Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Moringa Stenopetala Seed Oil via Catalytic Transesterification Process

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Addis Ababa University


The energy demand of the world is increasing from time to time. Depletion of petroleum reserves, the rising price of petroleum fuels and environmental pollution are the major problems of the countries including Ethiopia. These problems pushed the researchers to focus on renewable energy sources such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is a clean and alternative energy source derived from natural fats or vegetable oils. This study investigated production of biodiesel from moringa stenopetala seed oil via catalyzed transesterification process. The optimum process parameters for soxhlet extraction of oil were: 80 °c, 5 hours and 5:1 for temperature, extraction time and hexane to sample ratio respectively. Biodiesel was produced from purified oil by catalyzed transesterification reaction. Experimental design and statistical analysis was done by Design Expert 11.0 software. The optimization of process parameters of transesterification reaction: methanol to oil ratio, temperature and catalyst load was carried out by response surface method (RSM). The experimental result showed that the maximum biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of temperature 55°c, methanol to oil ratio 6:1 and catalyst loading 1.0 %. The main physicochemical properties of oil and biodiesel were determined according to international ASTM and EN standards. It was found that MSSO biodiesel moisture content 1.4 %, pH 7.9, specific gravity 0.874 g/mole, kinematic viscosity 4.8 mm2/s ,acid value 0.4, saponification value 196 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid 0.2 %, iodine value 104,2 g I2/100 g , calorific value 43 MJ/KG, flash Point 184 °c , fire point 190 °c ,pour point 1 °c ,cloud point 10 °c and cetane number 53. Whereas, moisture content, density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, saponification value and free fatty acid of oil were 6.54%, 840 kg/m3, 9.4 mm2/s, 1.6 mg KOH/g. 189 mg KOH/g and 0.8 % respectively. These results agreed with international standards values and previous research works.



Moringa stenopetala seed oil, Biodiesel, Transesterification, Catalyzed, optimization