Counseling Psychology

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    Prevalence, Causes and Conceptualization of Sexual Harassment at East Branch of Bunna International Bank in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-11) Endegena Bekele; Daniel Tefera (PhD)
    The objective of the study was to assess the conceptualization, prevalence, and causes of sexual harassment at the East Branch of Buna International Bank in Addis Ababa. To address this objective the study employed a mixed method approach design. This study included 166 participants selected using systematic random sampling technique from the employees working in the East Branch of Buna International Bank in Addis Ababa. Nine participants were purposively selected to address the qualitative study objectives. In the present study, (60, 38.7%) of the respondents perceived the presence of sexual harassment at the East Branch of Buna International Bank in Addis Ababa. In the present study there was statistically significant association between sexual harassment experience and gender. In this study, those who were females were 4.76 times more likely to be sexually harassed than those who were male (AOR= 4.76; 95% CI: (2.16-10.4)) with p-value = 0.000. The proportion of sexual harassment in female study participants were 40(55.6%), and in male study participants were 20 (24.1%). In this study, one-way ANOVA was conducted. Based on the one-way ANOVA result, we conclude that the mean sexual harassment score was significantly different for at least one of the age groups (F1, 153 = 14.49, p = 0.00), work experiences (F2, 152 = 12.78, p = 0.00), work positions (F2, 152 = 8.70, p = 0.00), and educational status (F3, 151 = 3.53, p = 0.016). The current study revealed that the minimum sexual harassment conceptualization score is sixteen and the maximum score is eighty. The mean and standard deviation of sexual harassment score is 54.47+14.6. Based on the mean score; the prevalence of high level of sexual harassment conceptualization was 101 (65.2%). Majority of the study participants conceptualized that if their colleague tries unwanted attempt to have sex with them that result in pleading, crying, or struggling, they will consider these attempts as a sexual harassment. For the qualitative study, a total of nine respondents were successfully involved. From the total of nine interviewed participants, six of them expressed the presence of sexual harassment in their institute. The main causes of workplace sexual harassment explained by the participants are culture (the belief or attitude or norms of the society given for females that undermine their roles) and lack of knowledge. Therefore, Buna International Bank should revise or advance the already available organizational gender sensitive strategy and allocate the necessary resources to mitigate sexual harassment prevailing in the organization. Key words: Sexual harassment, gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, sexual coercion
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    Perceived impact of work-life balance on the psychological well-being of employees of the Cooperative Bank of Oromia Head office
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Yeabsira Mehret; Dame Abera (PhD)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived impact work life balance has on the psychological wellbeing of employees at Cooperative Bank of Oromia head office. It has also assessed whether work life balance and psychological wellbeing vary by the gender, age, years of experience, and work position of employees. Positive emotional experiences at work have long been linked to improved work performance among employees. The productivity of the organization will be influenced by this individual performance. Thus, it is critical for any company to protect the psychological well-being (PWB) of its employees by fostering a healthy work life balance (WLB) that may have an impact on it. This study adopted a quantitative method in which data was collected from a sample of 281 employees. The proportionate stratified sampling method was used to select the study's participants. A descriptive survey approach was implemented to answer the study questions. For analysis and interpretation, descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. The employees exhibited a moderate work-life balance and low levels of psychological well-being, according to the results of the descriptive statistics. Work life balance and psychological wellbeing were strongly positively correlated, (r(281) = .68, p=.000). The results of the independent sample t-test indicated that there is no gender-related variation in the levels of WLB and PWB. On the other hand, WLB and PWB variation was discovered in the age, years of experience, and work position of employees based on the results of the One-way ANOVA test. The findings indicate that there is a positive link between the WLB and PWB of the CBO head office employees. The study funding suggests creating a safe place where workers feel comfortable voicing their concerns about a lack of work-life balance (WLB) as ways to enhance WLB. Additionally, workplace psychological wellbeing strategies should be given top priority for the PWB of CBO head office staff.
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    Psychological Services Rendered to Adopting Families After Post- Adoption Placement: Experiences From Bethany Christian Service, Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-10) Robel Solomon; Belay Tefera (PhD)
    This study attempted to investigate the psychosocial services provided to adoptive families and children after adoption placement by Bethany Christian Services Addis Ababa. It specifically attempted to identify the reasons for adoption, psychosocial difficulties that adoptive parents encountered, their coping mechanisms, and the formal and informal services that were provided to assist these parents. The study employed a qualitative research methodology. Twenty-five participants were purposefully chosen for the interview. The adoption document including training modules, assessment tools with different age ranges, observation and reporting tools and standardized implementation guideline and the required criteria for adoption are reviewed. Besides, the researcher observed orientation sessions in which families and social workers discuss about the reason of adoption and the details of the process in which families are supposed to go. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted with results showing that after placement, adoptive parents encounter various social and psychological difficulties. Adoptive parents encountered lack of knowledge regarding adoption and the psychological difficulties that come with it. They also encountered lack of acceptance from others by the time they disclose their adoption plan. As a result of drawn-out procedures, they also experienced unexpected results. The stigma and prejudice that adoptive parents most encountered from the community were a result of the adoption. Post-placement support for adopting families can be greatly aided by psychological services. Through the services offered, families can navigate the difficulties of adoption and deal with psychological challenges they can face because of the adoption.
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    Factors that Contribute to Suicidal Attempt among High School Students
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022) Manyahilshal Haile; Seleshi Zeleke(PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the major factors that contribute to suicidal attempt among high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suicide is a serious but preventable public health problem that results in social, emotional, and economic consequences in families, friends, and colleagues. The study employed non-probability sampling technique (namely, purposive or judgmental sampling technique) to select participants of the study. Accordingly, six high school students who had recently attempted to commit suicide participated in the study. The researcher contacted the six high school students through a school counselor who knows the adolescents very well. A semi-structured interview was used to obtain data from the participants. The interview sessions were audio recorded with the consent of the participants. The records were then transcribed verbatim and the researcher read the transcripts several times to identify the recurring themes. The qualitative data were then presented in the form of narratives that reflect the participants’ views. The findings show that lack of family support, separation from loved ones, death of loved one, hopelessness and loneliness are the major contributing factors associated with suicidal attempt among the participants. Overall, poor treatment of adolescents by parents or relatives and lack of time on the part of parents to treat their children led the adolescents to loneliness, hopelessness and finally to suicidal attempt. The study concludes that lack of family support, separation from or death of loved one, hopelessness and loneliness are the major contributing factors which led adolescents to suicidal attempt. The study suggests some ways of preventing adolescents’ suicidal attempts which may be used by the adolescents’ families, school community and policy makers. Keywords: Suicide, suicidal attempt, adolescents, contributing factors
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    The Relationship between Sex and Other Characteristics to Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: The Case of Western Zone Elementary School Teachers of Tigray
    (Addis Ababa University, 1998-05) Zeray, Hagos
    This study investigated the relationship of sex, age and teaching experience to teacher stress and teachers ' coping strategies as well as sex difference on teacher stress and coping strategies. The study involved a random sample of 200 school teachers (100 Males and 100 Females) in 8 elementary schools of Western Zone Tigray. Overall the results suggested that a considerable portion of elementary school teachers (about one-fourth) in the present study rate their profession as very stressful or moderately stressful. Regression analysis further showed that teacher characteristics such as teaching experience, and sex were predictive of work-related teachers stress. In addition, experience and age of teachers were identified as relatively more important characteristics in explaining teachers' coping strategies. Age of teachers, however, was related negatively to teachers' coping strategies. Furthermore, female teachers appear to experience more stress reactions to pupil misbehavior and time pressures than male teachers. On the other hand, causes of stress for male teachers seem to arise mainly from poor school ethos. Contrary to cultural stereotypes, there were no significant sex differences in employing emotion-focused and/or problem-focused coping stra tegies between male and female subjects. The discussion focused on a comparison of the findings with previous findings. The implications of the findings for stress prevention among school teachers are also identified.
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    Causes and Resolving Methods of Marital Discord among Married Couples in Akaki Kality Sub -city of Addis Ababa
    (AAU, 2021-03) Abeje, Semahegn; Tefera, Danie(PhD
    The primary objective of this research was to examine the major causes, methods, and marital satisfactions of married couples in Akaki Kality Sub-City. In pursuit of these objectives, mixed research design was employed in the study. The quantitative aspect consisted of questionnaire (with open-and close-ended items) administered to a sample of 357 participants that were selected through systematic random sampling. Qualitative data were collected through open-ended question in the questionnaire. Descriptive statistical (frequency, percentage, and crosstabs), chi-square techniques were used to analyze quantitative data. Qualitative data were analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that the major causes of marital discord in terms of its domain were communication, gender role, psychological, and economic factors. While, regarding most common mechanisms they used to resolve marital discords were accommodation, collaboration, compromise, and avoidance. The marital satisfaction levels of married couple almost half of them were dissatisfied whereas half of them were dissatisfied. Finally, based on these findings, conclusions and recommendations were drawn.
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    Facebook Use and Students’ Emotional States of Depression, Onxiety, and Stress in Selected Polytechnic Colleges of Addis Ababa
    (AAU, 2021-03) Kelkay, Animut; Andualem, Tamirie(Dor
    Most of recent researchers found that Facebook use is related to students’ emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The objective of study was to investigate the relationship of using Facebook on students’ emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress. A research design of descriptive correlational was used to investigate this research. And also linear regression and multivariate tests used to analysis the data. Cross-sectional research was selected from time perspective. The population of this study was 360 students who attend their education in 2020 academic calendar at the 3/three/ (General Wingate, Tegibard, and Entoto) Polytechnic colleges of Addis Ababa. The instrument of this study was standardized instruments i.e. Facebook Intensity Scale, and Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-42/ scales. The data was collected in December first 2020. Correlation coefficients indicated that Facebook use and emotional states of depression(r=0.155, P=0.03), anxiety(r=0.138, P=0.009) and stress (r=0.110, P= 0.038) had a significant relationship. Time spent on Facebook correlated significantly with depression (r=0.162, P =0.002) and Anxiety (r =0.145, P=0.006). Number of Facebook friends and emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress did not have any significant relationship. The three emotional states/ depression, anxiety and stress/ had a significant relationship. Linear regression coefficients (Beta) showed that there was a significant relationship between Facebook intensity, and emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. Moreover, the result showed that there is significant evidence that relationship exists between Facebook intensity, and depression, anxiety and stress. There was no gender difference statistically found on time spent on Facebook and prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress. From the data collected and analyzed conclusions have been drawn.
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    Social Anxiety and its Impact on Academic Achievement the Case of Kidist Sellasie Cathedral Secondary School Students
    (AAU, 2020-11) Anely, Antenaine; Wuhib, Tigist (PhD
    This study measured social anxiety and its impact on academic achievement. To measure the participant's level of social anxiety, an instrument called Social Phobia Inventory Test/ Scale (SPIN) was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 24. Based on this scale, 124 participants were found socially anxious. t-test, Pearson correlation and percentage were used to analyze the data. Results showed that social anxiety correlated negatively and significantly with academic achievement. Participants were 267 randomly selected students by using lottery method from 3 grade levels (grade 10th -12th) at Kidist Sellassie Cathedral Secondary School .The sample comprised 133 males and 134 females. Academic achievement and academic task avoidance are positively correlated. The academic achievement of socially anxious groups are low first semester average scores (negative relationship between social anxiety and average scores) this implies that non-socially anxious groups performed academically better than the socially anxious groups. And results show that social anxiety correlated positively with academic task avoidances.
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    Resilience among Orphaned Institutionalized Children Exposed to Traumatic Experience
    (AAU, 2020-03) Ayalew Molla, Leyou; Tefera, Belay(Professor
    The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree orphaned, and vulnerable children demonstrate this resilience. Descriptive Study design was used to indicate resilience status of Orphaned and vulnerable childern. In addition, quantitative approach and purposive sampling were used because the number of participants in the study were small. Data were collected through structured questionnaire from a sample of 100 orphaned children residing in Kolfe and Kechene Childcare and Rehabilitation Centers. Results showed that only few children had scores portraying that they have achieved resilience. Girls showed higher emotional resilience scores than boys, but children’s age did not significantly relate to resilience score. Results also indicated that children with PTSD have positive effects on resilience when they have friendships and care and support from others. This study has brought to light that orphaned and vulnerable children demonstrate resilience if they have close relationship with their friends and caregivers. In most Community development programs resilience building should be their primary goal as well as it should create supportive and caring environment in the institution. The study result, therefore, concluded that rather than PTSD, age and other demographic factors, care and support have impact on OVC resilience score. From these results it was concluded that guardians or immediate caregivers need to develop close ties with children exposed to trauma. They need to have a warm, supportive care and support for these children. Spending extra time and giving intimate love can be reassuring and helpful to children. A supportive environment develops children’s resilience with adversity. Such supports make children feel important and give them a sense that others are concerned about them. Feeling secure, loved, and accepted is an important resilience promoting factor.
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    Substance Use and Associated Factors Among High School and Preparatory School Students of Shakiso Town
    (AAU, 2020) Bonora Gelchu, Berhanu; Berihun, Assefa(Ph.D
    Substance use and associated factors among high school and preparatory school students in Shakiso town administration, East Guji zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. A mixed cross sectional study design was conducted from March to April 2019. Stratified random sampling technique employed to select 342 study participants. Focus group discussion (FGD) and In depth interviews were also used to collect data for the qualitative aspect and participants were selected using purposive sampling. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, and substance use was assessed using (Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test) questionnaire (ASSIST) (WHO, 2003). Quantita tive data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 and Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with substance use, and variables with p-values < 0.05 were considered as statistical ly significant. The strength of the association was presented by the adjusted odds ratio with their 95% confidence interval (C.I). The overall prevalence of current substance use in the present study was 38% (95%CI: 33%; 43.3%). The overall lifetime prevalence of substance use in this study was 45% (95%CI: 39.8%; 50.3%). Sex, age group, Grade level, family history of sub stance uses and social support (poor and moderate social support) were statistically significant with substance use. Therefore, the study indicates the necessity of prevention, early detection, and management of students with substance use alongside increasing community awareness.
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    Personal and Interpersonal Functioning of Children with Autism in Joy Center Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-12) Abiy, Roman; Asnake, Mulat (PhD)
    This study was conducted to find out personal and interpersonal functioning of children with autism in Joy center. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to collect and analyze the collected data. Accordingly, in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants 59 autistic children were part of the quantitative data collection. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used, and data was collected using self-administered questionnaire, in-depth interview guide and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale – III. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and narrative analysis techniques. The study started by investigating relevant theories on autisms. The study used the theory of mind and theory of executive dysfunction, and both theories validated the findings of the study. The study found out that Joy Center uses intervention therapies and it was also found that functioning of children in personal subdomain is significantly different across the stage. It was further found out that the mean functioning of at least one age group is different from the other. The study also reported that functioning in personal and interpersonal subdomains of children across different age group were significantly different between all age group except between some age group. Other results show that the children were performing more if they join intervention between 6-10 age groups. The mean functioning in interpersonal subdomain was not significantly different across different age group of starting intervention. In general, it would be better if parents send their children to autism centers at an early age, and the treatment would be more effective if they are treated by professional psychologist. The problem of Autism could be addressed effectively if more autistic centers are opened.
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    Psychological Problems and Cope Methods among Pregnant Women in two Bole Sub City Health Service Providers
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-10) Antonious, Leyuwork; Wole, Darge(Prof.)
    In dealing with pregnant women, most of the literature available is focused on postpartum depression. This research tries to focus on prenatal anxiety, depression and coping methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and effects of depression, anxiety and to find out the coping methods used by pregnant women. The study was conducted in Bole Sub-city “Woreda 8” and “Woreda 9” health centers. The researcher used mixed type of design. The quantitative data were collected by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and brief cope scale and the qualitative data collected through interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative data indicated high prevalence of anxiety and depression among the 275 participants. The result from the qualitative data showed that most pregnant women used religion as a coping method during anxiety and depression. The study also suggests for the health providers to screen a pregnant woman who shows the symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition the study suggests that this woman shouldn’t use substance such as cigarettes, alcohol and drug as a coping method. Key words: prenatal anxiety, depression, coping methods
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    The Perceived Reasons and Effects of Khat Abuse: The case of Selected Rehabilitation Centers in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-10) Kiros, Ermias; Berihun, Assefa (PhD)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between khat abuse and the experience of depression among people who are under treatment for substance abuse program in rehabilitation centers. The study was carried out in Sitota and Abichu mental health clinics. The current study aimed to explore the development of depression as a result of khat abuse using a qualitative research methodology, to explore respondents‟ own accounts of substance use and how they make sense of these experiences, their trajectory towards khat use as well as their motivation for treatment. A qualitative research design was employed, drawing on the interpretive framework which seeks to understand how people make sense of their experiences. The qualitative data was gathered through in-depth interviews (N=9) and focus group discussions (N=14).The study found that peer pressure and psychological pain experienced played a motivating role in their substance use. The study has figured out multiple perceived reasons for khat abuse and it‟s impact.
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    An Assessment on Career Development Counseling Service Delivery, Challenges and Existing Needs of Auricular Undergraduate Students
    (Addis Ababa University, 2019-10) Yeshiwas, Degu; Ayele, Moges(PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the career development counseling services delivery, associated challenges, and existing needs of students among AAU regular undergraduate students‟. To this end, the study employed a qualitative approach within which variety of data gathering tools such as key informant interview (KII), focus group discussions (FGD), document analysis and observation were employed. The method was found convenient to make the required modifications in the course of the study unlike the quantitative approach as the knowledge of the subject among the research participants were known explicitly beforehand. Accordingly, FGD was used to collect data from the students whereas the KII was used to collect data from the guidance and counseling (GCU) experts and that of student career development center (SCDC) staff. Both the KII and the FGD were conducted in Amharic by using hand written notes and partly audio records. All data from the field work were organized, transcribed and translated into English first. In organizing the gathered data, codes were given to each participant‟s response and it was these codes used while this research report is written. In sum, a total of 28 people were involved in the study of whom 10 were from the AAU staff (from those two ventures i.e. GCU and SCDC) while the remaining 18 were students who are representatives in their respective departments and sections. Moreover, document analyses were made upon the number of bi-weekly, interim and annual report found in the SCDC structure whereas the observation has been used to collect data concerning the office space and setup of the GCUs‟ and SCDC. As a result, the study found out that the majority of students don‟t ever know that the services offered by GCU do exist despite the fact that they have stayed for the last two to four years at AAU. On the other hand, SCDC is a new venture at AAU, which is only one year old, and have been working on graduating class students in which case, the majority of the FGD participants‟ were not as such expected to knew about it and the services that it offer, in relative terms. Be that as it may, the regardless of its newness the SCDC was found to delivered better career development counseling services than that of age old GCU. On the other hand, both GCU and SCDC were found to have challenges specifically related to office space and other required inputs. Lack of the required human resource input has also been found the additional challenge for SCDEC whereas GCU lack clear guidelines, policies, protocols and the required counseling skills to function fully. So far as the students career development counseling needs are concerned, the SCDC found to have a better competitive advantage than that of the GCU in the sense that all the activities embedded in SCDC are directly related to the career development needs of the students while much of the GCU experts time has been allocated to small group of students with difficulties in their personal/social life. In reality, it is a misunderstanding and lack of guidance that make the GCU experts to focus on that component; otherwise, being in a school set up much of their time and energy has been expected to be bestowed to support the students‟ academic and career matters. And a huge gap has been observed on the part of the students as to what career development counseling needs that they have and prioritize them. Finally, the study attempted to recommend the need for developing career development counseling resources that could be made accessible to the majority of students in a technology assisted manner and the pressing need for collaboration between SCDC and GCU of AAU
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    Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, and Aggression and Their Relationship with Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement: The Case of Gambella National Regional State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2007-07) Desta, Zerihun; Venkantachalam, R.(Prof.)
    The objecrives of this srudy were ro invesrigare rhe relarionship berween adolescent selt:efficacy, selt:esleem, aggression, gender and rheir academic performance. The data were gathered through three Likerr rype scales (selt: efficacy selt:esreem, and aggression) and data On rheir academic peliol'll1ance were collectedfi'om rhe record offices of'rheir respecred schools. A roral of' 286 (2 2 5 males and 61 females) high school adolescent students ranging ./i'om 15 ro 18 years of age allending grade nine and ren in Ihe Gambella Region consrilute rhe sample. The sample was selecled rhrough proporrional srrarijied random sarnpling method. The resulls were analyzed using mean, slandO/·d deviarion. Pearson cOI'I'elarion, Hesr and mulriple regression. The lmercorelalion marrix resull indicared thar selt:eflicacy and academic achievemenr had a posilive con'elarion ofr=O. 15, p < 0.05; and aggression and academic achievemenl had a negarive correlalion ofr=-0.18, p < 0.01 ; and aggression and selt:esleem had a negarive correlation ofr=-0.22, p < 0.01. The contribulion of gender, aggression, sel/efficacy roger her accounred /01' 10. -10 percenr of variar ion 111 academic achievemem. Gender lvas positively and significantly relared ro academic achievemenl (r=0.20, p < 0.05). A srarisrically significanl difference was obtained in academic achievemem and aggression in favor of males r (284) =3. -13-1, p < 0.05 and r (28-1) =3.82, p < 0.05 respecrively Similarly. a slarisrically signijicanr difference was observed helween male and female selt: esteem scores in favor of' females (I (28-1) =--1.071. P < 0.05 in absolule value). However. rhe t-Iesl shows rhatno statistically signijicanl difference was observed berween male and female students in selt:efficacy t(284) = 1.1 09,p>0. 05. 11 indicates Ihm stue/ems' gender difference in/luences Iheir academic achievemenl. Hence, due alfemion should be given in enhancing selt:~flicacy and selt:esteem and minimiz ing aggression of adolescenr srudenls in orderifo facilira re a beller academic performance /n schools.
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    Leadership Behavior of Principals and its Implications on Teachers Job Performance in Secondary Schools of North Shoa Zone of Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia.
    (AAU, 2019) Bedasa, Teferi; Alemu, Yekunoamlak (PhD)
    The aim of the study was to examine the Leadership behaviors of principals and its implications on teacher’s job performance in secondary schools, in North Shoa Zone. The method employed in the study was a descriptive survey. Out of 45 secondary schools, 6 secondary schools were selected through Simple random sampling technique by lottery method because all secondary schools are opened before 2000 E.C. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect data from 5 supervisors and, they were selected using purposive sampling techniques and 161 teachers were selected using simple random sampling techniques by lottery method from sample schools in the Zone. The data were analyzed with both qualitative and quantitative statistics using frequency, percentages, mean scores, standard deviations, and correlation. The findings indicated that leadership behavior currently in practice by secondary school principals of North Shoa Zone were least directive and participative leadership. Alternative- oriented and supportive leadership behavior emerged as the least preferred leadership behavior in the area under study. Teachers’ job performance was also found to be at a low level in the schools. From the findings, it was recommended that school principals should use both supportive and participative behavior of leadership in their school administration in order to enhance better job performance among teachers. The use of the Alternative- oriented and directive leadership behavior should be discouraged among school principals as it could not bring a better job performance among teachers. According to the respondent’s response, directive and participative leadership behaviors were the least practiced behaviors. There was no significant difference between the responses of two groups. The result of the level of teachers' job performance showed that the job performance level of teachers was at low level. There is significant and positive relationship between participative and supportive leadership behaviors and teachers’ job performance
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    Assessment of the Psychological Care Giving Patterns of Child Care Institutions
    (AAU, 2019) Shibru, Eyerusalem; Z., Teka (PhD).
    The aim of this study is to assess the psychological care giving pattern of child care institutions. It is conducted in a government orphanage center called Kebebe – Tsehay found in Addis Ababa. The research primarily used a descriptive case study design of qualitative research method. It mainly focused on the interaction between the care givers and the children. Qualitative data was collected using an observation, interview and focus group discussion techniques. The data was analyzed using manual coding system. A total of four observations, 3interviews and one focus group discussion session were carried out with the caregivers and other concerned bodies of the institution. The study revealed that because of the incomparability of child – care giver ratio and other related factors, the institution has low quality of psychological care giving pattern. The caregivers were providing care with a very little warmth, sensitivity and affection due to their over load and inability of getting the chance of building their capacity with frequent trainings. As a result the children in the institution are destitute of the privilege of being raised in a nurturing environment
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    Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Among Internally Displaced People (IDPs) from Somali and Oromia Regions Border in Genda Koticha, Dukem
    (AAU, 2019) Eliyas, Dabale; Zeleke, Sileshi (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of depression, anxiety and stress among internally displaced people from Somali and Oromia regions border. To achieve this purpose the cross-sectional survey designs were used. Sample of 228 (114 males and 114 females) youths were selected through purposive sampling technique as research participant. The measures used for data collection were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Cambodian Version (14 items) and DASS 42 items. Descriptive Statistics (mean, frequency and percentages) and inferential statistics (T-Test, One Way ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation) were used to analyze the data. Tables, frequencies, and percentages were used to analyze trauma events and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Independent Samples T-test and One Way ANOVA were used to examine sex and marital statuses difference in depression, anxiety and stress scores of internally displaced people. In addition, Pearson Correlation was used to examine relationship between depression, anxiety and stress scores of internally displaced people. Thus, the findings of the present study revealed that the incidence of depression(89.9%) and anxiety(93.4%) were high among internally displaced youths. The T- Test and One Way ANOVA results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in depression, anxiety, and stress scores neither between males and females, nor between those who have married, unmarried and widowed. Moreover, the Pearson Correlation result showed positive correlation between the depression, anxiety and stress scores of respondents. It was concluded that there were high incidence of anxiety and depression among internally displaced youths who were exposed to different trauma events at the time of displacement
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    The Level of Shared Values and Marital Satisfaction Among Married People in Addis Ababa: the Case of Kirkos Sub-City
    (AAU, 2019) Dagnaw, Workineh Adamu; Kibret, Belay (Professor)
    Studies about the effects of shared values over marital satisfaction are scant in Ethiopia. Hence the present study tried to quantitatively investigate the effects of shared values over marital satisfaction in Addis Ababa, the case of Kirkos sub-city. In doing so valid questionnaires from 304 respondents from three woredas were collected using online random number generator sampling. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical tools were employed to analyse the data. In the present study it was found that more than half of respondents shared values with their spouses. It was also revealed that significant number of respondents have dissatisfactions in their marital relationships. Besides, it was concluded that shared values are important predictors of couples’ marital satisfaction in that couples who share more values with their spouses have higher marital satisfaction than respondents who share lesser values. It is recommended that experts in marriage, need to consider shared values among married people thereby better their marital satisfaction
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    The Role of Parents and Teachers in Enhancing Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills of Kindergarten Children at Wolaita Sodo Town, Ethiopia
    (AAU, 2020) Belete, Mebratu Beka; Zewdie, Teka Dr.
    The main purpose of this study was to examine the roles played by parents and KG teachers in equipping children with early learning skills. In this regard, the researcher employed a mixed- methods design. A total of 408 systematically selected parents responded to the questionnaires on a range of ECCE related issues, 104 randomly selected upper KG children were involved in early skills testing activities, and also 45 KG teachers participated in the study. Selected parents and teachers involved in a semi-structured interview and FGD sessions. The data were analyzed employing qualitative, descriptive, and advanced inferential statistical techniques, such as MANOVA and Hierarchical Regression. The involvement of parents in guiding children to achieve basic learning skills was negligible to mention. They did not genuinely understand the developmental outcomes of enriching the home environment with educational resources. KGs employ teachers from any pool available. It was vividly assured that the employees had professional and pedagogical skill gaps in meeting children's developmental needs and cognizance of contemporary theories and perspectives that help them guide the overall learning processes in the KGs. Children did not perform as expected on both early skill tests administered, but the worst outcome was observed in the numeracy domains. The culture of using local or indigenous resources for educational purposes was not evident in the KGs and home environment. The study result showed that the attitude of parents towards mathematics found to be a strong predictor of both early literacy and numeracy skills development among children. Furthermore, the educational level attained by parents found to predict the early numeracy skills development of kindergarteners. Finally, the interaction among variables revealed statistically significant results than their independent contributions. Based on the study results, conclusions and recommendations were made