence of peer pressure on female secondary school students’ academic performance and indicate some coping mechanisms of negative peer pressure on some selected secondary schools in Addis Ababa . Mixed research approach was employed in this study. The study generated the required data from a representative sample of 320 adolescent female students drawn from the study population through random sampling. Data were collected through questionnaire, focus group discussion, and interview. Accordingly the following results are obtained: Negative peer pressure is highly observed on female adolescents of the study area they get fooled by the fun and pleasure found with accompany of their friends and because secondary and preparatory students are between the age of 15_18 and most of the time they are influenced by negative peer pressure. Want to look fun and relaxing and to avoid being treated as “far” are some of the reasons why female students are susceptible to negative peer pressure. There is a statistically significant negative relationship between positive peer influence and negative peer influence. The same is true about the relationship between perceived academic performance and negative peer influence. There is also statistically significant relationship between perceived academic performance and positive peer influence. That means, positive peer influence contribute to female students’ academic achievement. Positive peer pressure has strong association with better academic performance of the secondary and preparatory female students. Positive parents-female adolescent relationship would help to protect female from negative peer pressure. The supervision of school community and parents on controlling the use of mobile phone at school and home would play vital role towards to minimize the negative peer pressure. Open discussion and parental advice and support would help secondary and preparatory female students to cope with negative peer pressure and assisted the students to perform better at school
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    Depression, Anxiety And Stress Among Prisoners In Kaliti High Security Prison Center
    (AAU, 2021-12) Mulu, Tarekegn; Berihun, Assefa(Ph.D
    Many people suffer from mental or behavioral diseases worldwide. Inmates in prison are especially susceptible to these illnesses. However, a lack of research into the prevalence and severity of psychological issues including depression, anxiety, and stress can have detrimental consequences in the life of inmates. The purpose of this research was to assess depression, anxiety, and stress among inmates at Kaliti High Security Correction Center. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study and a total of 288 inmates participated and filled the questionnaire. The data was examined with descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistical methods such as One Way ANOVA and Multiple regression analysis. Based on the findings of the study, 78%, 62.8%, and 64.9% of respondents reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress respectively ranging from mild to severe. Inmates who were single had higher rates of depression, anxiety, and stress sores than those who were married. Convicts with children were shown to have a high level of depression, anxiety, and stress. There was a statistically significant variation in the prevalence and degree of depression, anxiety, and stress among inmates depending on age, marital status, having children, religion and educational status. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and stress were associated with socio-demographic and prisoner related variables. Based on the findings, it is possible to conclude that having children is a risk factors for the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.
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    The State of Special Needs Education Graduates in Exercising their Profession in Addis Ababa, Addis Ketema, Lideta and Gulelle Sub-Cities
    (AAU, 2022-03) Wakjira, Gudina; Teklemariam, Alemayehu(DR
    This study was conducted to investigate the state of special needs education graduates in exercising their profession in Addis Ketema, Lideta and Gulelle sub-cities, Addis Ababa of Ethiopia. The study employed a mixed methods approach. The population of the study was 112(one hundred twelve); In view of that, the researcher took all 103(one hundred three) special needs education professionals as a sample of the study for questionnaire purposively/availably selected respondents and 3(three) school principals, 3(three) sub-cities special needs education expert officers, 3 (three) sub-cities educational bureau officers for interview. The instrument employed to collect data from respondent were questionnaire, interview and observation. The technique used to analyze; the quantitative data was frequency and percentage and the qualitative data was analyzed through narration. The major findings indicated that the special needs education graduates in Addis Ababa city has been assigned in schools. But some of the special needs education professionals were responsible to assign in irrelevant duties. On the other hand, there are challenges that special needs education professionals are facing in the course of their work. Because they lack of shortages in dealing with learners with disabilities, poor learning environment, luck of budget, curriculum guide, instructional material, school facilities and other support specialists. So due to these and other reasons many children with disabilities were do not got the necessary professional services and support from the school. The conclusion is to provide the necessary base for policy makers, planners, school administration and other stakeholders to realize the magnitude of the problem and design variable and effective change and take measures by mitigating the problem under consideration.
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    Trust, Shame and Communication challenges among sexually abused Women: The Case of Women from Association for Women’s Sanctuary and Development (AWSAD)
    (AAU, 2021-12) Lalle, Fuad; Minaye, Abebaw(PhD
    The objective of this study was to examine the level of trust, shame and communication challenges of sexually abused women in the case of Women from the Association for Women‟s Sanctuary and Development (AWSAD). The study used descriptive research design and the researcher employed mixed method approach i.e., quantitative and qualitative design. Trust and shame were measured through Quantitative design whereas communication challenge was evaluated through qualitatively design. The study area was selected based on availability sampling because the numbers of victims were very high in AWSAD among any other shelters in the country. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, percentage, independent sample t-test for the quantitative data using SPSS version 24 and thematic analysis for qualitative data. The result shows that the majority of sexually abused women have experienced psychosocial problems (low trust level, moderate shame level and poor communication with other), because of history of sexual abuse and discrimination by the community. The independent sample t-test showed that there was statistically significance difference between married and single women regarding the general and individual trust level of sexually abused women. Whereas there is no statistically significant difference among married and single study respondents regarding total shame of sexually abused women. The researcher has recommended that different parties like non-governmental organizations, health professionals and youth clubs are expected to show the magnitude of trust, shame and communication challenges and related issues among sexually abused women with the possible ways of solving the problems.
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    Some Factors Affecting Scholastic Achievement of Elementary School Pupils
    (Addis Ababa University, 1995-06) Mamo, Sewnet; Teferra, Tirusew (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess some of the prominent factors that are supposed to cause disparity in academic performance in eight selected elementary school pupils in Eastern Gojjam r egl on . The study involves 360 randomly selected students . The results suggested that the exposure o f students to urban-rural settings remarkably contributed to academic performance differences which in turn, caused difference in scholastic achievements between them. Moreover, sex, attitude and teachers' expectation were found to affect students achievement where as family educational background was not that much important in academic performance of students. The practical implications of these results to the policy and practices of education are indicated.
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    Job Satisfaction among Employees of the Ethiopian Insurance Corporation
    (Addis Ababa University, 1996-06) Wasslhun, Kassahun
    The study sought to determine the relationship between personal data, attitudes, and financial factors and job sa tisfaction. It was conducted in ETHIOPIAN INSURANCE CORPORATION. A 28. 1 per cent sample (n = 331) was selected by proportionate stratified random sampling method from seven departments of the corporation. The data regarding the dependent and independent factors were collected by questionnaire from the employees, and from documents (that was substantiated by interviews). The total score on six items formed a criterion which was acceptable at least from the stand point of dispersion and reliability. The qualitative data collected by the questionnaire were converted into five-point scale. Statistical analysis included computation of correlation matrix, multiple regression analysis, (R adif , and F-values between and within dependent and independent variables. The finding of the study revealed that from all the predictor variables only five had a statistically significant relationship with the criterion measure. Among these predictor variables four-recognition, participation in decision making, age, and responsibility were positively related while one- co-workers was negatively related to the criterion. Although some of the predictor variables have s tatistically significant relationship with the criterion measure, the degree of association was not substantial in each case. Based on the finding, it was concluded that the recognition that employees receive from their corporation, opportunity to make-decision, age, responsibility and relationship with co-workers appeared to be slightly better predictors of job satisfaction than other factors. The results of the study have been interpreted and compared with those of other studies reported in the literature. The study has several implications for personnel management of the corporation. On the basis of the finding obtained in the study it was recommended that the problem has to be further researched in different organizations and/ or institutions for validating the findings and the instrument developed.
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    Volunteer’s Contribution in Addressing the Psychosocial Needs of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children in an Orphanage: The Case of Love and Care Volunteering Team
    (AAU, 2020-06) Samuel, Hermon; Tefera, Belay(Professor
    This research examined volunteer’s contribution in addressing the psychosocial needs of orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) in an orphanage: the case of love and care volunteering team. It identified the perception of volunteers about the psychosocial needs of orphaned and vulnerable children. It also identified the major contribution of volunteers in addressing psychosocial needs as well as challenges impacting their contribution .A combination of quantitative and qualitative method was employed. Questionnaire and in-depth interview were used as a tool to collect the data. The data was collected from 385 participants and 8 child based institutions. 270 questionnaires were distributed for orphaned and vulnerable children and 90 volunteers that provide service in the orphanage. In-depth interview was applied for 15 additional volunteers and 10 employees that work in the orphanage. The data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. The results of this study indicated that, high psychosocial need is found on OVC and the perception of volunteers concerning the children’s psychosocial need is also very high. Through the correlation result, it was found that as the age of the children and years of stay in the orphanage increases their psychosocial needs decreases. The contribution of volunteers to fulfill the psychosocial needs for the children is also found to be high. Through the independent sample t-test it is found that female volunteers contribute more for the fulfillment of the psychosocial needs of OVC than male volunteers. Another result from independent sample t test showed that the educational backgrounds of volunteers was found to be insignificant to their contribution as they give service for the children. Regarding the challenges that volunteers face, the perception of the children towards the challenge the volunteers encounter is low where as volunteer’s responses about their challenge is found to be neutral. The results found from the qualitative research through in-depth interview is similar to the result found through the quantitative in regards to psychosocial need of the children and contribution of volunteers. Where as there is a slight difference between the qualitative and quantitative results related to challenges the volunteers encounter as they give service.