Adult Health Nursing

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    Moral distress and associated factors among nurses in West Arsi zone public hospitals, south-east Ethiopia, 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Desalegn,Lemma; Gela, Debela(Ass. Prof.); Boka, Abdisa(Ass. Prof.)
    Background: Healthcare personnel, particularly nurses, are at a significant risk of developing and experiencing moral distress globally. African nurses' moral suffering has not been the subject of many research. Existing publications mostly focused on qualitative studies. Furthermore, data on the prevalence and associated variables of moral distress among Ethiopian nurses and across all working units in public hospitals is scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level and associated factors of moral distress among nurses working in the West Arsi zone, south-east Ethiopia, in 2023. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February 13 to March 2, 2023. A total of 349 study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire, entered into EpiData 3.1, and exported to SPSS V.26 statistical software for further analysis. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Then, finally, statistical significance was determined using a p value < 0.05 and 95% CI. Results: A total of 349 participants were enrolled in this study, with a response rate of 98.5%. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.2 ± 7.0. Among all of the participants, 194 (55.6%) were female. The majority of the nurses, 293 (84.0%), hold a bachelor's degree in the nursing profession. The mean year of experience was 7.7 ± 6.9. The proportion of high moral distress among nurses was 73.1%. Being female nurse [AOR: 0.457, 95% CI (0.283, 0.740)], job dissatisfaction [AOR=7.67, 95% CI: 3.075, 19.121], and unfavourable working environment [AOR=4.069, 95% CI: 1.915, 8.648] were significantly associated with high level of moral distress. Conclusion and recommendation: According to this study, the proportion of nurses experiencing moral distress was high. Female nurses, job dissatisfaction, and unfavourable working environment were shows significant association with high level of moral distress. More qualitative research is needed to identify the fundamental cause of the problem and its relationship to female nurses, job dissatisfaction, and unfavourable working environment.
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    Resilience and associated factors among mothers of children with congenital heart disease at public hospital in Addis Ababa Ethiopia 2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Molla, Tadesse; B,T adesse(Ass. Prof.); Workineh, Sosina
    Introduction: Congenital heart defect (CHD) is a problem that born with birth of child that affects the mother’s mental and physical health and also their caring and supportive functions. Resilience is defined as the capacity to deal with and recover from adversity and is one of the most important elements affecting health. It prevents negative consequences of facing difficulties and life stresses, improves the quality of life, and promotes satisfaction and mental and social health. Objectives: To determine resilience and associated factors among mothers of children with congenital heart disease. Methodology: A total of 272 mothers were participated in the cross-sectional study using a systematic sampling method. The study was taken place from February 27 to April 27 at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit12 Hospital Medical College Cardiac clinic. The data was collected using kobo collector software then exported and analyzed by SPSS version 25. For Descriptive presentation frequency and percentage were used and simple linear regression and multiple linear regression was conducted and the association in which P<0.05 was considered as significant. Result: The total 272 mothers were participated in the study. The mean age of the mothers and children was 33.71±5.72 and 4.26±2.74 in years, respectively. Age of child associated with resilience by (B=1.4, 95%CI: 0.68-2.18, P<0.001). More than 2/3rd of the participants 222(81.6%) were married and live in urban areas 190(69.9%). The regression analysis showed that social support in the dimension of friend support (p=0.011, B=0.09) and significant others (P=0.014, B=0.08) and optimism (P<0.001, B=0.47) were associated with resilience in mothers of children with CHD. Conclusion: The results showed that the level of resilience in most of mothers was moderate. Two variables, social support and mothers’ optimism, were associated with mothers’ resilience. Investigating stressful problems and improving the resilience of mothers important to improve the quality-of-life mothers of children with CHD and their families.
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    Knowledge, Perceived Risk, Atitude and Practice Towards Myocardial Infarction Prevention among Adults Attending Cardiac Clinic in Selected Public Hospitals, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 2023 G.C
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Yohannis, Eyerusalem; Cherie, Amsale(Associate Prof.), Bedada,Tadesse
    Background: Myocardial Infarction, more commonly known as heart attack, is a global problem that affects millions of people every year. The main cause of death around the globe is cardiovascular disease. Of all cardiovascular diseases Myocardial Infarction is a major contributor of morbidity and mortality among adults. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess Knowledge, Perceived risk, Attitude and Practice towards Myocardial Infarction Prevention among adults attending cardiac clinic in selected public hospitals. Method: Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted, among 422 patients in selected three public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered using Epi-data version 3.1 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 statistical package. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was also carried out to identify factors associated with the dependent and independent variable. A p-value less than 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. Result: A total of 422 participants were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 44±16yrs and 51.4% of patients were females, 61.4% were married, 35.3%, participants were university graduate also 37.7% were self-employed and 83% were urban residents. More than half of patients (50.7%), (57.8%) and (59.2%) were found to have good knowledge, attitude and practice on prevention of MI respectively. Regarding perceived risk score most of participants (59.2%) were found to have poor perception towards their MI risk. Greater MI prevention knowledge were associated with urban residency (P = 0.011) and higher level of education (P = 0.002), married participants were 1.9 times more practical on MI prevention than singles (P = 0.002). Those who attended college/university were 5.8 (P = 0.000) times more likely to have good practice than secondary school, Also females were 1.8 times to have more perceived risk towards MI compared to males (P = 0.003) and Urban residents were 47% less likely to have perceived risk towards MI than who are living in rural areas (P = 0.029). Conclusion and Recommendation: About more than half of the current study participants had high knowledge, attitude and practice about MI prevention, on the other hand more than half participants show low level of perceived risk of MI. Therefore, this study is important to demonstrate the need for implementing an effective prevention program.
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    Assessment of Knowledge of Diabetic Retinopathy,Eye Check-Up Practice and AssociatedFactors among Adults with Diabetes Mellitus onFollow up at Public Hospitals in Addis Ababa,2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Dinsa,Feven; Aga,Fekadu(RN, associate professor),Gela,Debela (Msc, assistant professor)
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and the leading causes of visual loss among adults. Regular eye examination practice and knowledge of DR plays important role in the prevention and early detection of diabetic retinopathy. However, there is limited data regarding knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and eye cheek-up practice among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Ethiopia. Objective: This study aimed to assess knowledge of diabetic retinopathy, eye check-up practice and associated factors among adults with diabetes mellitus on follow up at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, 2023. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa. A pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 421 diabetic patients. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with eye checkup practice and simple and multiple linear regression analyses was used to identify factors associated with knowledge of diabetic retinopathy. Statistical significance was determined using p–value of < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Result: The mean (SD) knowledge score of diabetic retinopathy was 7.37±3.45, and 55.3% participants have undergone an eye examination in the last one year at least once. Long duration of diabetes (β=0.157,p=0.001),older age (β=0.022,P=0.043) and lower educational status(B=-0.166,P=0.001)showed statistically significant association with knowledge of DR. Urbanresidence(AOR=5.131,95%CI:1.804-14.594,P=0.02),lowereducational status, (AOR =0.230,95%CI:0.093 0.572 ,p=0.0020), <10yearsduration of diabetes(AOR=0.546,95%CI: 0.323- 0.923,p=0.024)and knowledge score of DR(AOR= 1.401,95%CI1.271-1.544:p=0.000) were significantly associated with eye checkup practice. Conclusion and recommendation: Majority of the participants answered below the mean of knowledge score of regarding diabetic retinopathy and more than half of the participants undergo an eye examination once in a year. Therefore, effective health education concerning diabetic retinopathy and eye checkup practice via media, regular health education sessions, and posters is important should be given an emphasis
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    Surgical site infection prevention practice and associated factors among nurses in armed forces comprehensive specialized hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Tadesse,Bizuayehu; Mengistu,Daniel (MSc, assoc. Prof.), Abere,Kerebih (MSc)
    Background: A Surgical site infection is a preventable hospital-acquired infection. Surgical site infections remained a significant cause of morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and death. Globally, SSI rates have been estimated to range from 2.5% to 41.9%, with much higher rates in developing nations. Surgical site infection is the most expensive health-related infection, costing $3.3 billion annually. Multiple studies were conducted in Ethiopia on it; however, these studies did not delve into the institutional factors that affect nurses surgical site infection prevention practice. Objective: To assess the surgical site infection prevention practice, and associated factors a mong nurses in the armed force comprehensive specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 284 nurses in the Armed Forces comprehensive specialized hospital from February 27–March 27, 2023. A modified, pretested, and structured self-administered questionnaire was used to measure surgical site infection prevention practice and factors related to it. A cluster and simple random sampling methods were used. Epi-data 3.1 and SPSS Version 26 were used to enter the data into the computer and Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Result: The two hundred and eighty-four nurses responded to the questionnaire with a 100% response rate. One hundred sixty-three (57.4%) of them were males. The mean age was 31 years old. The majority of participants (91.9%) held a BSc degree. Just 57.4% [95% CI (.5161–.6318)] of the participants were found to have good practice in surgical site infection prevention. At a p- value of 0.05, the participants age [AOR=2.165CI (1.120–4.186)] and use of the IP guideline [AOR=.421CI (.212–.835)] were significantly associated with the nurse's practice. Conclusion and recommendation: Nurses' knowledge and practice in surgical site infection prevention have been compromised due to several factors. Updating the nurse's knowledge and practice to use infection prevention guidelines is essential for preventing surgical site infections.
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    Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Goal Achievement and Associated Factors among Type 2 Diabetes Patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross-sectional Study, 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Beyene,Abdisa; Habte,Teshome (Ass. Prof.),Hailu,Aklil(Ass. Prof.)
    Background: Achieving the recommended LDL-C goal is vital for managing cardiovascular risk. However, research on LDL-C goal achievement and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia, is limited. While global rates vary from 18% to 73%, there is a need for further investigation in this region to better understand and address the factors influencing LDL-C goal attainment. Objective: To evaluate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement and associated factors among type 2 diabetes patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods and Material: In a cross-sectional study at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 338 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from the diabetic follow-up clinic were included. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire and analyzed using Epi info version 7.2 and SPSS version 25. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the association between variables. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and a p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant for associations between independent and outcome variables. Result: The LDL goal achievement among type II diabetes patients is 58.9%.Total triglyceride level (AOR=0.19, 95%CI, 0.12, 0.54, P= <0.0001), history of smoking (AOR=0.198, 95%CI, 1.06, 1.10, P=<0.0001), 40-65 years of age (AOR=0.21, 95%CI, 0.05, 0.87, P= 0.03), BMI (AOR=0.19, 95%CI, 0.12, 0.54, P= <0.0001)., were found to be statistically significant independent predictors for LDL Goal Achievement in type II Diabetes patients. Conclusion and recommendation: A study at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital found that LDL-C goal achievement among Type 2 diabetes patients was acceptable but did not meet international standards. Factors like total triglyceride levels, smoking history, older age, and increased BMI influenced LDL-C goal achievement. It is important to raise awareness among healthcare professionals and patients about managing LDL-C levels in Type 2 diabetes. The Ministry of Health should prioritize interventions targeting total triglyceride levels and implement education campaigns. Healthcare professionals can optimize patient counseling and adhere to evidence-based guidelines for managing hypertriglyceridemia. Further research should explore additional factors like socio-economic status and comorbidities
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    Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Adult Patients With Epilepsy in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-12) Zewdu, Frehiywot; Alemu, Wudma; Fantahun, Addishiwet
    Background: Epilepsy has significant negative effects on a person's physical, psychological, and social well-being (Health Related Quality of Life). Education level, seizure type, seizure frequency, stigma, living situation, monthly income, medication adherence, side effects of antiepileptic drugs, and co-morbidity of mental disorders all significantly affect the quality of life of epilepsy patients, according to different studies. Objective: To assess Health Related Quality Of Life and associated factors among adult patients with Epilepsy in Gamo Zone, Southern, Ethiopia, 2023. Method: Institution based quantitative cross sectional study conducted on 252 participants from Feb 27 to Mar 27, 2023, at selected public hospitals. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the required number of epileptic patients attending public hospitals in the Gamo Zone. Logistic regression model was used to identify the predictor’s health-related quality of life. The significant cut point was set to p-value < 0.05 at 95% CI. Result: From 259, a total of 252 epileptic patients participated in this study with the response rate of 97.2%. The mean total score of QOLIE-31 was 59.56 (SD=16.70). The highest mean (SD) score was the Cognitive function, 70.32 (SD=20.49) and the lowest was Seizure worry subscale, 42.2 (SD=23.95). 114 (45.2%) of the respondents scored below the mean in overall HRQOL. Factors associated with poor quality of life includes taking medications once per day [AOR=0.04; 95%CI (0.00-0.91)], having comorbid mental disorders [AOR: 4.53; 95% C.I (1.89- 10.86)] and encountering side effect of medications [AOR: 3.63; 95% C.I (1.74-7.55)]. Conclusion and Recommendation: HRQOL mean score of people living with epilepsy in Gamo Zone is low. Taking medications once per day, having comorbid mental disorders and experiencing adverse effect of medications associated with quality of life. This study recommends for health professionals, to improve the quality of life for epileptic patients, early detection of co-morbid mental disorders like depression and anxiety in those with epilepsy should be of utmost importance.
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    Cardiovascular disease risk Reduction Behavior, Knowledge and Risk Perception of Adult hypertensive patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Mengistu,Daniel; Gary,Rebecca A.; Goshu, Dejuma Yadeta; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Higgins, Melinda K
    Background: Adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes among hypertensives are determined by several key patient factors such as knowledge, self-risk perception of CVD outcomes, and patients’ risk reduction behaviors. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disabilities worldwide. Uncontrolled hypertension is a major and well-established risk factor for adverse CVD outcomes resulting in high morbidity and mortality. These outcomes could largely be prevented if the patients possess good working knowledge, accurate risk- perception, and consistently engage in risk reduction behaviors. However, despite the widely prevalent behavioral risks for adverse CVD outcomes among hypertensives in Ethiopia, the patients’ risk reduction behavioral status, knowledge, and risk-perception are largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine CVD risk reduction behaviors and their determinants among adult hypertensives. Objective: The general objective of the study was to determine the status of CVD risk reduction behaviors and its associations with sociodemographic and clinical profiles, knowledge, and risk perception of adult hypertensives attending follow-up at a tertiary hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method and Materials: A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 384 hypertensives was selected using a systematic random sampling technique from the hypertension clinic registry. Epi data version 3.10 was used for managing the data, and SPSS version 25.0 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to determine participants’ CVD risk reduction behavioral status. Bivariate chi-square tests and ordinal logistic regression analyses were run to identify variables associated with participants' ranked CVD risk reduction behavioral status at the p-value < .05 cutoff for statistical significance. Result: Of the total of 384 study participants, 377 (98.18%) were included in the analysis. The mean age (±SD) was 53.61 ± 12.80-year, range (30-82 years), 51.2% were males, Three-fourths (75.3%) were married, and 42.7% had less than high school education. The mean (±SD) duration of HTN was 8.01 ± 6.07 years. Nearly three-quarters (72.1%) of them were attending bi-monthly follow-up care for HTN. Less than half (45.1%) achieved target BP control. xiii Fewer than half (58.62%) of the participants had adequate knowledge of CVD risk factors (mean [±SD], 19.92 ± 3.40, range: 7-26). The majority (58.62%) of the participants had a low subjective risk perception of CVD events. Approximately three-fourths (72.4%) had a moderate nl-FRS 10 year CVD risk estimated. Agreement between participants perceived-risk and the nl-FRS was poor (kappa = 0.0002, standard error = 0.023, p =0.99) with a high (76%) CVD risk-perception inaccuracy primarily due to underestimation. The majority (56.5%) of them were at low CV risk reduction practices. The absence of comorbidities (p < .001), clinic visits every 3 months for hypertension (p = .041), normal body mass index (p = .008), hypertension duration of 5–9 years (p = .034), and young age adults (p = .041) were the characteristics statistically significantly associated with the high CVD risk reduction practice. Conclusion: Participants’ CVD risk reduction practice was low with a variety of unmanaged risk factors and few cardioprotective behaviors. The absence of co-morbidities, maintaining a healthy weight, having HTN for 5–9 years, scheduled clinic visits every three months, and being a young adult were predictive of high-risk reduction behaviors. Target blood pressure control was lower, particularly among overweight and obese hypertensives, and with comorbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although about half of participants had adequate knowledge of CVD risk factors most had inaccurate and low subjective risk perceptions of CVD events compared to moderate objective risks identified using the nl-FRS. Planned education on HTN and CVD risk factors is essential to improve patients’ CVD risk perception and behavioral adoption to reduce adverse CVD events
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    The Magnitude and Factor Associated with Chronic Liver Disease in Selected Public Health Hospitals, West Arsi Zone, Oromia,Ethiopia,2022.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Lema Beresa; Gela Debela Habte Teshome
    Background: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a severe public health issue that affects 1.5 billion people globally. It was Ethiopia's seventh leading cause of death in 2019 with 24 fatalities per 100,000 people. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with medically confirmed chronic liver diseases among adult population at selected public health hospitals in West Arsi zone, 2022. Methods: An institution-based descriptive cross-sectional study design with the combination of structured interview was employed from February 20, 2022 – July 6, 2022G.C. There were 384 respondents selected using systematic random sampling method.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated withCLD. Results: A total of 384 adult individuals participated, with a response rate of 100%. The magnitude of medically confirmed chronic liver disease among adults in west Arsi zone 60.2% which is higher in male (37.26%). Having family history of chronic liver disease (AOR=5.23; 95%CI: 2.59-12.13), drinking alcohol > 20 ml per day (AOR=13.53; 95 % CI: 5.50 - 33.29), smoking cigarettes (AOR = 4.15; 95 % CI: 1.70 - 10.14), chewing khat (AOR = 2.33; 95 % CI: 1.13 - 4.77), consuming high-fat diet (AOR = 3.97; 95 % CI: 1.67- 9.42), being infected with viral hepatitis B and C virus (AOR = 18.15; 95 % CI: 7.47 -44.09), having comorbidity (AOR = 3.58; 95 % CI: 1.65 - 7.77), using herbal medication(AOR = 9.84; 95 % CI: 4.58 - 21.13), and being overweight (AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.05- 6.8160.) remained statistically significant.Conclusion: The magnitude of medically confirmed chronic liver diseases is 60.2% inwest Arsi zone which needs much more attention of ministry of health and local authoritiesfor prevention and interventions focused on behavioral changes, life style modifications,strengthening viral hepatitis screening activities, to tackle these modifiable associated factors with consideration regarding family history of chronic liver diseases.
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    Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight Among Adult Cardiac Patients who Visit the Outpatient Department of Cardiac Center Ethiopia and Black Lion Specialization Hospital.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Kebede Seble; Alemu Wudma; Hailu Aklil
    Background: Overweight is an escalating problem worldwide, yet extensive evidence especially in Africa, is still lacking. Excess body weight leads to extra fat deposition and serious health consequences such as cardiovascular disease (mainly heart disease and stroke), type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Objective: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of overweight among adult cardiac patients in a selected cardiac hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Method: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed from February to March 2023. A total of 292 eligible participants were included using systematic sampling. Anthropometric measurements height and weight) were assessed using the World Health Organization's recommended techniques. The data was analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) software. The study conducted a binary logistic regression model to examine the association between independent variables and the outcome variables. The results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals, first entering each factor alone in the logistic model (crude ORs) and then including all factors to assess potential confounding (adjusted OR). Finally, the direction and strength of the association were expressed using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval. The level of statistical significance was considered to be 0.05. Results: A total of 292 participants were included in the study, yielding a 100% response rate. This study illustrated that the overall prevalence of overweight based on body mass index was (87=28.9%) (95% CI: 24.7%–35.3%). Female sex (AOR = 1.54, 95% C.I.: 1.42, 4.07), had a history of depression [AOR (95% C.I.): 1.03 (1.02, 1.70), high meat consumption [AOR (95% C.I.): 1.8 (4.1, 1.48)], and high wealth rank [AOR (95% C.I.): 2.1 (1.05, 2.27)] were significantly associated with overweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight among adult cardiac patients seeking health care in a selected cardiac hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was found to be high in this study, suggesting that it is a chronic nutrition-related condition. Being female, having a history of depression, being in a high-wealth class, and consuming more meat were the identified risk factors. Hence, we recommend that the focus of any action be on each of the identified relevant factors in order to reduce the magnitude of overweight among cardiac patients.
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    Perceived Quality of Preoperative Information,its Barriers and Preferences of Mode of Delivery Among Adult Patients and Nurses in Public Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Daniel Dessalegne; Cherie Amsale Hailu Aklil
    Background: One of the major health-related decisions a person makes in their lifetime is having surgery, with results that can be both positive and negative. It actually has three phases, these are: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Preoperative information provision is providing reassurance and therapeutic listening to patients before surgery. Objectives: To assess the perceived quality of preoperative information, its barriers, and preferences of the mode of delivery among adult patients and nurses in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March to April 30, 2023. Methods and Materials: An institutional-based cross-sectional study with a qualitative phenomenological approach was conducted from March to April 30, 2023. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select 305 study participants among admitted adult surgical patients. The data were collected using a pretested and structured interviewer- administered questionnaire and in-depth interviews. To maintain data reliability pre-test was conducted and validity was maintained by using surgical expert’s opinion. Result: According to this study the patients who got good quality preoperative information was 75.7% with 95% CI: (71.1, 80.7) and significantly associated with frequency of hospital visits, [AOR (CI 95%): 2.866 (1.112 -7.390): p= .029*], higher educational level of the participant [AOR (CI 95%: (9.581:(2.824 -32.501, p= .001**)] and presence of previous surgery [AOR (CI 95%):5.232 (2.67–10.249):p = .000**], patients have a good quality of preoperative information than the counterparts. The most frequent preoperative information delivery barriers from the patients, health professionals, and facility viewpoint were as follows: differences in languages (55.7%), low level of health literacy (77.4%), and lack of training, space, and time constraints (62.0%). lack of continuing education, Reluctance to communicate with patients and Religion from qualitative findings. Conclusion: Quality of preoperative information given to surgical adult patient was less than 85%, and Barriers included language problems, time restraints, poor communication skills, and inappropriate approaches. A training program and preparation of necessary materials should be fulfilled to improve the quality of preoperative information delivery.
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    Assessment of Knowledge Attitude and Practice Regarding Coronary Artery Disease Prevention Among Out Patients Attending in Cardiac Clinic at TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Sibhatu Hewan; Gebreyohannis Tigistu Alemu Wudmu
    Background:-Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death globally and one of the major health burdens worldwide. Smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension diabetes and physical inactivity are some of the modifiable and preventable risk factors. The prevalence of coronary artery disease in Ethiopia is increasing steadily irrespective of age and gender. This study attempted to quantify knowledge, attitude and practice to wards preventive measures regarding coronary artery disease among patients attaining cardiac out-patients. Methods:-an institution based cross sectional study was conducted in Tikur Anbessa SpecializedHospital between March and- April 2022. A total of 402 patients were selected through Simple Random Sampling method.Interviewer guided standardized Questioners was used to gather the information from participants. Descriptive statistics was utilized to describe participant’s characteristics and logistics regression analysis was employed to examine the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Level ofsignificance was determined at p<0.05 and 95% CI. Result:-A total of 402 participants were included in the study with response rate of 79.6%.The mean age was 46.74±14.15SD.Mean score of knowledge was 58.±15.96 SD. Most (67.2%) of the respondents demonstrated good knowledge. Mean of attitude score was 60.4 ±25.33SD.More than half of the respondents (54.4%) had good attitude. The mean practice score of the study participants were 55.13±17.365 and equal number of respondents had both good and poor practice. Upon logistic regression, variables namely; sex (AOR) of 0.540 95%CI=0.332-0.879),and presence ocomorbidity(AOR=2.818, 95%CI=1.029-7.713), had significance association with knowledge. Similarly occupation (AOR=0.66, 95%CI=0.330-0.968) and marital status (AOR=0.545, 95%CI=0.333-0.893) were significantly associated with attitude towards CAD andsex (AOR=0.506, 95%CI=0.313-0.819),of the respondents had significant association with practice of the respondents
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    Teamwork Performance and its Associated Factors Among Operating Room Professionals Working in Selected Public Hospitals, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Hiwot Misganaw; Tefera Mulugeta
    Background: Effective teamwork performance in the operating room is critical for safe, high-quality care; however, few studies worldwide have documented that suboptimal operatingn room teamwork performance is very common and that teamwork issues occur to varying degrees in every surgery. Operating room teamwork performance in low- and middle-income countries, including Africa is understudied. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess teamwork performance and associated factors among Operating Room Professionals working in selected public hospitals, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted at selected public hospitals from April, 01 to April, 30/2023. Five hospitals were chosen by lottery method, and operating room teams were recruited in proportion to the number of teams, followed by simple random sampling from the respective hospitals. The observation checklist was used to evaluate teamwork performance. A structured questionnaire was also used to collect basic professional information. Pretesting of instruments was performed and collected data were cheeked and entered in to Epi-data version 4.6 for data cleaning and imported to SPSS version26.0 software for analysis.Associations between independent and dependent variables were analyzed using a binary logistic regression model with bivariables and a multivariable logistic regression analysis technique. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The overall operating room professionals’ teamwork performance was poor, 121 (74.16%). Age of 31-40 years [(AOR=0.54, p=0.021; 95%CI (0.33, 0.76)], team familiarity [(AOR=3.56, p=0.01; 95%CI (2.51, 3.92)], cases being complicated/sever [(AOR=3.16, p=0.004; 95%CI (1.45, 6.90)] and availability of supplies [(AOR=1.5, p=0.004; 95%CI (1.58, 2.15)] were factors associated with teamwork performance. Conclusion and recommendations: This study concluded that, about 75% of operation room teams had poor teamwork performance compared to different literature in other parts of the world, where personal and organizational factors associated with teamwork performance. To protect patients undergoing surgery in the study area and elsewhere in the country, it needs to devise measures to improve operation room professionals’ teamwork performance such as training on soft skill (non-technical skills) technology
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    Self-Care Practice and its Associated Factors Among Diabetic Patients at Selected Public Hospitals of East-Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia 2022
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Teshome Ashenafi; Tsige Yosief AlemuTsion
    Background Self-care behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complication and improvement quality of life. Even if diabetic self-care have significant impact on progress of diabete, there is gap in implementing self-care in many parts Ethiopia including East Showa zone. ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess Self-care practice and associated factors among diabetic patients at selected public hospitals East-Showa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia 2022. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was employed to conduct the study and from the total of five hospitals found in East Shoa Zone four (4) were selected using simple random sampling technique and sample was proportionally allocated in each study area and finally, the study participant were recruited using systematic random sampling technique. Data was coded, cleaned, entered to epi data version and was exported to SPSS version 26 for analysis.Variables with a p-value <0.25 on binary logistic regression was subjected to multivariable logistic regression analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significantly associated. Model fitness was tested using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit and the results was presented in table and odd ratios. Result This study had 100% response rate with mean age of 48.42±15.24 where 63.6% (218) of the respondents were males. About 37.6% of patients practice good diabetic self-care and factors like income, occupational status, treatment intensity, having family history of Diabetes, owning glucometer and social support showed strong association. Self-care was significantly associated with with no income with [AOR=4.99, 95% CI (1.68-14.81), P-value=0.004], treatment with insulin [AOR=0.28, 95% CI (0.13-0.60), P-value=0.001], owning glucometer [AOR=7.33, 95%CI (3.69-14.59), P-value=0.000], having family history of Diabetes [AOR=0.37, 95% CI (0.21- 0.67), P-vlue=0.001] and having strongsocial support [AOR=6.09, 95% CI (2.79-13.27), P-value=0.000]. Conculusion Large number study participant had poor diabetic self-care; improving andmonitoring awareness of diabetic patient will improve further. Recommendation to east shoa zone health professionals, to east shoa zonal health bureau, to researchers
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    Engagement in Continuing Professional Development Programs and Barriers Among Nurses in Selected Health Care Setting of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia April 1, 2022 -April 30, 2022.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Tsega Meaza; GebreyohannisTigistu Bizuworku Ketema
    Background: Continuing professional development (CPD) programs designate to verify health care workers' level of competence to safely, effectively and timely perform, client-centered care. The aim was to assess nurses' engagement in continuing professional development programs and explore barriers for engagement in the program. Methods: Mixed approach, quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study design wasused. A total of 271 randomly selected nurses were included in the quantitative method, thestudy period was from April 1 to 30, 2022. Semi-structured self-administered questionnairewas used to collect data. The data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed usingSPSS version 25.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe participants' characteristics. Chi-square test was used to determine association between independent and the outcome variables. Level of significance was determined at P- value <0.05, and factor barriers were assessed using multivariable logistic regression significant at p-value <0.05. Goodness-of-fitwas checked by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (>0.05). The qualitative method used, an explorative descriptive, and thematic analysis. A total of 9 health professionals were purposively selected and interviewed. Result: the median age of participants was 28 years old, the level of CPD engagement was34.4%, the participants CPD engagement preference, obtaining additional formal educationof nursing qualification and providing of in services education were significantly related withCPD engagement. Whereas, lack of finance, information on CPD availability, time due to family commitment, and lack of CPD resources were a significant barrier to engagement of CPD. Conclusion and recommendation: The preference of participants, obtaining an additional formal education of nursing qualification, providing of in services education are significant relation to CPD engagement. Lack of finance, information on availability of CPD, time dueto family commitment, and lack of CPD resources are significant relationships of barriers to CPD engagement. To the hospital administrators to focus on CPD activities in order to update the professions and would organize the training to nurses in their specialty area. Aswell as work with other stakeholders to address all scopes, and maintain the consistency of training.
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    Magnitude and Associated Factors of Depression Among Adult with Chronic Skin Disease in Tertiary Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ,2023: An institution -Based Cross-Sectional Study
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Gezahegn Kidist ; Argaw Zeleke Workinesh Sinishaw
    Background: - Globally depression is the leading cause of disability. It is prevalent in middle and low-income countries. Depression is common among people with chronic illness like chronic skin disease. The co-occurrence of depression and chronic skin disease markedly reduce quality of life, increase the morbidity and mortality of skin disease, also it has socioeconomic burden at individual level and at national level. In low-income country including Ethiopia, there is scarcity of information compared to high income country on the burden of depression of chronic skin disease patients. Objective: To assess the magnitude and associated factors of depression among adults with chronic skin disease in tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three randomly selected tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa. The study was conducted on 314 study participants attending an outpatient dermatology clinic. Depression was assessed through the patient health questionnaire-9. The statistical package for social science, version 27, was utilized to analyze the data. Bivariate analysis was used to test the association between an outcome and an explanatory variable. To declare an independent association, multi-variate analysis was done, and an odd ratio with a 95% CI was calculated. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of depression among adults with chronic skin disease was 32.8%. In the multivariate analysis, depression was significantly associated with female sex AOR [0.123 95%CL (0.049-0.312)] P<0.001, 18-27 age group AOR [4.16 95%CL (1.006-15.28)], monthly income AOR (4.110 95%CI [1.612-9.48)] p=0.001, family history of mental illness AOR [6.21 95%CL [2.5-15.73)]p=0.001, involved body part AOR [4.12 95%CL (1.47-10.55)] p=0.003, and body image disturbance AOR [0.0556 95%Cl (0.023-0.155)] p=0.001. Conclusion: In this study, depression was found to be a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in adult chronic skin disease patients. Female sex, young age group, monthly income, family history of mental illness, and body image disturbance were significantly associated with depression. It is crucial to regularly screen patients for depression, paying close attention to those who have risk factors.
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    Determinants of Dropout from Community Based Health Insurance Among Household Heads in Sodo Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Asale Israel; Tadele Nigusie Hailu Aklil
    Background: Ideally, large adoption and renewal rates for the schemes were expected.However, practically, the uptake rates are low, and due to different factors, the dropout ratecould threaten its achievement and sustainability. This later on brought the community back to paying from their pockets for healthcare expenses. Therefore, this study evaluated the reasons why households dropout from community-based health insurance in Sodo Zuria Woreda,Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted by mixing quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. For the purpose of selecting samples, a multistage sampling procedure was used, which were then proportionally allotted to the number of study households. Factors with a P-value of 0.05 or less were deemed to have a statistically significant association with the dropout of the program after descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses had been carried out. Thematic analysis, however, is employed to analyzequalitative data. Results: Overall, out of 591 households, 34.45% dropped out of the CBHI scheme. Young age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% CI) = 0.498 (0.263–0.944)), uneducation/illiterate (AOR(95% CI) = 0.377 (0.212–0.671)), unaffording the premium [AOR (95% CI) = 1.52 (1.04–2.03)], and underutilizing the health service (AOR (95% CI) = 2.16 (1.46–3.18)) were statistically significant determinants associated with dropout. Conclusions: Drop out of CBHI is most commonly associated with young age of households,uneduced households, poor knowledge toward the scheme, poor perceived health service quality, and low trust in scheme mangers. By reasons they had to decide to discontinue their membership, and these factors were likewise linked to community-based health insurance dropout. Recommendations: It was discovered that a considerable number of the respondents were unfamiliar with the scheme's premise. This implies that the concerned groups must continue to raise knowledge and develop concepts for the scheme and insurance
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    Prevalence of Anemia and its Associated Factor Among Adult Patients at Selected Public Hospital Somali, Eastern Ethiopia, 2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Arega Takele; Argaw Zeleke Alemu Wudma
    Background: Anemia is a decrease in the hemoglobin, hematocrit, or red blood cells, or their capacity to carry oxygen becomes insufficient to meet physiological needs - remains an intimidating global public health issue affecting over two billion individuals globally. People with anemia have an increased risk of developing several serious life-threatening health problems and complications those increasing medical care costs and lowering the quality of life. These problems are common, especially in developing countries, like Ethiopia. It affected over 2 billion individuals globally, and 61.5 million people live with a disability as a result of anemia. On the other hand, there is limited evidence about anemia among adults in the study area. Objective: to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among adult patients attending selected public Hospitals in the Somali region, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based Cross-Sectional study was conducted among 408 randomly selected adult patients from December 30 to January 25, 2023, at the selected public hospital in the Somali region, Ethiopia. The data was collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and laboratory tests for hemoglobin levels. Data were entered into Epi data version 4.6 and analyzed by SPSS version 26. Descriptive,bivariable, and multivariable analysis was applied. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 19.1% with 95% CI (15.4, 22.6). Fruit consumption of fewer than three servings per day (AOR=2.893, 95% CI: 1.1517-7.274), and having a history of malaria (AOR=3.701, 95% CI:1.7371-7.886) and leishmaniasis (AOR=2.296, 95%CI1.149, 4.568) were the main predictors of anemia. Conclusion and Recommended: This prevalence of anemia showed a mild health problemamong adult patients. Malaria, leishmaniasis, and consumption of fruits were found to be independent predictors of anemia. Preventing or minimizing exposure to malaria andleishmaniasis, and increasing the consumption of fruits can significantly reduce the rate ofanemia among adult patients. Further study is also needed with different study designs to identify the cause-and-effect relationship between anemia and the identified factors.
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    Time to Recovery and its Predictors Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 in COVID- 19 Isolation and Treatment Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) Balcha Worku; MulugetaTefera Adimasu Mekonen
    Background: The duration of viral shedding in COVID-19 patients may be influenced by anumber of variables. In order to create preventive strategies and enhance treatment possibilities, it is crucial to understand the typical duration of recovery and its predictors.Despite the available interventions to tackle COVID 19, there is little information on time to recovery and its predictors among adult COVID 19 in Ethiopia. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess time to recovery and its predictors among adults hospitalized with COVID -19 in COVID -19 Isolation and Treatment Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: A quantitative institutional-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among adult patients admitted with COVID-19 from March 18, 2020 up to March 18, 2022G.C. in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total sample size of 295 were proportionally allocated to each selected hospital and systematic random sampling method was used. Epidata version 4.6 was used for data entry, and STATA version 14 for analysis. A Kaplan–Meier curve was used to estimate survival time and the Cox regression model was fitted to identify independent predictors. Results: The majority of the age group 108(36.61%) was lie between 26-44 years old. At the end of follow up, 265 observations were developed an event (recovered) with median time to recovery of 14 days with IQR of 11-22 days. Being older age (aHR = 0.54, 95% CI;0.35,0.84), presence of comorbidity(aHR = 0. 66, 95% CI; 0.45 ,0.97), presence of symptom (aHR= 0.56,95% CI;0.42,0.73), ≤ 93% O2 saturation (aHR= 0.52, 95%CI; 0.38,0.70), case severity (aHR=0.03, 95%CI; 0.02,0.04), ICU admission (aHR=0.27, 95% CI; 0.19, 0.36)and oxygen use (aHR=0.48, 95%CI; 0.34, 0.67) were found to have statistically significantassociation with delayed recovery time. Conclusion and recommendations: In general, this study found a relatively short median recovery time to the local finding. Older age, comorbidity, symptom presence, < 93% O2saturation, severe stage of Covid-19, ICU admission and use of oxygen therapy were allsignificant predictors of delayed recovery time. The findings highlight the importance of giving a priority, attention and monitoring of COVID-19 patients with these elements.
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    Knowledge and Practice Towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation among Nursing Students of Nursing Schools in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia,2023.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023) kifle,Meron; Tachbele,Erdaw(PhD),Bizuwork,Ketema(BSc, MSc)
    Background: - Cardiac arrest is leading cause of death all over the world. Studies have showed that prompt delivery of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation as an important predictor of survival. Knowledge and, practice to simple Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation techniques ensure the survival of the patient till experienced medical help arrives. However, knowledge and skills gap among health care professionals about Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is a global problem. However little known Knowledge and Practice level of health care professionals and take appropriate intervention for gaps identified. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice level towards Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation among nursing students at nursing schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2022. Methods:-Institutional based cross-sectional study design and systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit 417 study participants. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 26. Descriptive statistic was used to summarize Socio-demographic and health related factors. Odds ratio was used to identify factor associated with the outcome variable and statically significant was declared at P-value < 0.05. Results: The study included 395 students were participated in this study. More than one third (37.7%) of the respondents had good knowledge, while one third (33%) of the respondents had good practice towards Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation. The mean age was 25.33±3.99. Further, female gender (AOR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.260-2.949 P 0.002), Addis Ababa residence (AOR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.159-2.730P 0.008), the school from where the students recruited (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.029-2.391,P 0.037 ), employed students (AOR=1.6; 95% CI (1.045- 2.457,P 0.031) were found statistically significantly associated with knowledge level of the study respondents while only formal training (AOR: 4.67, 95% CI: 2.093-10.426, P 0.000) was found statistically significantly associated with practice level of the study respondents. Conclusion and recommendation: Despite their importance’s to reverse sudden death occasions, significant proportion of the study respondents were found with deficient level of knowledge and practice towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Gender, occupation, residence, type of school and being employed were found statistically significantly associated with knowledge level of the study participants while formal training was the only variable statistically significantly associated with practice level of study respondents. Therefore, the policy maker, researcher, nursing schools should develop effective intervention mechanism to reverse the low level of knowledge and practice towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.