Extraction, Optimization and Characterization Of Lemongrass Essential Oil

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Addis Ababa University


Herbal plant extracts are used in a variety of commercial sectors, including the pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries, have received renewed attention in recent decades. The Ethiopian highlands have a suitable environment for the cultivation of essential oil herbs. Among essential oil source plants, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is one of the most widely cultivated in the country, which is readily available at the Wondogenet agricultural research center. This study mainly covers the extraction, optimization, and characterization of lemongrass essential oil. The extraction process was done by steam distillation with concedrations of yield and quality of products. Three selected factors: raw material particle size, weight of raw per batch and extraction time with constant temperature and steam supply were employed. The optimized result of the extraction process was a raw material particle size of 10cm, a raw material mass per batch of 1kg, an extraction time of 62 min, yield of 0.755% and the result was verified. The three lemongrass varieties, Wg lomisar java, Wg lomisra UA, and Wg lomisar (I), were used in the experiment. Among these, Wg Lomisar (I) was the best variety in terms of yield and quality. Physico-chemical characterization results: specific gravity of 0.907, refractive index of 1.4824, kinematic viscosity of 3.1643μ, functional group identification by FT-IR, and compositional analysis was done by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) methods. Among the major components of the GC-MS analysis were Citral (28.4227%), Beta.-Myrcene (11.6291%), Heptadecane, 9-octyl (7.7451%), and Docosanoic acid, methyl and ester (5.701%) respectively. These physico-chemical result attributes indicate that the product would have a significant role in cosmetic and perfumery activities.



Citral, Cymbopogon citrantus, lemongrass, steam distillation, Wg lomisar (I)