Logistics and Supply Chain Management

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    Humanitarian Supply Chain Challenges of Food Aid in Ethiopia: In the Case of World Food Program
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-07) Assefa Melese; Matewos Ensermu (PhD)
    The main objective of the study was to investigate the major challenges affecting the performance of humanitarian supply chain management in WFP. To achieve the objective of the study, close-ended questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the sample respondents. Variables of the study was measured through five-point Likert scale of measurement. Descriptive survey research design was mainly used to quantitatively analyze the challenges of humanitarian aid supply chain management. A cross-sectional survey data was employed in which 452 valid questionnaires were collected from 503 questionnaires distributed. Purposive (judgmental) non-probability sampling technique was used to select representative samples from the employees working in logistical & supply chain areas in WFP. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used for data analysis. From descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation techniques were used. From inferential statistics, factor analysis specifically Principal Component Analysis technique was used to identify the major challenges affecting humanitarian aid supply chain. Factor analysis methodology is selected because it is particularly suitable to extract few factors from the large number of related variables to a more manageable number. With the help of factor analysis, irrelevant questions can be removed from the final questionnaire. In order to determine the factors underlying the variables of the questionnaire used to assess the difficulties in managing the supply chain for humanitarian aid, this study proposed a factor analysis. In this study, the factorability of the data was evaluated using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and the Bartlett's test of Sphericity. To investigate the multicollinearity of the variables, the determinant score is generated. Kaiser's Criterion and the Scree test were looked at to determine how many factors needed to be removed. Varimax orthogonal factor rotation method was applied to minimize the number of variables that have high loadings on each factor. The internal consistency was confirmed by calculating Cronbach’s to test the instrument’s reliability. The results revealed that the factor analysis not only allow detecting irrelevant items but also allow extracting the valuable factors from the data set of the questionnaire survey. The application of factor analysis for questionnaire evaluation provides very valuable inputs to the decision-makers to focus on few important factors rather than a large number of parameters. The factor analysis result revealed that humanitarian aid supply chain challenge determinant factors were related to infrastructure, transport, security and warehouses as far as humanitarian aid supply chain is concerned. Logistical challenges and poor infrastructure limit access to aid for already vulnerable and isolated communities. To overcome the challenges, the researcher recommended WFP to strengthen its efforts of humanitarian aid through mobilizing local economic actors to provide transportation and storage solutions adapted to the logistical, operational and security challenges of the context. WFP humanitarian activities should optimize aid resources in emergencies and complex emergencies, increase access to isolated communities, guarantee the quality and traceability of transport, limit the effects of inflation and promote coordination between response actors, the private sector, policy-makers and public authorities. Keywords: humanitarian supply chain management, factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Bartlett’s test of Sphericity, determinant score, Kaiser’s criterion, Scree test, Varimax-orthogonal factor rotation
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    The Effect of Fleet Management Practices on Operational Performance:In the Case of Dangote Cement Ethiopia Plc
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Getinet Abebe; Busha Temesgen (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fleet management practices on operational performance, In the case of Dangote cement Ethiopia Plc. The study employed an explanatory research design and a quantitative approach. From the total population of 145 employees, 107 samples were used by using the sampling random sampling method. Questionnaires were used to collect data which was hand-delivered to the respondents. The study utilized SPSS V-26 to analysis the data by using descriptive statistics such as mean; percentage and frequency tables were used to describe the data. Inferential statistics such as regression and correlation matrix models were employed to answer the basic question. The study’s finding shows that fleet management and operational performance were practiced at a moderate level. Driver training and management (39.7%), vehicle replacement and disposal management (33.2%), and vehicle repair and maintaining (27.3%) were significant predictors of Dangote cement’s logistic operational performance. Furthermore, the fuel management System was insignificant to predict operational performance. The study concluded that managing the GPS tracking system, installing vehicle tracking system on all organization vehicles, the latest technology of GPS for the vehicle tracking system, handling drivers’ mission assignment, repairing, and maintenance garage complete the service and maintenance on time, properly maintaining a vehicle log book for all the distance traveled, regular vehicle servicing time schedule handles complaint regarding service had positive and have a significant effect on operational performance. The study recommends that the organization’s fleet management practices on department should prepare training programs for all individuals of fleet management division and vehicle client representatives which help upgrade the information of the professionals and drivers to enable them to preserve and utilize vehicle security legitimately. Key word: Fleet management, operational performance
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    Assessment of Fleet Transport Services Performance: Evidences from World Vision Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Henok Sisay; Busha Temesgen (PhD)
    Fleet management is the use of a fleet of vehicles to complete a task within an organization or to provide a service to a third party with a specific degree of service and cost. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the fleet transport services provided by a few emergency food assistance programs running in World Vision Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, such as means, percentages, and frequency tables, were used to characterize the data. This study's target population was 230 employees in leading aid organization in Ethiopia but only 146 sampled respondents responded completely. The answer to the central query was found using inferential statistics, such as the correlation analysis model. Accordingly, this study discovered that while flexibility, cost-reduction, and quality of service delivery all aided in the execution of strong fleet performance, service speed (responsiveness) lagged behind. Additionally, a positive and substantial relationship between service delivery, affordability, quality, flexibility, speed (responsiveness), and transport performance was found by this study. The investigation led to the conclusion that this organization lacked responsiveness even though it maintained good service delivery and was flexible in how it supplied transport services. This study also discovered that improving fleet transportation performance will improve service delivery, cost, quality, flexibility, and responsiveness. The study offers this as a baseline and suggests that other key humanitarian actors apply the fleet transport practice and evaluation performance result to enhance their logistical operations. World Vision in Ethiopia will consequently boost the efficacy with which its fleet transportation is used to deliver humanitarian supplies. Keywords: Assessment, Fleet Transport Services, Performance, World Vision Ethiopia
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    The Effect of Agility Factors on Operational Performance: In the Case of Ethio Telecom Supply Chain Division
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Meseret Bitsu; Tesfaye Belay (Associate Professor)
    In order to respond to the market's competitive challenges and to use these capabilities to outperform rival organizations, supply chain agility (SCA) is a critical component for the success of businesses operating in global marketplaces. The main purpose of this study is to assess The effect of Agility factors on operational performance; in the case of Ethio telecom supply chain division. The research conceptualizes and develops five supply chain agility factors: alertness, accessibility, decisiveness, swiftness, and flexibility in operational performance. In order to determine the effect of agility factors and operational performance, the researcher used a descriptive and explanatory research strategy. Also Descriptive design is appropriate for providing accurate and valid representation of variables. For the purpose of the study, the researcher uses probability sampling particularly the stratified sampling technique since the total population of the study is large and heterogeneous in type. The target population for the study is classified into four strata based on the departments in the Supply Chain Division. The sample size was 203. Quantitative data has been collected and analysed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the study indicated that the dependent variable of agility determinant factors alertness, accessibility decisiveness; swiftness and flexibility have a relationship with supply chain operational performance. But Ethio Telecom needs to invest and work more on moderate result variables alertness and accessibility. Keywords: Supply chain, Agility, Alertness, Accessibility, Decisiveness, Swiftness, Flexibility
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    Assessment of Beverage Distribution Automation System Adoption on Customer Satisfaction: The Case of ASKU PLC and Yehule Gebeya Distributer
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-06) Tsehayu Taye; Matiwos Ensermu (PhD)
    With the primary goal of achieving efficiency and productivity for the company, automation has proven to be extremely important in improving the efficiency in most business processes, resulting to an increase in sales, profits, customer satisfaction, and relative gain in market share for most firms. This study's primary objective was to assess the adoption of beverage automation distribution system on customer satisfaction on ASKU-PLC. This study attempts to see the effect of Automation distribution system on customer satisfaction of the company. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the investigation. The questionnaire was used to gather the main data. From journal articles, websites, yearly reports, and magazines, secondary data was gathered. 195 valid responses were gathered from a total of more than 40,000 populations. Descriptive data analysis method through the use of Statistical packages for STATA version 14 software was used to analyze the data. The study used four independent variables, each of which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Evidently, central tendency was measured using a percentage. According to the findings, Asku Plc's customer satisfaction might be improved by implementing an automated distribution system. The study's three research questions were highly scored, all of which were accepted, and have a significant impact on the distribution of beverages, which actually points the organization's customer satisfaction in the proper direction. Additionally, the study suggests that in order to satisfy clients and remain viable in the business environment, the organization must switch from a manual to a digital distribution method. The researcher, along with the responders, suggested using an automated distributed method to close this gap. Keywords: Beverage Automation, customer satisfaction, service quality, on time delivery and responsiveness.
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    Evaluation of the Performance of Inventory Management Practice of Antiretroviral Drugs in Armed Forces Referral and Comprehensive Hospital, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-01) Yemisrach Tessema; Zelalem Bayisa (PhD)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of inventory management practices of ARV medicines in Armed Forces Comprehensive and referral Hospital, in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. This study helps to optimize a best practice for inventory management of ARV drugs in AFCRH by examining current inventory management techniques in AFCRH, this study aids in the optimization of a best practice for ARV drug inventory management.. The mixed research method was employed in conjunction with a descriptive cross-sectional design. The census method was used to sample pharmacy personals involved. in inventory management of ARV medicines in Armed Forces referral and Comprehensive Hospital. The researcher used inventory management assessment tool and storage condition observation checklist to collect data for the research. The survey discovered that in AFRCH, the most common inventory management strategies were adopting a planned inventory control model, anticipating demand using prior consumption data, and keeping stock records for each product. Include critical logistical information in reports, such as safety stock and the storage of ARV medications in dedicated locations. The findings from the study also revealed that the visited hospital ARV products had stock out of in the past 100 days. In the last 100 days, they've run out of stock. The study discovered that the percentage of products available on the day of assessment in the surveyed hospital was 100%, that the percentage of stock keeping records that were accurate was 50%, that health facilities had on average 40% more records than physical counts, that health facilities had on average 20% less records than physical counts, and that the ratio of inventory variation to total stock was 17.2 percent. The examination also discovered that the health center used unacceptably poor storage practices (58.8 %). This analysis revealed poor inventory management in terms of the ARV store room's overall quality of record keeping, space allocation, and overall organization.. To maintain inventory records and management information systems up to date, the study suggested that health facilities establish a process for making timely entries and noting issues on logistical tools. To eliminate discrepancies and maintain proper supply levels, it is recommended that stock status be monitored on a regular basis. This will need to be monitored on a regular basis by the district pharmacist. The government should work to make computer inventory control a reality. Keywords: Inventory Management Practice, stock availability, stock record
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    The Case of International Organization for Migration Ethiopia mission Addis Ababa Head Office
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Natnael Abera; Tariku Jebena (PhD)
    Global procurement is a sourcing strategy that assists in the acquisition of goods and services from the abroad market. Humanitarian organizations face several challenges in processing global procurement. Some of these are high uncertainty in demand and supply, the nature of the humanitarian environment, oversupply of items and expensive value of global procurements. The general objective of this study was to outline processes and identify the challenges of global procurement in IOM. A mixed approach with collectively applying qualitative and quantitative techniques was employed in this study. The target population of the study was the IOM staff currently actively engaging in the global procurement process in the Ethiopia mission Addis Ababa head office. The study employed a convenient sampling (purposive sampling) method to conduct a survey. The primary data was gathered from respondents through a questionnaire. The secondary collected from organizational manuals, reports, policies, several works of literature academic journals scholarly articles, and the internet. Questionnaire was distributed to participants electronically via email. Furthermore, the procurement process of the UN organizations (IOM, UNIDO, UNOPS) was reviewed along with the procurement policies and manuals. The analysis had a descriptive nature and used Microsoft Excel for data analysis purposes. Graphs, tables, and illustrations were employed to describe and discuss results. The results demonstrated IOM lacks standards and customized definitions for requisitions. In addition, IOM has not had a structured and well-planned global procurement plan. The study recommended that IOM should produce a strategic, planned, attainable, all-rounded, and measurable global procurement plan. This helps to have a coordinated and organized global procurement operation that is aligned with ensuring the organizational objectives are in place. The study suggested that further study can be done on related topics in multiple humanitarian organizations (can be two or three UN agencies) to compare and contrast the findings of this study. Keywords: PROCUREMENT PROCESS, PROCUREMENT PLANNING, GLOBAL PROCUREMENT
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    Assessment on the Effectiveness and Challenges of Reverse Logistics Management Practices of Coca Cola Beverage Africa In the case of Addis Ababa Manufacturing Plant
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Muluken Alemu; Zelalem Bayisa (PhD)
    Coca-Cola Beverage Africa is Ethiopia's leading and most socially responsible soft drink manufacturer. The organization has a variety of reverse logistics operations associated with forwarding logistics, thus the goal of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness and challenges of these activities in the company while also pointing out additional related research areas in the field. The research is a hybrid of both quantitative and qualitative techniques based on descriptive research design. The sample size is determined based on Taro Yamane method and selected randomly from the population of sales and marketing staff as well as logistics staff. Data from primary sources was collected and processed in a methodical manner. Based on respondent point of view the researcher conclude that, economic related challenges are more severe than technical challenges, and technical challenges are also more severe than uncommitted top management; besides, the case company reverse logistics is effective in terms of process, Information, and cost respectively according to the given point of percentage value. The negligence of few respondents during filling the questioner was a problem for the study. The researcher recommended the implementation of different factors that could measure/evaluate the case to examine the effectiveness and challenges of reverse logistics. Secondly, if stakeholders are involved in another research project, a more holistic outcome will be obtained. Key words: Reverse logistics effectiveness, Reverse logistics challenges, Assessment on the effectiveness and challenges of Reverse Logistics
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    Effect of Procurement Practices on Program Performance: The Case of One Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene National Program-Consolidated Account in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Mulata Chimdessa; Mengistu Bogale (PhD)
    The aim of this study was to examine to examine the effect of procurement practices on program performance of one water, sanitation, and hygiene national program- consolidated account in Ethiopia. The information was gathered from 126 program contract staff including directors and coordinators working at Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Water and Energy, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Health, and program contract staff working at Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, & Harari Regional States Water, Education, Health & Finance Bureaus, and Dire-Dawa City Administration Water, Education, Health & Finance Bureaus using close-ended & open-ended questionnaires. The study employed mixed methods research approach. Descriptive statistics was utilized using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programming version 26. Analyzed information indicated that coordination among implementing agencies, procurement planning, lead-time for procurement process, quality of bidding documents/request for proposals, government officials’ and employees' perception, understanding, attention, and turnover, and staff competence were affected program performance. The correlation analysis indicated that all the independent variables have positive relationship with program performance. Based on the analysis of data, conclusions have been drawn and key recommendations have been forwarded to help the program implementing agencies to improve procurement practices of the program. In line with this, implementing agencies have to work towards improving the six procurement practices that will make implementation of the program effective to achieve the program development objectives. Keywords: community participation, procurement planning, staff competency, lead-time for procurement process, quality of bidding documents/request for proposals, government officials/employees, and program performance
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    Factors Affecting Quality Management System in Pharmaceutical Transportation: In Case of Ethiopian Cargo & Logistics Services
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Ermias Adera; Busha Temesgen (PhD)
    Transporting pharmaceutical and health care products via air desires the institution of complex logistical techniques to maintain pharmaceutical shipments integrity. It requires unique equipment storage facilities, harmonized handling procedures and, above all robust cooperation among bloodless chain partners. Strategically a predominant component in a retailer's choice for the stock a supplier's merchandise are come to and out of the country thru transportation and it represents a fundamental determinant of a supplier's grant chain and business success like air transportation as Ethiopian Cargo & Logistics Services and Ethiopian Mojo Dry Port Logistics Services Enterprise as water transportation. To assess the factors affecting of quality management system in Pharmaceutical Transportation in Ethiopian Cargo & Logistics Services and come up with the solution for the identified problems. The research has used quantitative approach on collecting and analysis of the data. Descriptive Statistics and inferential statistics were used for frequency and percentage for analysis purpose and also Microsoft Office Excel and SPSS that was used to generate data presentation using tables, charts, and graphs. In addition to descriptive method explanatory statistics used. The sampling technique was used probable sampling in which each sample has a known population. According to the effect of Quality Planning on Quality management system of pharmaceutical transportationabove half of them 127(54.74%)were strongly agree on their Our company has company manuals for implementing the QMS programme; again above half of them, 140(60.34%) strongly agree on their company has developed the standard operating procedures (SOPs) and most respondents 146(62.93%)agree on I believe there is adequate and appropriate resource are available.According to the effect of Quality Assurance on Quality management system of pharmaceutical transportation strongly agree on their Our company has company manuals for implementing the QMS programme, their company has developed the standard operating procedures (SOPs) and they believe there is adequate and appropriate resource are available. There is also effective quality improvement program by having training and PDCA tools. In overall pharmaceutical air transport having quality risk management as key elements during supply chain and establish risk mitigation tools during supply network. Key words: Good Distribution Practice, Quality Management System, IATA CEIV pharma, QMS, Transportation
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    Effect Of Health Commodity Supply Chain Risk Management Practices on Health Commodity Supply Chain Performance: The Case of Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Supply Service in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Daniel Teferi; Shiferaw Mitiku (PhD)
    Health Commodities Supply Chain Risk management is a risk assessment and treatment process that is critical to improving the various aspects of health commodities supply chain management performance. Ethiopian pharmaceutical supply service (EPSS), as the sole supplier of program health commodities and the primary supplier of Revolving Drug Fund health commodities to all public health facilities in Ethiopia, should prioritize health commodities supply chain risk management because any risk will have an immediate impact on availability of vital medicines and human life. The aim of this study is to assess effect of HCSCRM practices on EPSS’s HCSC performance. The study used explanatory research design. A combination of stratified and simple random sampling were used, and 126(91.3%) responses were obtained. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such as percent, mean, standard deviation, correlation and linear regression. The results revealed that supplier risks poses a much higher risk in EPSS supply chain, followed by demand risks, process risks and finally environmental risks. The risk analysis across national EPSS, central, and hubs shows supply risk is a greater concern at the hubs, whereas demand risk is the priority risk in the central EPSS. Based on the correlation result supply risks, demand risks, and process risks, strongly negatively correlated with HCSCM performance of EPSS and all risk categories are statistically significant. Whilst HCSCR assessment practices and treatment practices were strongly positively correlated with the HCSCM performance of EPSS. Finally, the study discovered that organizational barriers have a significant effect at the central EPSS than the hubs whereas technological barriers pose more effect on the hubs than the center. Regression analysis detected that supply risks, demand risks, and process risks all have a significant negative impact on performance. EPSS only used the HCSCRM to a limited extent, but it has a positive effect on performance when implemented properly. As a result, it is recommended that the organization may intensify systematizing and implementing the risk assessment and management strategies developed by the organization in 2021. Keywords: Supply Chain risks, risk management, Performance, barriers of risk management
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    Challenges of Global Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Managment: In the Case of Selected Private Pharmaceutical Importers in Addis Ababa Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Fentahun Tegegne; Tariku Jebena (PhD)
    The purpose of the study is to assess the challenges of global pharmaceutical supply chain in the case of private pharmaceutical importers, in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, the largest metropolitan in Ethiopia. A mixed method of quantitative and qualitative research designs was employed. A non- probability purposive sampling procedure were used for the reason of not losing pharmaceutical importers that have enormous active participation in the global pharmaceutical supply chain and importing a vast variety of items. Primary data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, correlation, and regression by using SPSS version 20 as statistical tool the data for the study was collected from 65 active private pharmaceutical importers via well-organized questionnaires in order to identify the major bottlenecks in the system. This was followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews of 15 key informants in order to gain further insight into the underlying causes of the challenges. The research discovered that multiple challenges related to each of major stakeholders involved. Long duration of time for quality test approval of pharmaceuticals that comes from foreign countries, delays in pharmaceutical product registration, lack of motivation for work, lack of transparency, unable to give market authorization paper on time, shortage of skilled manpower and weak collaboration between regulatory bodies were the main challenges discussed in relation to regulators Private pharmaceutical importers‟ challenges with respect to access of foreign hard currency, shortage of financial capacity & working capital and unavailability of market data for proper demand forecasting are investigated. Private pharmaceutical importers‟ challenges regarding high cost of storage, high fright cost & the time permission that is allowed for storage is short at terminal, delaying of shipment due to lack of containers, long lead time of products due to transportation, Product expiration & loading & unloading problems were the main challenges discussed in relation to customs. Finally it is recommended that the Ethiopian government shall simplify the regulatory procedures and introduce advanced registration software technologies to facilitate the registration process and other related problems observed in the global pharmaceutical supply chain management. Key words: challenges, Addis Ababa, pharmaceuticals, Global pharmaceutical supply chain, private importers
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    The Effect of Floriculture Global Supply Chain Cost Reduction Strategies on Organizational Performance: The Case of Margin Par Ethiopia P.L.C.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Hiwot Getachew; Tariku Jebena (PhD)
    The thesis examines the effect of floriculture global supply chain cost reduction strategies in Margin par Ethiopia P.L.C. Effective supply chain management has become a potentially valuable way of securing competitive advantage through enhancing supply chain cost and improving organizational performances since competition is no longer between organizations, but among supply chains. This research conceptualizes and develops on five building blocks of supply chain cost reduction strategy (Diversifying carriers and modes, Transport services, demand forecasting, packaging materials, and supply chain professionals) and evaluates the practices of supply chain cost reduction strategy on supply chain performance. The data for the study was collected from 131 employees of Margin par P.L.C Ethiopia. The score mean of supply chain cost reduction strategy strategies was computed and the result of the findings indicated that the practices of supply chain strategies such as carriers and modes and packaging materials has moderated practices while, transport services, demand forecasting and supply professionals has a limited practices in Margin par Ethiopia P.L.C which in turn affects the supply chain performance of the firm. The relationships proposed in the framework were tested using Pearson correlation, and the causal relations were analyzed using regression analysis. From the result of the analysis, it is concluded that there is strong relationship between supply chain cost reduction strategy, and supply chain performance. Besides, supply chain cost reduction strategy has an influence on supply chain performance. Therefore, to achieve advancement in market share and profitability in the long run through enhancing supply chain performance, it is better for the organization to give due emphasis to the constructs of supply chain cost reduction strategy and the measures of supply chain performance. Keyword: Floriculture, Supply Chain, Supply chain management, Supply chain cost, Supply chain cost reduction Strategy, Supply Chain performance
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    Impact of Smart Parking Developments as a Strategy for Addressing Parking Space Supply Problems: The Case of Megenagna and Markato Smart Parkings.
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Tesfaye Getachew; Tariku Jebena (PhD)
    Addis Ababa has recently been afflicted by a series of infrastructure and utility problems. The city government implemented the Smart Parking spaceSupply system to address the parking problem, which comprises the construction of multistory parking garages in two locations within densely developed and crowded districts. The performance of the Smart Parking for the surrounding development has been analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data collection study methods. The study gathered data using a variety of methods, including semi-structured and open-ended surveys, interviews, observation, and mapping using a readily available base map. After that, the data was processed and presented in an Excel spreadsheet. The effectiveness of the present smart parking supply was assessed, and the data of the respondents was analyzed using a data triangulation study design approach. Using the Scott M. Smith technique, the researcher picked 122 respondents purposely: 14 for a neighboring Smart Parking buildings blocks, 101 for SP users (Automobile drivers) on the chosen two sites, and 6 for government expertise, such as offices like (AATMA), (AATB), and (AATP). After triangulating and analyzing the data, the research indicated a supply imbalance in the current smart parking space supply based on demand for parking spaces in surrounding buildings. Dissatisfaction among drivers with the automated steel structure parking system, as well as a lack of attention and poor integration with key government agencies and stakeholders, are all significant hurdles for the new SP development. As a result, its overall effects on city parking supply demand appear to be negligible, based on current MSP and MAMSP space supply around the CBD and THC based on empirical real city traffic volume evidence. It is also recommended that, the needs of clearwritten car parking supply developments strategy and policy which will align with theobjectives of significant parking facility supplies based on supply demand. The study will also help and encourage forfurther investigation to other researchers. Keywords: Smart Parking, Supply demand, and congestion
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    The Role of Framework Agreement Practice on the Performace of Pharmaceutical Procurement in the Case of Marie Stops International Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Taye Alemu; Shiferaw Mitiku (PhD)
    Background of the study: Globally, both developed and developing nations have realized the importance of the framework agreement (FA) form of procurement. Although there are some studies done on FA procurement efficiency in public procurement, there is information gap on none governmental and health sectors in Ethiopia. Hence, this research aimed to examine the FA procurement efficiency in pharmaceutical procurement in the case of Marie stops international (MSI) Ethiopia. Objective: the aim of this research is to assess the role of framework agreement practice on performance of pharmaceutical procurement in the case of MSI Ethiopia. Methods: A descriptive and explanatory research design was used to assess the role of framework agreement practice on performance of pharmaceuticals procurement in the case of MSI Ethiopia. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The data was analysed using SPSS Version 23 software. Data was analysed using frequency distribution and mean scores. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out to understand the relationship between the variables. Results: the results indicated that relatively well implementation of suppliers‟ election, procurement procedure assurance, and Terms and conditions of FA with overall mean score of 3.58, 3.53 and 3.78 respectively. However, there was inadequate suppliers‟ relationship management (Mean= 3.29) and suppliers‟ execution performance (Mean= 3.33). The study also showed significant role of FA on the performance of pharmaceutical procurement of MSI Ethiopia with overall mean of 3.66. The findings also indicated that supplier selection practice (β = 0.328), suppliers performance execution practice (β =0.238), general terms and conditions of FA (β = 0.209) have a significant positive effect on FA procurement performance in MSI Ethiopia (P-value<0.05). However, price fluctuations (β = -0.240, p-value = 0.005) and lack of qualified suppliers (β =-0.196, p-value =0.015) have a significant negative effect on FA procurement performance in MSIE. Conclusion and recommendations: The study findings supported the assertion that the MSIE procurement performance exhibits a high degree of FA applicability. As a result, it was determined that introducing FA in MSIE improved procurement performance. In order to reduce overall procurement costs, the report suggests expanding the use of FA. Strengthen monitoring and evaluation and improve suppliers relationship management. Key Words: Framework agreement, Pharmaceutical Procurement, Efficacy, Ethiopia.
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    The Effect of Implementation of Internet of Things (IoT) on Warehouse Management at Ethiopian Airlines Warehouse
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Teshome Yenealem; Mengistu Bogale (PhD)
    This thesis was carried out to identify the effect of Internet of things (IoT), the best and contemporary words in logistics and supply chain management which is believed, if applied properly, very helpful on productivity. Ethiopian airline is one of the leading aviation industries in the world and the pioneer in Africa in terms of quality service, profit and capacity. The airline has built a new cargo ware house on March2013. The new warehouse, built in line with the highest international standards, covers a total area of 3700 sq. meters. It has a capacity to accommodate four aircraft cargo loads at one-time. The warehouse has a receiving, skid storage, palatalization, and ULD storage area of 3,500 sq. meters. It has a controlled temperature facility ranging from 2 to 4 degrees centigrade. To track and manage this ultra-modern warehouse, the airlines has equipped with latest applications and technologies or IoT; these technologies, applications and systems are expected to bring change in the overall function of the cargo warehouse. Thus, this thesis used a descriptive study design and targeted 80 respondents selected from different departments and sections of the cargo warehouse, some importers and exporters (customers of EAL). Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Central tendencies such as mean and standard deviation were used to describe the effect of IoT on the warehouse management. The data were analyzed using the SPSS. The finding of this thesis revealed that there is enough IoT tools and applications in the EAL warehouse, IoT Has brought better change in the overall warehouse management despite some discrepancies. However, employees need to get generic and recurrent trainings on IoT, The EAL also shall establish a collaborative agreement with stake holders to establish a common customer service and better customer satisfaction. Key Word: Cargo, Internet of things (IoT),Warehouse ,Warehouse management System, Supply Chain Management
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    The Effect of Inbound Logistics on the Logistics Performance of Medical Devices: The Case of Ethiopian Pharmaceuticals Supply Agency
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Sintayehu Silas; Tariku Jebena (PhD)
    The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of inbound activities on medical device logistics performance in the case of the Ethiopian pharmaceuticals supply agency. The inbound activities incorporated product selection, forecasting, supply planning, procurement, shipment, and receipt practices. The study applied descriptive and explanatory research designs as well as a quantitative research approach. The target population for this study constituted all employees who work at the inbound logistics stream in EPSA and decided to employ a census technique to gain insight into logistics performances. The primary and secondary data sources used for this study. The logistics indicator assessment tool (LIAT) administered a questionnaire used to collect relevant information from the total population of 100 respondents. Ninety-Four valid questionnaires were analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 28. The percentage, mean and standard deviation, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions used during the analysis. The study indicated that inbound logistics activities practice level is occasionally practicing in Ethiopian pharmaceuticals supply agency. The study showed that inbound logistics practice contributed in the form of availing affordable quality medical devices to the Ethiopian Pharmaceuticals Supply Agency logistics performance largely. The investigation also brought out that there was a significant and positive effect of inbound activities on the medical device logistics performance in the Agency. The study further revealed that practices of product selection, forecasting, supply planning, procurement, shipment, and receipt practices have to predict power on logistics performance of the Agency. The study recommended the agency to implement medical device essence based product selection, forecasting, supply planning, procurement, shipment, and receipt practice to ensure the availability of the affordable quality medical device. Key words: Inbound logistics practices (product selection, forecasting, supply planning, procurement, shipment, and receipt) and Logistics performance
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    Assessment of the Effects of Procurement Management Practices on Procurement Performance : In the Case of Ethiopian Pharmaceuticals Supply Agency
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Tadywos Sintayehu; Busha Temesgen (PhD)
    Procurement performance is one of a core supply chain activity that can be influenced by procurement management practices. This study investigates the ender management practices on procurement performance of Ethiopian pharmaceutical supply agency. The study had six objectives, to find out the effect of supplier selection on procurement performance in EPSA, To determine the impact of procurement staff competence on EPSA's procurement performance, to determine the effect of item specification on procurement performance in EPSA, to evaluate the effect of professional ethics on procurement performance in EPSA, to evaluate the effect of procurement policy on procurement performance in EPSA and to determine the effect of employee satisfaction on procurement performance in EPSA. Explanatory research design was used in this study because it analyses the cause-effect relationship. Purposive sampling technique was employed in picking respondents for the study. Data was collected from a sample of 105 tender management, quantification and market shaping and contract management directorates technical staffs. Five-point Likert type of questionnaire was used to solicit primary data. The data analysis methods used were descriptive such as frequency and percentage and inferential statistics such as correlation, multi-Collinearity test and linear regression with the aid of the tool Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Based on the correlation and regression analysis conducted to check the significance level of the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables, Employee competency, Specification, Employee satisfaction and Professional ethics have significant relationship and affect procurement performance while, Supplier selection and relationship and Procurement policy have positive relationship with procurement performance but it is not significant. The study concluded that the output given from the findings indicate that the six variables have positive relationship with procurement performance. KEY WORDS: Procurement management practices; Employee competency; Specification; Employee satisfaction; Professional ethics; Supplier selection and relationship; Procurement policy procurement performance; Lead time; cost of accusation
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    Assessment of Opportunities and Challenges of outsourcing Practice: In Case of Bunna Bank
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Natnael Molla; Tenkir Seifu (PhD)
    The emergence of globalization has made outsourcing to become one of the widely embraced business strategies for delivering outstanding services to consumers in banking sector. The study aims to assess the opportunities and challenges of outsourcing in Buna Bank. The research objectives were to explore the opportunities obtained as a result of outsourcing, to examine the challenges encountered in carrying out outsourcing and explore the impacts of outsourcing. The research applied descriptive research design and both qualitative and quantitative research approach and data was collected from employees of the bank through simple random sampling and uses descriptive data analysis methods. The findings show that the Bank outsources to access special expertise, reduce overhead and operational costs; spread commercial risk and get adequate time to concentrate on their core activities. The bank has also faced with varied challenges from outsourcing such as loss of control, unethical employee behavior, and conflict of interest among outsourced and permanent employees, low employee belongingness, low quality of service provided, higher costs, communication and coordination difficulty, continuous increase in prices. Thus, based on the findings of the study, the research recommended that the bank has to properly identify outsourced services, design frequent monitoring scheme, resolve conflict of interest and identify properly the service provider in order to gain the demanded benefits out of outsourcing. Keywords: Outsourcing, Challenges, Opportunities, Bank Service, Buna bank
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    Determinants of Vaccine Availability Among Public Health Facilities Under Hawassa City Administration and Hawassa Zuria District, Sidama Region, South Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Negash Kebede; Matiwos Ensermu (PhD)
    Availability of vaccine in good condition is crucial for success of any immunization program. As we go down in the supply chain to health centers and health posts, managing vaccine logistics and maintaining the cold chain may be more difficult. The purpose of this study is to assess availability and identify factors related to availability of vaccine in public health facilities under Hawassa City Administration and Hawassa Zuria District. Institution based cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in March 2022 among 16 health centers and 40 health posts. Quantitative data was collected from EPI focal persons using structured questionnaire together with six interviews. SPSS version 24 is used to analyze the quantitative data. Forty-five (80.4%) had more than eighty percent of the vaccines for immunization at time of visit. Mean availability was 78%. Frequently out of stock vaccines were OPV (57.1%), PCV (28.6%). Stock card is used in 13 health centers, but only 7 (53.8%) of them had updated one at time of visit. However, 81.3% of the health centers include stock on hand, quantities used and loss/adjustment in their LMIS report Only 31(55%) of the facilities had functional refrigerator. Seventeen (30.4%) of the respondents fail to identify the importance of shake test. Determining resupply quantity by the facility itself was strongly associated with availability of vaccines (OR 9(1.6-50.6). Availability of vaccines for routine immunization is satisfactory. Utilization of LMIS tools is disappointing. Knowledge on shake test is inadequate. Training on utilization of LMIS tools and the importance of shake test is recommended. Key words: Vaccine, Availability, Public health facilities