Extraction, Optimization, Characterization of Ruta Chalenpensis oil (Tenadam)

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Addis Ababa University


In this study extraction, optimization and characterization of Ruta chalepensis oil which has been recognized as good sources of crude oils, essential oils and other important chemicals was investigated. The crude oil was extracted by soxhlet apparatus using hexane as a solvent. The process parameters such as extraction temperature, time, and solid mass to solvent ratio were optimized for maximum yield of crude oil using response surface method. The maximum crude oil yield (16.68 %) was obtained at extraction temperature of 85 o C, extraction time of 6 hrs and solid mass to solvent ratio of 13. Physico - chemical properties of the crude oils studied for the optimum yield show that the oil is a solidifying oil at room temperature having dark green colour with a pleasant smell having melting point of 50oC, boiling point of 160 oC, specific gravity of 0.725 and PH 4.49-5.24 and characterized by having acid value 6.73mg KOH/gram, peroxide value 5.023 milliequivalents of active O2/ kg, iodine value 0.50706 gram I2 /100g, saponification value 196mg KOH/g. Ruta chalepensis crude oils extracted in incubator shaker using solvents ethanol, methanol, distilled water, diethyl ether and hexane were compared with the Ruta chalepensis crude oil extract using soxhlet extractor of the optimum yield and shows varied value of total phenolic compound and antioxidant activity evaluated using both maximum inhibition effect and IC50. The total phenolic compounds are arranged in decreasing order as follows: aqueous extract> methanol extract> ethanol extract> diethyl ether extract> optimized hexane extract of soxhlet extractor > hexane extract by incubator shaker. Methanolic crude extract has maximum antioxidant activity followed by ethanol crude extract in terms of both maximum inhibition effect and IC50. and Ruta chalepensis crude extract oil extracted using soxhlet extractor has appreciable antioxidant activity than that of aqueous extract, diethyl ether and hexane extract of incubator shaker in terms of IC50 .The chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Ruta chalepensis using Clevenger hydro steam distillation and identified using GC-MS have 2-undecanone (methyl nonyl ketone) (31.74), 1-dodecene or α-Dodecene(13.591), Tridecene (13.189), 2-Nonanone (methyl heptyl ketone) ( 9.573) ,2-tetradecanol (4.856) as the major components and the chemical structure of these compounds possess the functional group of ketones, alkenes which is one type of hydrocarbons and alcohols being dominated by ketones followed by alkenes and alcohols respectively. Key words: Response surface methodology, Total Phenolic compound, antioxidant, Ruta chalepensis, essential oil and GC-MS.



Response surface methodology, Total Phenolic compound, antioxidant, Ruta chalepensis, essential oil and GC-MS.