Production and Characterization of Oil from Brassica Nigra Seeds Using the Solvent Extraction Method

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The objective of this study was the production and characterization of oil from Brassica Nigra seeds using the soxhlet extraction method were undertaken. In the soxhlet extraction a n-hexane was chosen to determine the effect of extraction time (2,4 and 6 hours), extraction temperature (65,70 and 75℃) and solid to solvent ratio (0.08,0.1 and 0.12) on yield of extraction oil. Firstly, the oil extract was characterized by density, moisture content, specific gravity, viscosity and refractive index, saponification value, iodine value, acid value, peroxide value and the results were compared with literature. The results showed that there is no difference from the seed oil extract from the Brassica nigra seeds which was producing in other parts of the world. therefore, the extraction and physicochemical properties of seed oil from Brassica nigra seed using a soxhlet extraction method has been carried out. A Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was applied to extraction process using Design Expert software and linear regression model was obtained growing the individual effect of extraction time, solid to solvent ratio and extraction temperature as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process. For the soxhlet extraction, the maximum oil yield has been determined as 46.205% after the extraction time of 2 hours with solid to solvent ratio (0.12g/mL) at extraction temperature of 70℃ and the minimum oil yield 34.97% was found at the extraction time of 4 hours with extraction temperature of 65℃ at solid to solvent ratio (0.08 g/mL). Therefore, increasing solid to solvent ratio, extraction temperature and decreasing extraction time will increase the amount of oil extracted.the selected seed oil properties (specific gravity,viscosity, density, Saponification Value, Acid Value, Iodine Value, Peroxide Value and refractive index) of the extracted oil were determined and the result of characterization of the oil indicated that the viscosity at 21ºC ( 9.16*10^-6 m2/s) and specific gravity at 20℃ ( 0.89346), density(0.8891g/cm3), Saponification Value(172.788 mgKOH/gm), Acid Value(2.992 ), Iodine Value(95.26), Peroxide Value(2.14) and refractive index(1.45504) .



Brassica Nigr, Solvent Extraction, Oil