Center for Early Childhood Care and Education

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    Pedagogical Practices in Selected O- Classes in Tahtay Maychew Wereda
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Gebreslseie Girmay; Fiseha Teklu (PhD)
    Children arrive at school with different backgrounds, experiences and different stages of development. The purpose of this study was to identify the pedagogical practice used by O-class teachers in Tahtay Maychew Wereda.. To this end, qualitative research method was used for the study. Five (5) O-class teachers, Five (5) school principals and One (1) wereda curriculum coordinator were taken as sample of the study by applying purposive sampling technique. Interview and observation checklist were used to get data from the target population. The result of the study shows that the common method of learning - teaching practiced in the classroom situation was teacher-centered which is inappropriate at the preschool level. The result of the findings indicates Diploma graduate and specialized teachers in the area, but lack of resource and other related facilities hinder them from implementation of developmentally appropriate teaching method in O-classroom. The result of the finding indicates that O-class teachers select teaching method based on the teacher’s Guide like song, local dance and play. O-class teachers assess children using oral question and observation checklist; in addition they use some instructional materials like small stones and sticks to count number and flash cards. Finally, based on the findings there was great problem related to indoor and outdoor materials and facilities in the selected school. Therefore Tahtay Maychew Wereda Educational Office and other non-governmental organization must pay their attention to the preschool students. Because the early years of the child in order to share the future hopes of this country.
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    Parenting Style and Preschool Children's Social competence: The case of private preschools in Huruta Town
    (Addis Ababa University, 2024-10) Mahder Siyoum; Fantahun Admas (PhD)
    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and preschool children’s social competence. The study employed quantitative research approach and cross-sectional research design. The data were collected from randomly selected 125 children and their parents, using the social-competence scale and the parenting dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ).The data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. In particular, percentage, frequency, cross-tabulation, independent sample t-test, correlation and regression were used. The results revealed that the more of children had 43(34.4%) an average social competence score. Moreover, the results indicated that authoritative parenting style (59) (47.2%) was the most practiced parenting style among parents. There were no statistically significant differences (t) (-0.426) =123, P>0.05 between male and female children across mean scores in measures of social competence. The relationship between authoritative parenting style and social competence scores was strong positive and significant(r=0.884, p<0.01). However, the relationship between authoritarian(r=-0.278, p<0.01) and Permissive (r=-0.381, p<0.01) parenting styles with social competence scores of children were weak, negative and significant As a result, it is reasonable to conclude that authoritative parenting style related positively with children's social competence. In combination, the parenting styles 77.7% predicting factor of children's social competencies. Finally, critical recommendations were forwarded for parents, and other concerned stakeholders in order to assist, aware parenting and enhance parenting practices.
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    Assessment of the Implementation of Early Childhood Education (Ece) Curriculum in Private Kindergartens: A Case Study in Kirkos Sub City,
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-09) Taye Mammo; Abraha Asfaw (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate early childhood education curriculum implementation in private kindergarten and to explore the status, conduciveness of instructional materials and facilities of the curriculum kindergartens (KG) or preschools use and identify the most pressing challenges that are influencing the preschools gov’t curriculum implementation in Addis Ababa City Administration, Kirkos sub city. A total of 27 participants (Preschool teachers, principals, experts) were selected purposefully and involved on interviews. To gather detailed information from the participants and the observed kindergarten situations/contexts and settings, a qualitative case study approach was used. Accordingly, data were collected through interviews, observations, and document analysis. The data gathered from the aforementioned participants was coded, grouped under recurrent themes, and then interpreted accordingly. Findings of this study also revealed that KG schools used various kinds of curricula from different sources. Moreover, the study revealed that in consequence of these curricula from different sources (countries abroad and reference books establishing individuals and business doing enterprises), the curricula that were practiced in the KG schools were not age and developmentally appropriate. Finding of the study also showed that academic areas focused curricula and somewhat semi teacher centered and semi child-centered teaching-learning approaches were largely in practices in these KG schools rather than play-based approach of government curricula. Few KGs try to improve/upgrade the government curricula and apply it and others use another “school developed” curricula. Provision of the gov’t curriculum, syllabus and teacher's guides were also being available to all private kindergartens in adequate amount without preconditions. The study also revealed good commitment of the government to promote KG school education. suggested points on the government curricula was it would better to prepare new highly integrated KG curricula or revisiting the existing competency-based partially integrated curricula partitioned into five thematic learning areas and upgrade it according to the age levels. Key words: Early Childhood Education, Kindergarten, Preschool Curriculum, School Based Curriculum
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    Assessement of Literacy Learning Among „O‟ Class Children in Aysaita Refugee Camp and Host Community Schools
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Dugabas Mekonnen; Abraha Asfaw (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the literacy learning among “O” class children in the Aysaita refugee camp and host Community Schools. A mixed design method was used to conduct the research. There were about 482 children enrolled “O” class learning in the town. About 45 of the subject selected from the refugee camp (about 50%) and 25% of the population, from the host community schools (100 children). Random sampling was used to select 100 students from each school. Finally, 145 subjects were selected for the study. International Development for Early Learning Assessment (IDELA) is a standard tool used to collect data. Interview, focused group discussion, observation, and document analysis were used to triangulate the results. The vocabulary learning of “O” class students in Aysaita Refugee and the host community on vocabulary skill learning, particularly in listing market items in their surrounding children status indicates that the mean value for Refugee school is M= 5.84 and for the host, the community is M=5.68 whereas animal named in Aysaita Refugee (M= 4.60) and the host community (M=4.69). On print awareness skill indicator in the learning of literacy showing in which direction reading continues in the book, hence from refugee students' mean value of M=.62 and the host community's mean value of M=.52 . Comparing with T- test the two groups, there is no statistically significant difference on vocabulary and print awareness skill development. On the other hand the mean value for children letter identification skill is M= 8.25 for refugee children and 7.31 for host community; emergent writing skill development the mean value for refugee O=class children is 2.33 and host community is 2.98. The comparison made using t- test on letter identification and emergent writing skill development, indicated that statistically there is significant different among refugee and host community children on the two learning skill development. This implies the host community children better identified letters. Meanwhile, the study has indicated challenges in literacy learning in the study area. Lack of rich learning environment, lack of enough inputs to teaching and learning, lack of ability on pedagogical facilitation, lack of parental engagement and absence of qualified “O” class leaders for the program indicated as a challenge for better status of literacy learning in the study area. Keywords: Letter identification; oral comparison; sound; print awareness; vocabulary
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    Comparative Analysis of Nutritional Status among 4 to 6 year old Preschool Children of Government and Private Schools in Lideta sub city, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Eyerusalem Getachew; Fantahun Admas (PhD)
    The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of 4 to 6-year-old preschool children attending government and private preschools. Two schools were selected in Lideta sub-city by using simple random sampling technique and 30 students from government and 30 from private were also selected by using simple random sampling technique. Two data collection instruments; anthropometry measurement and questionnaire were used. Data, including height, weight, and BMI, were collected and processed using SPSS version 27. AnthroPlus software version 1.0.4, a user-friendly tool, assessed children's growth and nutritional status using standardized reference data. The analysis included descriptive stats (percentile and frequency) and inferential stats (regression and t-test), with the binary logistic model applied. Results from the anthropometry measurement reveals that more children in private schools fall within the normal weight category 25(83.3%) compared to government schools 21(70%). Private schools also have a more significant proportion of children with standard height 21(70%) than government schools 16 (53.3%). Similarly, more students in private schools have a normal BMI 28 (93.3%) compared to government school students 24 (80%). These findings indicate that children in private schools exhibit slightly better nutritional status concerning weight, height, and BMI when compared to their counterparts in government schools. Based on the data collected total monthly household income and fathers' employment status were identified as significant factors positively influencing nutritional status, particularly in weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI. However, it was observed that other variables, including the education level of mothers and fathers, the employment status of mothers, primary sources of parental nutrition knowledge, confidence regarding nutritional knowledge, and challenges related to providing a balanced diet, did not demonstrate a statistically significant impact on the nutritional status of children, as assessed by weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI measurements. On the other hand, there is no statistically difference in weight for age, height for age and body mass index (BMI) between governmental and private preschool. thus, it is recommended that future research focusing on nutritional status should incorporate a comprehensive analysis of nutrient intake. It would provide a more in-depth understanding of the factors influencing children's nutritional well-being, which can guide more targeted interventions and policies and should Conduct studies in a broader range of schools by Expanding the scope of research to encompass various school settings to conduct studies in a broader range of schools and expanding the scope of research to encompass various school settings.
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    The relationship between violent television program content viewing and children’s aggressive behavior in pre-school students: in Bole sub city
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Kassahun Tadele; Fantahun Admas (PhD)
    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between violent television program content and children’s aggressive behavior in selected pre-school students in Bole sub city, Addis Ababa. Participants were selected using simple random sampling methods. Data were collected from sample respondents using a 5 point likert-type scale questionnaire. The study used descriptive research design. The result of the study showed that children spent watching violent content television programs (accounting for 51.1%, spend a duration of 6 to 9 hours viewing television programs) and it had relationship with their aggressive behavior. All violent television program contents have high and positive significant correlation with the children’s aggressive behavior. There was also a significant gender differences in aggressive behavior of pre-school children boys are more aggressive as compare to girls (mean score of 4.30 with a standard deviation of 1.159). Based on the finding, it’s recommended that, parents should monitor which TV shows their children watch and not readily allow their children to watch violent TV or video show. Furthermore, to bridge the gap the concerned bodies especially teachers and other school management bodies are responsible and in charge of children at school to shape and give direction on how to be gentle and prudent enough for their futurity. . Key words: Aggressive behavior, television program, violent contents
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    The Relationship between Home Experience and Literacy Development among Kindergarten Children in Kanenus School, Sheger City, Gelan Sub-city, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Mishell Kassahun; Abraha Asfaw (PhD)
    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between home experience and literacy development among kindergarten children attending the Kanenus School in Gelan sub-city, Sheger city, Oromia region. A quantitative non-experimental correlational study was conducted with 60 kindergarten children and their parents. While questionnaires were administered to gather information on literacy-related home practices from parents, data from students was assessed using the literacy subtest IDELA assessment package. Correlational analysis showed: (a) the four types of literacy-related home practices, i.e., oral communication, parental teaching, shared reading, and parental modeling, were positively correlated with students' literacy performance; (b)Parental modeling and shared reading exhibited stronger associations compared to the other practices. (c) Of the six types of literacy practices examined, all except writing showed a positive correlation with students' overall home experiences; (d) despite most parents having a middle or upper range monthly income; their homes lacked an adequate number of books for children. Based on the results and discussions strengthening school – parent relationship and organizing awareness creation schemes for parents and teachers on integrating home and school literacy experiences are recommended as future actions. Since this research is limited to one setting, initiating further research might also help to generate data for better understanding and wider applications.
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    Teachers' Perception on Children's Behavior in the Learning Environment in Burayu Town, Oromia Regional State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-08) Oli Kasho; Girma Lemma (Ass. Prof.)
    The purpose of this study is to look into how children behave in private preschools in Burayu Town in relation to their learning environment. 182 respondents who were chosen from 43 private preschools provided the data. The quantitative data gathered for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, and frequency. The analysis of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions yielded qualitative data that was categorized using codes and themes.The major study result is that the private preschools in Burayu municipal compounds were not meant to provide preschool education. However, the owners of private preschools try their best to make the classrooms colourful in order to teach youngsters. In school, there are different areas for the children to learn and play. The school climate is safe and welcoming to all students. Every child is participating in the learning-teaching process. Children are encouraged to interact with their classmates. The school provides opportunities for students to demonstrate their cultures. Children's behaviour modifications were detected within 2-3 months after attending the preschool. The family's reaction to their children's behavioural adjustments was favourable. Based on the major findings of the study and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations were made: evaluating the behavioural change of children from family’s feedback is very important and the feedback from the families helps in shaping the children in a positive way; the preschool administration should make the preschool compounds welcoming to all children. Key Terms: Teachers Perception, Children’s behaviour, Learning Environments.
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    Socio-Emotional Wellbeing of Children of Divorced and Non-Divorced Parents at Rofam Academy Elementary School
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Tarikua Taddesse; Fantahun Admass (PhD)
    Children are the most at risk individuals getting the badly effects of crisis and conflicts happening around the world. The survival and development of a child’s optimal potential disrupted if the family environment disturbed. Children in the time of bad condition would deprive the necessary love and guidance or the necessary financial means to continue his or her growth and development. Ethiopia, like most African societies, considers as one of the largest population of children in the world that owes deep-rooted gender roles as the father is the breadwinner and the mother is the caregiver. Losing a father or a mother was difficult for children The main objective of this study is to assess the socio emotional well-being of children in divorced and non- divorced parents. Cross-sectional research design was used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were implemented. In this research, there were 60 study participants the data were collected using questionnaire and interview guide. It has used descriptive statistics with means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages Children feel sadness they have Exposure for different problems, like divorce and the effects may not manifest until many years afterwards. In addition, they may suffer from severe behavioral and emotional problems, such as being aggressive, having less knowledge, get hyperactivity, conduct problem and pro social problem Therefore, it is recommended that the society, social workers and concerned government institution are advised to play their important role in preventing the prevalence of divorce and ensuring its proper adjustment through changing the social environment in relation to marriage stability.
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    Utilization of Instructional Resourecs in Pre-Primary Education Program in "O" Class in Mekelle City
    (Addis Ababa University, 2016-09) Gebremedhin Haddish; Fisseha Teklu (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the availability of instructional resources, the practice of the utilization of instructional resources, factors that affecting utilization of instructional resources, and the appropriatness of instructional resources in teaching learning process in "O" class in Mekelle City. To this end, a descriptive survey research design was employed to conduct the research in forty four (44) "O" classes. The sources of data, then, were "O" class teachers, school principals, school pedagogical center coordinators and observation. There were sixty seven (67) "O "class teachers, forty four (44) school principals and forty (40) school pedagogical center coordinators in the public "O "class in Mekelle City. In this study census sampling techniques used to conduct the research. The instrument used for data collection was: a questionnaire, interview and observation. The data analysed through the use of percentages and descriptive statements. The results changed into percentages and statements and finally tabulated using tables and interpreted. The findings of the study revealed that the availability of instructional resources within "O" classes was inadequate or insufficient, degree or status of utilization of instructional resources were weak, and there were several factors that affected the utilization of instructional resources.The instructional resources also were not culturally and developmentally appropriate to teach the "O" class children. Most of the instructional resources were locally prepared from the environment by teachers. Therefore, the study recommended that the concerned bodies should pay special attention to make children learning more meaningful and concrete by providing adequate and appropriate instructional materials in the teaching learning process. Keywords: Availability, utilization, instructional materials, factors hindering utilization of instructional materials.
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    Exploring the status of children's school readiness and its relationship to structural and process qualities in Private and Government preschools of Kirkos sub-city
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Ferehiwot Mulatu; Fantahun Admas(PhD)
    This research aimed to explore the status of children’s school readiness and its relationship to structural and process qualities in private and government preschools of Kirkos sub-city, Addis Ababa. A mixed research approach was employed to investigate the research questions. Out of the selected four schools a total of 94 preschool children from KG 3 or preparatory class participated in this research in the readiness measurement test. School readiness assessment results and direct school observations were the main sources of the quantitative data. Qualitative data was collected using Key Informant Interview (KII) was conducted with four school principals taking one participant in each preschool. The study applied IDELA’s standardized International Development of Early Learning Assessment analysis to investigate the level of the children readiness for primary school in a holistic manner and direct observation tools were used to measure the relationship of the children readiness level to the process and structural qualities of both private and government preschools. The study's main finding was the readiness level of the private preschools students is significantly different compared to their government counterpart, however, there was no significant relationship between school readiness level and process and structural qualities of the preschools. In the end, the study recommends that schools and educational administration bodies make a proactive effort to increase the qualities of preschools and make the school environment more conducive in order to achieve a better readiness level of the students. Key words: School readiness; Process quality; structural qualities; IDELA.
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    The Perception of Parents and Teachers Towards the Implementation of Pre-Primary Inclusive Education In Southern Zone of Tigray At Woreda Raya Alamata Timuga Governmental School.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-09) Adane Damte; Fisha Teklu (PhD)
    The overall objective of this study was to examine the Perception of Parents and Teachers towards the Implementation of pre primary Inclusive Education at woreda Raya Alamata. In spite of the expected benefits of inclusion, studies were rarely conducted concerning the perception of PTA towards the implementation of pre primary inclusive education in the study area. This paper studied on the perception of PTA towards the implementation of pre primary inclusive education. It explored significance of perceptions, factors that might be affect teachers’experiances, teachers’ role and training in an inclusive setting and challenges of inclusive education. Teachers’ and parents’ perceptions were found to be influenced by the nature and severity of the disabling condition, training of the teacher, experience, gender and availability of support. The study used qualitative research methodology. The target population of this study were parents and teachers who were working in the implementation of pre primary inclusive education program in the study area. The study sampled 20 respondents who were selected through prposive sampling technique such as parents, teachers special needs expert, woreda educational expert and principals of the sampled school. The researcher employed both primary and secondary sources of data and data was collected using Key informant Interview, FGD. The qualitative data was analyzed and interpreted through thematic analysis. The results of this study discovered that parents, educational professionals such as teachers, principals, special needs experts and woreda education office expert who had received some form of training in inclusive education had positive perception whereas the untrained teachers and parents had negative perception towards the implementation of pre primary inclusive education. The study concluded that the educational professionals and parents’ who have positive perception towards children with special educational needs is essential to build an inclusive learning environment whereas who have negative attitude delays the implementation of pre primary inclusive education practices in the governmental school. Key words: Perception, PTA, Implementation, Inclusive Education, Governmental school, Alamata
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    The Role of Community Care Coalition Program in Child Protection: Practices and Challenges in Abune Zena Markos Children and Adult Supporting Association
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01) Addisu Tsegaye; Girma Lemma (PhD)
    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the Role of Community Care Coalition Program in Child Protection: Practices and Challenges in Abune Zena Markos Children and Adult Supporting Association. In doing so, the researcher has used qualitative research approach mainly secondary sources. Review of books, scientific articles and recently completed in-country works and researches involving document analysis has been made. For primary sources, the researcher has conducted key informant interviews, observation and administered focus group discussions. The research findings of this thesis indicate that the main roles of Community Care Coalitions are Economic strength, education, health and referral services. Furthermore, the practices of Community Care Coalitions are protecting children from economic exploitation, utilizing cash transfer, using animation for child right advocacy, mobilizing community through street theatre, promoting children participation in society, supporting child development and providing emotional and psychological support. Reflecting on the above findings research result suggests that; the identified packages of practices have brought changes to the lives of selected venerable children and families at three different levels as high, medium and low. Capacity building, resource mobilization and data collection as strategy by Community Care Coalitions have guided positive change to happen on the lives of beneficiaries. Structural, financial and accreditation and professional challenges have negatively affected Community Care Coalitions functioning. Focusing on local resource, knowledge, institution, integrating formal and informal actors and using planned program are the key sustainability pillars of Community Care Coalitions.
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    Play-based learning practices in Mekanisa Akababi and Mald kindergartens, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Sara Teklu; Abraha Asfaw (PhD)
    This study was conducted to examine the practice of play-based learning in two kindergartens in Lideta sub-city, Addis Ababa, and endeavored to give answers to the following research questions: (1) How do teachers understand play-based learning? (2) For what purpose do KG teachers use play-based learning? (3) What type of play and play-based learning approach do kindergarten teachers use in the teaching and learning process? (4) What are the opportunities and challenges of Kindergarten teachers in using play-based learning? Using qualitative case study design, the study was conducted in two purposely selected kindergartens, one governmental and private, and obtained data from a total of six participants (two principals and four teachers) interview formats and observation of instructional processes. Thematic data analysis results showed that kindergarten teachers agree on using play-based learning as an instructional approach and generally, they use free play as a break from structured activities and use guided play to scaffold children’s learning in a specific area. Outdoor and physical play is the most common types of play observed in both kindergartens. However, differences in types and use of play-based teaching were observed between the governmental and private kindergartens. Scarcity of indoor and outdoor play materials and equipment especially in the public kindergarten; capacity limitation in both public and private kindergartens stand out as critical implementation challenges of learning through play in the study kindergartens. Accordingly, integration of play-based activities into the curriculum, teacher training in play-based instruction, and further research in the area were suggested to address the challenges and institutionalize play-based learning in kindergartens
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    Organization and Implementation of Typical Days of Young Children in Government Preschool in Addis Ketema Sub city
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-03) Elsa Mulatu; Belay Tefera (Prof. )
    This study's objective is to investigate the organization and implementation of the typical days of young children in government preschools. The site of the study was government preschools in Addis Ketema sub city specifically in a five woredas. Methodologically the study employed mixed research approach specifically concurrent triangulation design utilized for the assessment of this research. Instruments used in the study were questionnaire, interview, observation and document analysis. A random sampling technique was used to select 1 sub city from a total of 11 sub cities of Addis Ababa and 5 woredas from 11 woredas of the selected sub city and five preschools from a total of 18 government preschools which are in the sub city. All the selected preschool teachers 76 in number were participated in the questionnaire and all or (5) of the selected preschool principals(coordinators) participated in the interview session. The data collected through questionnaires from the teachers were presented in tables and analyzed using percentage and descriptive statistics using statistical package for the social science (SPSS). Qualitative data obtained through observations, document review and interviews were analyzed though narration. The data found from different sources triangulated for assessing the trustworthiness of the information. The finding showed that the organization and implementation of typical days of young children in government preschools was low or not in line with standard set by the ministry of education (MOE). The time which is given for free play, classroom play and outdoor play is very lower than the time which is set by the ministry of education ministry of education (MOE), small and large group work/play, role play, learning by doing, scaffolding, discussion, field visitation are some of the methods that ministry of education (MOE) stated as a standard for preschools but the study found that reading aloud, showing pictures on the board are used as a major methods in the sampled centers, insufficient indoor and outdoor teaching and learning resources, inappropriate teacher- child ratio, lack of professionals knowledge in developmental level of children are found as a major challenges. Finally, the researcher concluded that as the finding showed in the organizing and implementing the typical days of children practicing with lots of limitations and it has lacks appropriateness. And the result revealed that there need to be further implementation in organizing and implementing typical days of children in government preschools. Key words: typical days of children; preschool education; developmental domains; developmentally appropriate practice