Fatliquor Product Development from Vernonia galamensis Seed Oil via Modified Sulphitation Process

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Addis Ababa University


Fatliquor is one of the most important chemical used in leather processing industry. It is currently imported with foreign currency. This research showed the potential of locally available raw material vernonia galamensis seed oil for production of sulphited fatliquor, which will potentially substitute the imported vegetable oil sulphited fatliquor. 4.5 liter purified Vernonia oil was obtained from 22 kg Vernonia seed. FAME is prepared from vernonia oil with 85% yield. The sulphited fatliquor was synthesized using vernonia oil, FAME and concentrated sodium bisulphite solution. The process involves preparation of seed, extraction and purification of oil, preparation of FAME and 40% by weight sodium bisulphite solution, oxidation of mixture of vernonia oil and FAME, sulphitation of the mixture with sodium bisulphite, washing excess sodium bisulphite and finally drying the sulphited fatliquor. Design-Expert 7.0.0 three-level-three-factor face-centered CCD was applied for experimental design and statistical analysis of results. A total of 20 experiments were conducted at conditions of reaction temperature 60, 65 and 700C, amount of sodium bisulphite solution 20, 30 and 40% and 10, 12.5 and 15 h reaction time. From the analysis of experimental results the interaction effects were studied and the optimal sulphitation reaction process conditions, which will maximize the degree of sulphitation, were found to be 700C reaction temperature, 30% amount of sodium bisulphite and 12.5 h reaction time which gave 3.36% degree of sulphitation. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized fatliquor and the visual and physical properties test on the fatliquored leather met the IS 14488 and BASF specification respectively. From the preliminary feasibility study for 2750 kg/day capacity Sulphited fatliquor production plant, Birr 40.95 million TCI is required. The unit product cost was estimated 28.85 Birr. The project was financially feasible with 51.6% RORI, Birr 66.16 million NPV, 2 years and 4 months payback period, 2.6 profitability index and 42% IRR.



Process Engineering Stream