Social Anthropology

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    The Role of Ethnic Based Networks in Business in Merkato, Addis Ababa, Since 1991
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Eyosiyas Getachew; Desalegn Amsalu (PhD)
    Modern African history shows that ethnicity has been manipulated by rulers for political and economic control, social supremacy and cultural domination. Ethiopia is not exceptional in all this. An example of this is business activities, mainly in Addis Ababa, are influenced by ethnic networks, and preferences so much as to sabotage equal business opportunities. This study examines the impact of ethnic networks on businesses in Merkato, Addis Ababa. The aim of the research is to contribute to an understanding of the role of social relations/networks in shaping businesses both positively and negatively. Guided by qualitative research approach the study mainly draws a theory of social network, to reveal how business/market is run mainly on ethnic based networks and other ties such as religion and kinship. The findings of this study reveal that business/market networking, in post 1991 Merkato, is mainly created through political and ethnic affiliations as well as corruption. Following this, ethnic networking has become the main feature of the market center. Building such business relationships has become increasingly important as firms and individuals seek to improve their competitive advantage by entering long term relationships and networking with strategic business partners based on ethnicity. Particularly, main trade sectors and areas in this large market center are mainly controlled by people belonging to one ethnic group (Tigreans). Even though such networking mechanisms create a more trusting and cooperative environment, they can, as the same time, lead to the collapse of the economy by limiting business transaction within a limited group of people. In conclusion, ethnic based networks provide a domain of interaction at the wider ethno-political community, dominating business. Thus, the public make business networking based on ethnicity, religion and kinship ties. While such business networking has positive effects such as market access, trust, confidence, etc, it may also bring negative effects such as bias, unfair economic and political domination and discrimination.
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    Access to Farmland and Rural Women Livelihood: The Case of Enemay Woreda, East Gojjam Administrative Zone
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-09-01) Meaza Demse; Getachew Senishaw (PhD)
    This study deals with the rural women livelihood related to socio-cultural factors undermine social status, power, and decision making in access to farmland in Enemay Woreda, East Gojjam Zone. The study employed mixed method. In carrying out the study, in-depth interview, key informant, focus group discussions (qualitative methods), and household survey (quantitative methods) were employed. Secondary data were collected from secondary sources such as research articles, unpublished document, and books. A total of twenty-eight participants participated in the qualitative study including woreda and kebele officials. In addition, household survey questionnaire was administered to 141 women to collect quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed based on objective of the study. The results obtained from the study show that farmland is an invaluable resource for women livelihood. During EPRDF land re-distribution (1996/7), most of women obtained a farmland but limited control over resources because their resources usually controlled by husbands. Due to the patriarchal attitudes of the community, men are decision makers, controlled and managed the resource of household, and women are dominated by husband. Lack of educational status of women, deprives their legal rights of manage and control over their resources. Women were restricted to plough their farmland by local community and they forced to give sharecroppers to obtain some production for livelihood. Particularly, FHHs could not manage the households since obtained small production from sharecroppers. They forced to find works for survival and obtain daily consumption such as selling traditional alcoholic beverages, daily laborer, and removing weeds. Thereby, the livelihood of FHHs has a painful living condition. Furthermore, women’s health condition is essential to attain income for their livelihood. However, their health condition status low being laborious worker. In general, gender-based discrimination and patriarchal attitudes of the community affected women’s access and control over farmland to their livelihood and health condition.
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    Tradition Denied: Economic Development and Change among the Gibo Oromo Peasants of lllubabor
    (AAU, 1997-06) Lemessa, Zergaw; Megerssa, Gemetchu (PhD)
    In an attempt to uncover some factor that have been con traint to agriculrural productivity, this paper concentrates on the investigation of the spec ific historical conditions and the contemporary siruation of the Gibo peasants. Most of the srudies hitherto made in different pans of the country try to single out factors such as system of land tenure, low level of technology , government policy , tradition, etc., as bottlenecks to productivity. Such works are characterized by lack of thorough treatment of the issues. I maintain that although productivity can be determined by a number of complex factors, some among several play a primary role in hampering productivity . The other factors in fact can be explained in terms of consequences of the dominant ones. Tradition is often conceived as something opposed to development and change. Hence all possible measures are taken by policy makers to do away with tradition. In contrast this paper argues that while "tradition" and "modernity" are not in conflict with one another, the deteriorating living conditions of the Gibo peasants can be attributed to external factors. In spite of the serious challenges that narure exerts on them (drought, diseases, pests , rodents , wild animals, etc.), that can be beyond the control of peasants, most of the time the people's problems are deeply rooted in human relations and actions. Environmental degradation, fragmentation of land, and other constraints are the results of such relations and actions. Thus low agricultural productivity prevalent in the community understudy could largely be attributed to ineffective government policies and their consequences rather than to tradition.
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    Production Practices among the Alaba of South Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2005-06) Yohannes, Zerihun; Getu, Melese (PhD)
    This thesis is an effort to describe agricultu ral production practices of Ala a socie in he South E hlopla rom local perspective and comprehend the overall changes ha the subsis ence econom un e en 0 er Ime Since land is a principal fac tor of production among Al aba, major land en re systems.' ere escn e om diachronic perspective and an attempt was made to expl icate the ch anges ha have een expenence under different political contexts starting from pre-incorporation period up to the c rren rends 0 er land ten ure issues. Simultaneously, the gradual shift of production system from agro-pas oral 0 mixed ag riculture was explained as resul ted from the inter-play of social, economiC, na ural, polilcal an demographic factors which are attributed to be both internal and external 0 the study group. In his hesis i is argued that local land acquisition practices change wi th increasing popula ion gro h and the s seq en land scarcity as the response of households to the prevai ling land shortage problem . An a . empt was made to elucidate the responsiveness of land acquisition practices to population growth. As discussed in this thesis, labor is crucial production factor among Alaba. Hence, bo h house old and inter-household labor organizations are described. Here the way a house hoi orga nizes i s la or ihroug age and gender based division of tasks in production process is discussed. Though househol s aC as independent production units, thel'e al'e different in ter-household labor exchan e prac Ices use as a coping strategy to ease land, labor and farm ox scarcity by households in sho( of these produc ion actors. Thus, divel'se inter-household exchange practices were presented ill line with changes experienced as a resu lt of various socioeconomic reasons. Seasonal crop production activities and aspects of livestock rearing are discussed ith he ie 0 assessing the way fa rmers organize factors of production and undertake agricultural acti i ies to secure their subsistence . A socioeconomic importance of crop and livestock production is also elucid ated 0 igh light th eir diverse role in the livelihood of the study people. Besides, major ro uction cons train ts rela ed with demog raphic, ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors and aspects 0 ' local copin stra egies to these problems were treated as way of analyzing the changing trends in the produc ion system. As argue in th is thesis though the people adopted different coping stra egies 0 0 ercome pro uc Ion cons rain s e subsistence economy is increasingly becoming susceptible 0 stress hich calls or external 111 er en Ion
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    Differential Adaptation and Inter-Ethnic Interaction: The Resettlement of Konso Farmers in the Land of the 8001 Agro-Pastoralists, Southwest Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2006-01) Asfaw, Ayke; Pankhurst, Alula(Dr
    The "Salamago Resettlement Scheme" is one of the several state sponsored r e s ettl e m ent schemes undertaken by the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) since 2003. In government documents, the scheme is also called "Guyo-Dakuba Resettlement," named after one of the six resettlement villages (the administrative center) established by the program. However, I have chosen to call it "Salamago resettlement" aft er the name of the host woreda (district). I preferred to use "Salamago" since it is more official and well-known name in the area. The study has tried to show that the Salamago Resettlement is underway having some positive features but riddled with a series of setbacks and replete with a host of problems. The existence of a significant number of self-motivated and determined res ettl e rs is an important advantage of the scheme. The resettlers who belong to the hard working community of the Konso ethnic group are also famous for their traditional soil conservation system (terracing). Moreover, the sanction of the free movement of resettlers coupled with the proximity between the resettlement area and their area of origin enabled them to maintain their contact with their area of origin. This is, of course, one of the distinct features of the present resettlement program (from Salamago re settlement perspectives) from the past (military regime) resettlement experience. The suitability of the area for human habitation is also another important advantage of the area. The above positive aspects of Salamago Resettlement shows that the scheme could have a better prospects if it would have been supported by proper feasibility study, practically observed criteria for selection of resettlers, sound planning and adequate inputs. In actual fact, however, similar to past resettlement experience in the country, the scheme has suffered from rushed out feasibility study, poorly observed selection criteria, unsound planning and inadequate inputs. As a result, deadly conflicts between resettlers and host communities are occurred. Moreover, large number of resettlers, 756 heads households out of a total of 2897 heads of households, which is about 26 percent, abandoned the resettlement area in the last 20 months following their arrival in J anuary 2004.
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    The Role of Women in the Household Economy: The Case of Dorze of Garno Highlands
    (AAU, 2004) Mehari, Getaneh; Getu, Melesse( Dr
    This thesis deals with the household economy. It mainly foc uses on Dorze households with particular reference to the role o f women in the ho usehold economy. First, It presents the description o f the socio-economic and geo-political context of the Gamo highland communities in general and that of the D orze in particular. The Gamo highlanders had been relatively isolated from central and northern EthlOpla for centuries. However, they were incorpora ted in to the Ethi pi a~l empire in the last decade o f the 19'h century. The incorporation brought about various changes in the SOCIO - economic life of the highland communities. The Dorze were the most affected people U1 this regard. Though they had the skill of weav ing earlier, weaving has become an important source of income for the majority of Dorze households after the incorporation. This external fac tor encouraged Dorze weavers to migrate to urban centers where better marke t for woven clothes is available. T he spatial mob ility of th e Dorze in turn affects the household structure and econom.ic role o f women at the household level. Different theoretical models have been employed to explain household economic behavior. The th esis deals with the basic assumptions of two household models: the new household economics (N HE) and the model of 'continuous fragmentation' of household. The NH E is the model of pooled household economy. I t ass umes that household members pool income and economic resources which are controlled ancl redistributed by an altruistic household head. The model o f 'continuous fragmentation' assumes that factors such as migration, d.ivorce and polygyny contin uously alter household structure. The change in household structure in turn affec ts th e role and status of women. The central purpose of this thesis is to explore whether the basic assumptions of the two models adequately explain the econornic behavior o f D orze households and the role of women in the household economy. The majority o f Dorze households have separa te economic units. Household members generate income from different sources. Furthermore, they do not pool their income and they have no unified patte rn of household expenditure. Moreover, factors such as migration, d.ivorce and polygyny alter the structure and economic status o f the household, which in turn affects the role and status of women in the household economy. Accordingly, the thesis concludes tha t Dorze household features do no t fit into the theoretical model o f the N HE. However, the model o f continuous fragmentation could adequately explain the behavior of Dorze households. Moreover, it emphasizes the analysis of women's role and status in the household economy. Thus, it could be used to explore the role o f women and other members in the household economy. It also provides researchers with an alternative theoretical framework for the study of households that are continuously affe cted by factors such as migration, d.ivo rce and polygyny.
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    Socio-Economic Life of People Associated with Leprosy: (The Case of Gelemso Town, Western Hararghe)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2004-12) Dagne, Demerew; Tolera (ph.D), Assefa
    The socio-economic life of the people associated with leprosy is one of the least explored subjects in Ethiopia. Thus, this thesis is an attempt to describe the socio-economic life of people associated with leprosy, which include leprosy sufferers as well as non-leprosy affected descendants. The general objective of the study is to describe survival strategies, social settings, and inter and intra community interactions. It examines the historical background of leprosy patients. It also explores and describes types of social change that occurred within and outside the community. The study population has been living in the study site for more than three decades. The earlier settlers were exclusively leprosy sufferers and few in number. Then their numbers increased after other patients who took flight to escape social evils in their birthplaces joined them. Later with the newly born children their number increased. By now the number of leprosy patients is decreasing with the death of the older generation and the decrease in number of newly joining patients. Leprosy has been surrounded by different beliefs and misconceptions and this in turn causes multi-faceted socio-economic hardships against leprosy associated people. Such hardships in turn were responsible to force leprosy sufferers to abandon their birthplaces, beloved families and property. So finally they have congregated with their fellows in isolated villages . .. Vll People associated with leprosy subsist on begging, cultivation of crops and vegetables and with other minor sources of income. Their means of livelihood has been diversifying through time. Besides, there have been social changes in the socio-economic life of people associated with leprosy. The changes are attributed to local, national and international factors . The achievement in the field of leprosy treatment is the res ult of international development in the field of medicine and the efforts of World Health Organization to end the suffering caused by leprosy. Their access to land for residence as well as for farmland resulted from the national land reform The changes in the attitudes of the study population and the general public attributed to a combination of factors, which include formal and informal education, the role of media and the like are responsible for the change that took place among the study population and the general public. Key wOI'ds: Gelemso, Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, People associated with leprosy, Nonaffected people, Migration, Begging, Stigma, Leprosy treatment, Traditional, Modern, Misconceptions.
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    Water Rigrhts and the Processes of Negotiations among Irrigators in West Shew a Zone: The Case of Inoris Scheme in Toke Kutaye District
    (AAU, 2007-08) Zeleke, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Taye(PhD)
    'Ihough wat r rights ar ' at the . re oj exploitillg wat ' r resollrcesjor irrtg tlOlI/llrpo "', trivial ' II I'll.' W I'e ifjef"d I Ihe ' I 'e oj Illdris irrig Ilioll s 'heme ill 7ok' Kilt di Iri I in Wesl 'hewa. Th hislori 'af backgroulld I/(j d ' ve fopmelll oj Ih ' . h me ha beell pre 'enled ill I 'olllellliolls mallller. Th , augm ' nlillg IIIImb 'r oj compelilors 100 paved Ihe way jar conflicts thaI recllrrently erupt Ollt alld illevilabl lead to a .~·u ce 'sion oj lIeg tiatioll proces ·es. Wilh the inception oj '/lch mi 'Si1l 7 guljs, this re . 'arch aimed /0 scrutinize waler rights and the processes oj negotiations among irrigalors along Indri modem scheme, ill Toke Kutaye district. To mailllaill Ihis objective, qualitative anthropological methods' were predominantly utilized CLS' the main data generating research lools in the field The findings oj the research depicted that Indris scheme marked three sigllificant phases ill its historical development. In these phases, explorations pertaining to water rights and processes of negotiations were jOlll1d to he at their immature ground. While the elements of the riparian doctrine qf waler rights preponderated during its initial phase, the componenls of appropriative doclrine pronounced more at its middle age. A mix of ingredients from both doctrines interwoven with certain extra requirements determined the water right access of users since the conversion of the scheme illto a modem style. Multiple water right rules emanating both from the customary and formal water acts have co-existed to direct the actions of users. In this regard, the theoretical orientations of legal pluralism in water right paradigms proved to coincide with the pragmatic contexts of water users from the scheme. Conflicts in connection to irrigation water use and righls, that have escalated over years, have been altribllted to the decline in the voillme ofwaler resources, institutionalfailllres to address the causes adeqllately, week observance 0 11 governing water right rules and increaSing demand of lIsers. As a result, negotiation processes aiming to settle dispules were repeatedly initiated either by users, committee members (elders) or courts. The procedures pursed to narrow the contrasting interests around the scheme verified the pragmatic applicability of the central arguments of hoth cyclical alld developmental models of negotiation processes discussed thoroughly by Gulliver. Thus, in the face of growing demand~' on a declining water resource, the findings of this research revealed out that concerned individuals or relevant instillltiollS need to exert fllrther endeavor on the formulation oj water poliCies that clearly stiplliate specific irrigation waleI' entitlements oj 1Isers in a turmoil environment. Enforcemellts 0 11 the jrame oj references set on the water manila I need to be rigorously checked on practical implementations. Consciousness hllildings 0 11 irrigatiol1 waler right claims, promotion of negotiated approaches in disputes alld particular accentuation on customary rules of resource use constituted the dimensions seeking meticulous considerations il1 prospect.
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    Domestic Violance against Women from Cultural Perspective: A Study the Rural Part of Mennarsa and Keblele 07 of Adama Town
    (Addis Ababa University, 2004-06) W/Giorgis, Theodros; Terefe, Hirut (ph.D)
    Ther are three age of violence again t w mcn 111 thi pap r. A woman c uld b abduct d (kidnapped) 111 I ublic fo r marriag thi one fo rm of violence cOl11mitt d aga in t th em. Within th marital li fe ther is. al vi lence, what we ca ll domestic violence. Even aft r th death f her hu 'band a rural wom n in Mermarsa area will face a lot of haras ment , if h ch 0 her n w partn er to enter in her own hous for li ving together wi th out the p rml I n of Foiles. So, women face di ffe rent violence act be fore, thr ugh and after Man'iag . That mean th ese violenc act are b erva bl when w m n ar single (unmarri ed), marri ed and widow. Dome ti c vi I nce i nc f' I'm of vi lenc within the h me; it c uld be seen among childr n, children on parents or par nt n children. In thi the i it i attempt Ito ee only the violence of men on wom n (husband on wiv ), whi ch i r vo lved around marital relati onship, and the two publi cly committed vi lence ' again t wom n i.e. abduction and , eegaba. It is known that dome tic violence i a word, which is widely used at present time in academic world , to explain the violence situati on in marri age
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    An Assessment of Resettlement in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Gidda Kiramu Sirdoorosite in East Wollaga Zone
    (Addis Ababa University, 2007-04) Gizaw, Shimelis
    The major objective of this study is evaluating the 2002/03 resettlement program in Ethi op ia. The program was also examined for the presence of individual motives other than food security. In vest igation was made in terms of the experience of resettlers as farmers, its policy, and implementation procedures in Sire Dooro site of East Wollaga zo nal administration in The Regional State ofOromia. The method followed to meet the objectives included qualitative analysis and interpretation of data co llected by in-depth interviewing, observation, etc., and by invest igation of secondary so urces of data such as the 1994 constitution, the policy (guide line) of resettlement, etc and other works in the area of my study. A total of 56 informants were interviewed out of which data obtained from 21 key informants of all ranges of age, sex, education, and experience as farmers were incorporated in this thesi . Moreover, the Cultural Consensus Model was employed to bring out variety of information about the background of resettlers when the other methods fail to do so in the study. Comparison of features of previous resettlement programs with the present ones was made to illuminate differences and similarities as part of the research des ign in the study. The role and nature ofcontlict in the area was assessed critically. Unlike previous studies on the subject of resett lement, the present study considered how the capacity of implementers, and the experience of resettlers as farmers were affecting the program in general. The major findings of the present study include; the observation that the conventional evaluation of conflicts which affect the success of the program was not ethnic based and that they were rather resource based. Despite its spontaneity at initial stage, the current resettlement was being carried out under conditions of availability of a huge amount of money made available by the Regional State of Oromia. My observation allowed me to see that the program was being implemented according to the policy except in a few instances regarding its preparation. The social services like schools, clinics, the dry weather road, and small market were being shared by the local population as well. Lack of compatibility of the resettlemet program with the constitutional rights and with the traditional land tenure system was identified by investigation. There were indications that the experience of resettlers as farmers had affected their productivity in the program. It was also revealed in the present study that the conventional alliance between all Amhara occupants had shifted to an alliance between a portion of the Amharas with the Oromo community in the locality. The fact that the ethnic line that opposing groups seemed to follow had played only symbolic role was evidenced in the observation of the present study. There were even more evidences to this like the presence of armed Amhara militias in Oromo farmers' association in the site of my study. The establishment of marriages between the Amhara and Oromo communities in the locality indicated that there are no sanctions that prohibit the formation of such social relations and that the possibility for ethnic VI based conflict was unlikely to occur in th e site at least immedi ately after impl ementation of the program. The study has a considerab le significance for policy makers and implementers of agricul tural projects such as that being carried out in Ethiopia, where a large proporti on of the population suffe rs from fam ine each year. It can also contribute to the effort to bridge the gap of knowledge in understanding di fferent forms of resettlement in Ethiopia. Generally, the study wi ll have a criti ca l role in determining the strategy for implementation of resettlement programs, in policy formu lation, site se lecti on, and recruitment of reset tiers .
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    Inter-Ethnic Contlicts in Ethiopia: The Case of' ](arrayu Oromo and Argobba Groups
    (AAU, 2012-12) Teshome, Melese; Gebre, Ayalew(PhD)
    Thi ' thesi ' delved it elf to explain the cau 'O ' , act r ' and dyn IIni ·s 0 Ihe Karray u- l.rgobba conflict. It al 'o targeted at analyzin the mi ro and ma '1'0 level approa 'he . used 10 redre.'s lhe conflict. This study i ' based on primary and 'econdary data 'our e '. The primary clala is collected via intervie'ws, FD, c I 'e historie and 'Y 'lematic observation. The study 11'(1.' conducled in three district , Minjar- henkora, Berhel and Fentale. The study has found OUI that the Karrayu and Argobba p eople have both amicable and conflictual relat ions. Their conflict is conceived in the wombs of multifarious factors. As 'uch, inappropriate development policy and competition over scarce re 'ources are the cardinal economic fac tors in the conflict. In the political realm, la ck of good governance and the politicizat ion of ethnicity, mainly a po ·t 1991 reality, have fue led the conflict. This development ha transformed their conflict fro m temporal use of resources to a permanent control of territory. 1n addition, the warrior ethos of the study people and their contemporary convergence in their social concept of solid boundary has played a role in their conflict. The final structural cause of the conflict is issue of security, i.e. the proliferation of SALWs and question of territorial ownership. Apart from the structural causes there are also triggering causes in the conflict. The triggering factors which this study identified are homicides, callie raiding and rustling. drought and fam ine, and the role of spoilers. 1n order to redress the stated conflict both customary and Slate centered approach has been used. The once effective customary confli ct resolution has proved inadequate to redress the root causes of the conflict. Its weakening is attributed to its marginalization by the state and issue of territorial ownership proved beyond its reach. Similarly the attempts made by the state did not bear its fru its. In this regard, the JPC, which is meant to ke ep peace in the area, has proved ineffective in dealing with issue ofboundary. Finally based on its finding this study recommended that there is an imperative need to promote customary conflict resolution. The community should return raided animals and handover culprits to the Woreda administration. The Woreda should arrange regular avvareness creation forums and teach about the adverse effect of conflict. lv/o reover, the regional and federal government should control the proliferation of JlLWs. And finally the fede ral governlll eJ1l should delineate the boundary of conjlictt errilOry.
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    A Study on Socio-Cultural And Economic Marginalization of Artisans in Dembecha Woreda, West Gojjam Zone of Amhara Region
    (AAU, 2010-06) Alemu, Birhanie; Megerssa, Gernechu(PhD)
    raft workers in the Dembecha w reda were/arc marginalized cupati nal gr up . Dc pite their ago-old ex istence and importance of craft , they w re id lin d from the main tr am ociety in which they li ve. In addi tion, factor for the I v tatu and marginali za ti n f craft workers in the northern part of Ethiopia ar Ie tudied. Thercforc. wc ha c vc ry littlc information about th is group of peopl e, especially from the changc and co ntinuity pcr pcc ti vc. Thus, this th es is aims to contribute ethnographic in format ion abo ut the soc io-ec nomic co ndition and as pects of marginalization in light of change and continuit y. The main objective of the thes is is to investigate and desc ribe fac tors for the low status of art isans and dimensions of marginalization who are se ttl ed in Dembecha woreda, West Gojjam Zone of Amhara Regional State. The thes is also tries to describe organi zing principles of artisans in light of the dominant soc iety's social setting. In add ition, changes and continuities in the prod uction and exchange system of handicrafts are di scussed. In order to treat the stated problem and accompli sh the objecti ve, both primary and secondary methods of data collection were used. Participant observation and informant interview were im portant mechanisms to gather primary data. Avail able writte n materials were also rev iewed. The major finding of the thesis indicates that craft workers were exposed to soc ial , cultural, economic, spati al and political aspects of marginali zation. In add iti on, the fi eld data revealed that many of the factors upheld among the dominant soc iety for the low status of arti sans are cultural constructions under vein of social norms. However, the lives of craft workers have changed overtime. Approbation of land ownership right and expansion of modern education have posi ti ve ly affec ted the different dimensions of margina li zation. Craft workers have thus ac hieved improved social and economic pos ition. Howeve r, craft workers in the study area are not considered as full soc ial persons. They are still despised th rough contemptuous feelings and ideo logical ex planati ons. This is to ay, though there is no offic ial marginalization, artisans are still reminded as not equ al with others.
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    Understanding intra-Ethnic conflict and conflict management: the case of borana and guji oromo cnflict over negele borana town
    (AAU, 2016-06) Bulo Dire, Bikila; Terefe, Hirut(PhD)
    Examines intra-Ethnic conflict Between borana and guji oromo cnflict over the ownership of over negele borana tawon
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    The Ireclza Ritual, Its Significance and Value Among the OrOITIO People: The Case of Bishoftu and Surroundings
    (AAU, 2021-10) Negesa, Bayissa; Benzing, Brigitta(PhD)
    This study deals IVith th ' Ire h I ritual, it ' 'i 'ni Icance alld vallie (11110 11 Ih romo p lople, with particular reJerence to Bi 'ho tu and the 'uJ'l'oundings, ~f(lny studies have dealt with the 1'011'10 culture, but only aJeIV looked at th purpo 'e ' and the 'igni i 'lI1ces () the Irecha ritual and what those who praclice it contribute to the wid r society. The ocus 0 ' IIii' Ihe i i an altempt 10 ill this gap, The research was condllcled at Bisho tu town, but 1II0st 0 'the participant Ire rom the rural areas oj Ada 'a di 'trict, Thus, the inJormantsJrolll Jour ru/'([I p 'a ant a 'sociations 'uch as Golbich I, Qurqura Dembi, Udee and Garbi 'ha are included. The data are galheredJrom a total oj 3-1 selected elders, Jarmer ', Abba Gada Tulama (leaders oJ God I Tulama), members oJGada Tulama, Ind workers oj BishoJtu town and the Ae/a '0 DistricI Admin istration ClIllure and Tourism Bureau, and BishoJtu lOIVn dIVeller ', There Ivas olso 0 (jue.l'lionn lire distributed to ond filled by BishoJtu town dIVeller ' that served in the colleclion OJe/CIIo. The inJormants IVere both male and Jemale as well asJrom varied religious and oge groups, 11 qualitative reseorch method \Vas employed with a minor usage oj a quantitative one, ond tlie quolitative data were gathered through observation, focus group discussions, key in/ol'lllOnts ' interviews, and inJormal conversations, Secondary sources and profiles oj Ihe study s ites Fom the Ada 'a District and BishoJtu Town Adlll inistl'Otions were also obtained. The findillgs oj the thesis revealed that the Irecha ritual is pel/orll1ed Jor different pUlposes: religiolls, cullllral and lor both. The m lin pUipose oJthe lrecllO ritllal is thanksgiving and praying to Waqo, lJesides this, the Irecha MaIka ritual is also celebl'Cited as a 'rite oJpassage 'Jrom the dark SUlllili er season to the bright autuml/ season and also JrO Il1 the old year to the New Year, Each octil'ity perJormed in the ritual celebration has its Olvn .sYll1bolic representations attached to it by the traditional custom ' oj the 01'01110 people, These .sYlllbolic events might get their meaning ll'ithill this community. The Irecha ritual celebration at Hora Arsadi contributes to the Oroll lO COIIIIJI//Ility as a cultural promotion, strengthening their unity, increasing the income oJthe area, and it creates a good opportunity to declare and practice the indigenous Im lls that are the pillor 0/ ti,e exi tence oj the society. The political domination thaI Jaced the Oromo people under Ihe pOSI regimes contribuled milch 10 the weakening oj Ihe lrecha rit ual. Ilowever, parts oj Ihe indigellolls clillure are being revil'ed, bllt with some changes in their practices and pwposes, Yet, there is the good IV ill oJthe yO/lfh grulljJs to rejuvenate the indigenous rit uals, including lrecha.
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    Differential Adaptation and Inter-Ethnic Interction: The Resettlement of Konso Farmers in the Land of the Bodi Agro-Pastoralists,Southwest Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2006-01) Asfaw, Ayke; Pankhurst(phD), Alula
    The Salamago Resettlement Seheme is one of Several State sponsored resettlement
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    Chang and Continuity: the Roles of Indigenous Institutios in Resource Management Among the Transhumant Karrayu Oromo Pastoralists of Upper Awash Valley
    (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006-02) Demie, Lemessa; Tolera, Assefa(PhD)
    The Living Condition of the Transhument karrayu Oromo Pastoraliste in the Upper Awash Valley Coud
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    Adaptailon, Culture and Changing Environment: the Case of the Gumuz of the Diddessa Valley (Kamasi Zone), West Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2001-05) Iffa, Abeya; pankhurst, Alula (PhD)
    This Study attempts to explain adaptive strategies and coping mechanisms employed by the Gumuz in response to constraints or in their effort to adapt to the ecology of the diddessa valley in the Process.
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    Gender Roles in Agricultural Production among the Sidama of Southwestern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2000-06) Dejene, Sintayehu; Shazali, Dr. Salah
    The study finds out that hoe-cultivation has been and continues to be the dominant system of agriculture ill Sidama. Ilowcver, at present peasants in some parts of the Sidama have adopted plough cultivation. This study reveals that irrespect ive of the farming techniques used men playa pivotal ro le in both food and coffee production. Iloeing/pioughing, ferti lizing, sowing, planting, weeding and harvesting are the major agricultural operations carried out by men. Women, on the other hand, are mainly invo lved in manuring and processing the Sidama's important staple, cnset. Thus, the study argues that Boserup's ( 1970) generalized account of women's dominance in hoc system of agriculture does not hold true for the Sidama. The study reveals that, in Sidama, the gender divi sion of labor in agricultural production persists over a century's dramatic socio-economic and political transfonnation. The Sidama undcrwent changes, among others, in the customary tenure system, cropping patterns and agricultural technology. Despite these changes long- establi shed gender roles remain unchanged. In addition, this thesis exhibits an identical gender-based division of labor in both coffee and food v producing areas on the one hand, and in hoe and plough cultivation areas on the other. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that the types of agricultural technology, land tenure system and cropping patterns do not adequately explain the pattern of gcnder roles in agricultural production. Before land became a scarce resource polygyny was the dominant form of marriage in Sidama. At present monogamy is the major type or marriage. Ilowever, some Sidama men who have large and dispersed plots of land sti ll practise polygyny. The persistence of polygyny can be attributed to the Sidama's heavy reliance on cnsct production in which women are indispensable mainly in manuring and processing it and Sidama mcn's strong desire for many chi ldrcn. This thesis argues against the proposition that claims the existence of a relationship between bridcwealth and women's dominance in agricultural production. Bridewealth is the only form of marriage payment in Sidama, but men are important actors in agricultural production. Bridegroom's parents transfer eash to the bride's parents not in exchangc for women's agrieultura llabour. The study argues that bridewealth payment in the study area mainly entails the transfer of exclusive righ ts to a husband and his kinsmen over children.
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    Marriage and Marital Conflict Resolution among Orthodox Christians in Some Selected Areas of Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 1998-06) Shiferaw, Tassew; Admassie, Yeraswork
    In Addis Ababa, there are three forms of marriage practiced by Orthodox Christians: civil, customary, and church marriages. An attempt is here made to describe these marriage froms as well as marital conflicts and their resolution. The rules governing each marriage form as well as the process of establishing it are examined. Similarly, marital conflicts and the procedures employed in their resolution are described. Literature review, observation, case , studies, and interviewing have been used with the view of gathering information on marriage and marital conflict resolution. It is shown that the three forms of marriage have their own respective regulations. Devout Orthodox Christians usually perform church marriages, while non-devout ones enter into one of the other two forms of marriage. Though they seek the advice of friends and relatives, people in Addis Ababa are generally free to select their spouses. Bridal gifts (t'ilosh) are often given by the groom to the bride. This, along with wedding costs and the shortage of housing result in late age at marriage in Addis Ababa, thereby negatively affecting the family life cycle. Those who get married at later ages may pass away before their children become self-sufficient adults. Marriages often result in conflicts which can eventually lead to divorce. Such conflicts are resolved according to the provisions of the Civil Code which usually involves tedious procedures and arbitration money. This appears to have undermined the traditional arbitration mechanism, resulting in marital arbitration becoming an income-generating profession. Marital conflict causes different troubles to the partners and their children. The conflict or divorce of their parents can cause considerable suffering to children.