Measurement and Evaluation

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    Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Male Partners Involvement in Reducing Antenatal HIV Infection and PMTCT
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-06) Birhanu, Tsehay; Nega, Mulu (PhD)
    Ethiopia is one of sub Saharan African counties has been facing highest number of mother to child transmissions of HIV. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) program plays a big role in reducing the MTCT. Nevertheless its effectiveness depends on involvement of male partners considering the fact that men are decision makers in Ethiopia families. They make important decisions that have major impact on women’s health. Male partner involvement has been seen to increase uptake of PMTCT services and their involvement underscores their importance in reducing HIV infection in children. But the program strategy is facing challenge of low male partner involvement. The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of male partner in ANC and PMTCT services. The mixed methods design was employed in this study. A cross-sectional study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods on a systematically selected 126 male partners of pregnant mothers attending in ANC clinic in Addis Ketema sub city and in-depth interviews on 6 health workers working in ANC/PMTCT service providing health institutions of the Addis ketema sub city. Data was collected in the study using questionnaire and structured interview. Methods of data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and logistic regression analysis. The result revealed that majority of the respondents (76.2%) good knowledge about HIV, MTCT and PMTCT and majority of them (60.3%) score above the mean which shows high male involvement. Male involvement was found to have a statistically significant association with good knowledge about PMTCT (AOR= 3.0, 95%CI: 1.30-7.1), attitude (AOR=2.6, 95%CI: 1.09-6.13) and low socio-cultural factors (AOR= 5.8, 95%CI: 2.0-17.1). The level of male partner involvement was 69(60.3%). Information socio-cultural belief and male –friendly PMTCT service should be provided to the Public.
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    Measuring Adherence Level to Antiretroviral Treatment Among Adult PLWHA in Zewditu Memorial Hospital Addis Abeba
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-08) Aklie, Tiruwork; Zewdie, Teka (PhD)
    This study attempted to measure anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence level in Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa. Retrospective and cross-sectional sources were used. Patient self-report adherence measuring tool was used. Based on this structured Patient self-report adherence questionnaire and in a simple random sampling technique data were collected from 138 clinical records of ART patients, exit- interviews were conducted on 50 ART patients and few ART providers. Descriptive, one sample t-test, correlation, uni-variate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. The findings revealed mixed adherence level (clinical data perspective 95-100% adherence rate found among 95% of the sample whereas in exit interview data analysis perspective 100% perfect adherence level was found among 30 respondents, suboptimal adherence rate which ranges from 29% to 86% found among 19 individuals whereas, one individual had 0% adherence/he didn’t took his ART for that week/. Waiting months on ART and regimen change were predictive factors for non-adherence behavior. Drug side effect/toxicity is a major reason for missed drug doses and regimen changing behavior. Forgetting, being busy, social stigma or discrimination, and alcohol use were the identified barriers for non- adherence behavior. Finally the study hints the necessity to design and practically implement substantive theories of behaviors based adherence interventions programmes that can promote adherence behaviors and alleviate the burdens of stigma or discrimination and drug side effects among ART patients.
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    Assessment on hazard perception of young drivers in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2013-05) Alemayehu, Sintayehu; Argaw, Melaku (PhD)
    Assessment on hazard perception of young drivers in Addis Ababa Road accident in Ethiopia is one of the worst accident records in the world, as expressed per 10,000 vehicles. In Ethiopia, in 2004/5, 93 % of all accidents involved human factors, 5% account for vehicles factors and 2% were associated with road environments according to the federal police report. In Addis Ababa, taxis provide important public transport service accounting 10% of the journeys. However, taxis are at the forefront of traffic incidence accounting for between 15.6 to 26.5%. The purpose of the present study was to investigate hazard perception of young drivers and its impact on road traffic safety. Cross–sectional study was employed to study this hazard perception of young taxi drivers in 2013 in Addis Ababa. Primary data were collected from 384 young taxi drivers by using pretested questioners. The findings of the study focuses on the factors related to road use that were most commonly linked to an increased likelihood of young drivers’ crashes and injury. For young novice drivers, these factors (driver skill, sensation seeking, risk taking, conscientiousness and overconfidence) were most usual factors involving road accident. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that a longer-term training program encompass a comprehensive range of situations should be designed and implemented. Road user education and awareness raising should be given the necessary attention. Addis Ababa city administration and traffic police should control misuse of the scarce sidewalks by service giving enterprises.
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    Factors Affecting Occupational Competence Among Health Sector Candidates In Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-10) Nebiye, Selamawit; Nega, Mulu (PhD)
    This research is aimed at finding out factors that affect health sector candidate’s occupational competency in Addis Ababa. The research design used for this specific study was descriptive in which both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The sample size was 312 candidates and was collected at three health science training centers and three health centers. In-depth interview was conducted at the initial stage with purposive sampling of candidates, trainers and supervisors whereas quantitative data of self administered questioner used for candidates. Ethical standards were maintained before participating respondent candidates. Factors as bottleneck for the competency of health sector candidates were found to be subjectivity, unfairness, and lack of efficiency of assessors. In addition, gaps were also observed on capacity of training center and cooperative trainings. Attitude of candidates has association with candidate’s competency. Recommendations are forwarded to involve a group of assessors in the assessment process, to engage candidates more on cooperative training with continuous follow-up and supervision. It is also recommended to equip training centers with practical materials and limit the number of candidates at cooperative training so that everyone can be engaged in all forms of practical instruments. Institutional assessment to be continued as the best practices at training centers.
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    Academic performance of Female students in Addis Ababa: The case of kirkos sub city primary schools
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014) Lulseged, Zebenay; Lemma, Girma (PhD)
    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the academic performance of female students at Kirkos Sub-city primary schools and investigate factors affecting academic achievement of female students. Besides it tried to examine the relationship of academic performance with the major three independent factors, such as, school environment (facilities, teacher competency, and principal leadership); socio-economic status of parents, parental education and sex related factors. For data gathering, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. The techniques used were questionnaires, focus group discussions, and interviews. A pilot study was conducted to assess the clarity of the items, the reliability and the feasibility of the instrument by using 30 students from primary school, who were from similar standard. The questionnaire was administered for 160 grade eight students at Kirkos Sub-City. The qualitative instrument constituted of document analysis, student records, and interview. SPSS 20.0 and Statistical techniques such as Percentage, frequency, Spearman's rho and t-test analysis were used for data analysis. The core results were that female students’ academic performance particularly at primary level (first Cycle) was better than that of male students. On the other hand, the same students, i.e., male students’ academic performance particularly at the second Cycle was better than that of female students. The research has identified that factors, such as, school environment (facilities, teacher competency, and principal leadership); socio-economic status of parents, parental education and sex related factors affected the academic performance of female students. The problems female students encountered were school environment, gender related factors, parental education, and socio-economic factors. In conclusion, the majority of problems female students encounter and 9 those factors that affect female students’ academic performance are school based factors and home based factors. Based on the findings, recommendations were suggested. In this respect school administration is responsible to facilitate school environment and fulfill learning materials that impede female students from achieving better results. The school administration is also expected to encourage parental involvement and work diligently to increase parental interaction at school, attempt to provide legal protection for sexual harassment that prevails in schools, encourage providing progressive gender focused tutorial programmes,
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    Anxiety, Attitude towards Mathematics and Mathematics Achievement of Tenth Grade Students at Government and Private Schools in kolfe keranio sub city of Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Abebe, Getachew; Andualem, Tamire (Ato)
    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes towards mathematics, mathematics anxiety, and mathematical achievement due to sex, and school type, and to display how well anxiety and attitude towards mathematics determine students’ mathematical achievement controlling for sex and school type. Attitude and anxiety mathematics scales were administered to 307 tenth grade students (128 private and 179 government) and the data collected were analyzed using statistical techniques of mean, standard deviation, independent samples t-test and multiple regression analyses. Results revealed significant differences in attitude, in anxiety and in mathematics scores with respect to type of schools, but no significant sex differences with respect to private schools, government schools and both types of the schools combined together. The multiple regression analysis displayed that sex, school type, attitude towards mathematics and mathematics anxiety had statistically significant contribution on students’ mathematics achievement explaining 45.8% of the variance in mathematics achievement. Of the variables treated in the study, attitude towards mathematics and mathematics anxiety were the best predictor variables of the student mathematics achievement. Based on the findings, valuable suggestions were forwarded for stakeholders. Thus, to decrease the students’ negative attitude towards mathematics and mathematics anxiety students, parents, teachers, school administrators and education planners work together cooperatively; government schools learn best practices from private schools especially in the use of instructional time and teachers create student-centered teaching methods.
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    Prediction of First Year Students’ Academic Performance in the School of Medicine of Addis Ababa University
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-11) Ashenafi, Galane; Wole, Darge (PhD)
    Academic performance of medical students is affected by multiple factors, including cognitive and non cognitive factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the prediction power of selected psychological variables’ (academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation) and students’ previous academic achievement (preparatory grade point average and Ethiopian University Entrance Examination) on medical students’ first year first semester grade point average in Addis Ababa University. The ability of each of these variables in predicting males’ and females’ academic performance was also assessed. The subjects of this study were 227(male = 143 and female = 84) students who enrolled in Addis Ababa University School of Medicine in 2013/2014 academic year. Students’ previous academic achievement and University grade point average (UGPA) were secured from the under graduate Program Office School of Medicine. Academic self-efficacy scale of Pintrich and DeGroot (1990) and Roeser et al. (1996) which were adapted by Mulugeta (1998) and an adapted Academic Achievement Motivation Self- Report Inventory of Daniel (1992) were used to measure participants’ academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation respectively. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the predictor variables (preparatory school grade point average, Ethiopian university entrance examination, academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation) added significantly to the prediction of university grade point average (F(4,222)=41.92 ,P<.05),accounting for 43% of the variance in university grade point average of first semester. The regression analyses revealed that a model involving in preparatory grade point average, Ethiopian university entrance examination, Academic self-efficacy and academic achievement motivation on university grade point average was statistically significant for females (F (4, 79) = 14.54, P < .05), accounting for 42% and for male (F (4,138) = 19.6, P < .05), accounting for 36% of the variance in university grade point average. Academic achievement motivation independently did not significantly contribute in predicting males’ and females’ university grade point average sub groups. Practical implication of these findings to the medical school in particular and educational practice in general was discussed. In addition, directions for future research were recommended.
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    Validity of Grade 10 Mathematics Model Exam: In Some Selected Secondary Schools in Oromia Regional State
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-04) Regassa, Fikremariam; Abera, Dame (PhD)
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the validity of Grade 10 Math Model Exams by considering some selected secondary schools in Oromia Regional State. Thus, evidences on the content validity and criterion related validity of these exams were gathered and analyzed. In the study, mixed-methods research design was employed. The necessary data were collected from the selected secondary schools by using interview, questionnaire, check-list and document analysis. Questionnaire was administered to 31 teachers currently teach Grade 10 mathematics. Moreover, booklets of Grade 10 Math Model Exams were gathered from the schools and evaluated for appropriateness, relevance and representativeness of the items that were sampled by these exams. By using systematic sampling scores of 230 students on Grade 10 and 12 Math Model Exams, EGSECE and EUEE were also collected and analyzed. The criterion related validity evidences of Grade 10 Math Model Exams were analyzed through correlation and multiple regression analysis accordingly. The findings indicated that the Grade 10 Math Model Exams had moderate criterion related validity but suffered from weak content validity. The main reason for this weakness is that the purpose of the exam was not clearly documented and hence, this situation leads to unsystematic preparation of the exams which results in unintended practices in the education system. Therefore, the study pointed out some directions for possible solutions and suggested for further research in the field.
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    Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects in Government Organizations: - Expectations and Practices: The Case of the Ministry of Mining and Geological Survey of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2007-07) H/Mariam, Ermias; Tefera, Daniel
    The research project set out to identify the gap between expectations and practices of Monitoring and Evaluation system in Ministry of Mines (MoM) and Geological Survey of Ethiopia (GSE). (MoM and GSE are established to improve development of the mineral resources in order to enhance the contribution of the Foreign Currency earnings of the sector in the national economic growth of the country.) Data for the study is collected using the questionnaire and detail interview. The result of the study shows that the projects implemented by these two organizations was not effectively monitored and evaluated; the study also showed that the organizations have many challenges to implement the system of M&E. The four groups of the research participant’s namely management, M&E experts and project team leaders have very good expectations from the M&E system. However, other experts group have poor expectations. The gap between expectations and practices was very high. Recommendations are given. Some other points are discussed in the thesis.
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    The Impact of School Feeding Programme on Students Academic Performance: The Case of Selected Elementary Schools in Debre Libanos Wereda, Oromia Region
    (Addis Ababa University, 2015-06) Assefa, Ermias; Tefera, Daniel
    The purpose of this study is to investigate if the school feeding program has significant impact on students’ school performance specifically on students’ achievement Test score and students’ class attendance rates among primary school children in Debre Libanos Woreda. A mixed method research design specifically sequential explanatory approaches was employed and a combination of qualitative and quantitative data collected. The data sources for the research were both primary and secondary. The primary data were collected from school administration of 423 students (195 from treatment and 228 from Controlled groups) using structured questionnaire. Content analyses, Key Informant Interviews and Observation were the methods employed to collect both primary and secondary data. The analysis employed both descriptive and inferential statistics. The independent sample t-test statistics revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control group on attendance rate (t= p < 0.01) but the two groups of students were not different in their achievement test score (t=p>0.10) using independent sample t-test. Thus, the possible explanation is that SFP is a fundamental instrument to increase academic performance specifically on students’ school attendance rate.
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    The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance at Addis Ababa University Institute of Technology
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-06) Legesse, Amsalework; Nega, Mulu (PhD)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between test anxiety and academic performance of university students. This study employed the mixed methods approach to collect and analyze data. The population of the study was AAIT final year students. The participants of the study were 221 final year engineering students of which 172 were males and 49 females. The mean ages of the participants were 23.34. One scale that is Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) developed by Professor Emeritus and Dr. Charles D. Spielberger (1980) was individually administered to the participants. Interview questions were also administered. Additionally document mining was employed. Pearson product moment correlation-test and one-way ANOVA were computed to analyze the data. The finding of the study indicate that test anxiety of university students is inversely and significantly correlated with their academic performance with weak relationship (r= -.171). The results suggest that the female university students reported significantly higher test anxiety level compared to their male students counterparts (t = 2.790; df=219;p = <0.001). Again the male university students achieved statistically insignificant difference in their GPAS as compared to the female students (t =-5.866, df =219, p 0.414). There is no significant difference in the academic performance (GPA) among the University students by their levels of test anxiety. More over a further research is recommended in order to examine the existence of gender differences in test anxiety and the impact of test anxiety on academic performance of students at different level of education
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    A Comparative Study of the Academic Achievement of Regular and Extension Students of the Addis Ababa Commercial College
    (Addis Ababa University, 1995-06) Tadesse, sentayehu; Wondimu, Habtamu (PhD)
    In this study, academic achievement was compared between regular and extension students. And also an attempt was made to assess the effect of certain factors (independent variables) namely years break in study, high school grades (ESLCE GPA), age on entry, sex and marital status upon the dependent variable (academic achievement). To serve this purpose 343 students (203 regular and 140 extension) who entered the Addis Ababa Commercial College (AACC) in 1990/91 and 1991192 academic years were selected as a sample. Among the regular students 116 were males aiul 87 were females. Out of the extension entrants 63 were males and 77 were females. Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) was used to compare the academic achievement status of regular and extension entrants. Student's personal files were consulted to obtain data pertaining to [he independent variables considered in this study. In addition, structured interview was conducted with the instructors teaching both regular and extension classes, counselors and a co-ordinator of the continuing education program at the MCC. The interview was aimed at getting information about the position of regular and extension students with respect to their academic achievement, the academic problems of the two groups of students and the status of guidance and counseling. Data were analyzed using a t-test and analysis of variance. The results of these tests indicated that: 1) regular and extension students at the M CC dijJer significantly interms of their academic achievement,' (2) years break in study, high school grades (ESLCE GPA), age on entry and marital status are significant as factors affecting academic achievement of students,' (3 ) gender has no significant effect on academic achievement
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    Compatibility of Interest and Personality Profile of Urban Health Extension Workers with Current Practices in Addis Ketema, Yeka and Gulele Sub cities, Addis Abeba
    (Addis Ababa University, 2014-09) Negash, Kassahun; Tefera, Daniel (Ato)
    The main focus of the study was to explore the relationship between job performance and initial interest as well as personality of Urban Health Extension Workers in Gulele, Yeka and Addis Ketema sub cities. To arrive at the intended target a descriptive in its nature and a health facility based cross-sectional design was employed and using quantitative approaches. The study participants were women urban health extension workers whose employment period greater than six months. In this study some appropriate statistical tools like percentage, means, standard deviation, correlation and multiple regression method was used. Accordingly results indicated that social, enterprising interest and extrovert personality had correlation with awareness creation; introvert, conventional and investigative occupational interest had positively correlated with documentation. Social occupational interest and extrovert personalities found to be the predictor of the overall achievement of Urban Health Extension workers. However, the community culture of Ethiopia need to be considered as the extrovert people may be taken talkative and unstable which affect the acceptability of the community. Thus, the supervisor advice before deployment of this people and follow up is highly required. Human resources managers and related professionals can use these finding to selecting and appointing Urban Health Extension Workers to achieve the desire goal
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    Academic Achievement of Bilinguals and Monolinguals in Sekota
    (Addis Ababa University, 2007-07) Moges, Belay; Andualem, Tamirie
    The major o~iective of the study was to compare the academic achievement of bilingual and monolingual groups. In the study many works have been collected regarding the effects of bilingualism on students ' academic achievement and cognitive development that had been taken place in western immigrant students. This sludy was held in Ethiopia in one ethnic group students of Agaws found in Sekota. Accordingly, samples of 58 bilinguals (41 female and 17 male) and 113 monolinguals (62 female and 51 male) were taken Fom lieutenant General Hailu Kebede junior elementary school that was selected purposejiilly. A screening test was administered for the inclusion of students in the biliilgual and monolingual groups. Altitudes of pupils and teachers were assessed using questionnaires. In addition, the language students ' use with either Fiends or families was assessed. The result obtained in this study is consistent with previous research works and bilinguals were found to be better than their monolingual counter parts afier a t-test comparison was made. The ANOVA result also r'!vealed that a bilingual group with high competency in the two languages scored significantly a higher mean as compared with the rest bilingual groups. J,;loreover, in the sample subjects bilinguals achieve better than monolingual groups on the dependent variable academic achievement. The allitude of students was found to be positive but teachers had a negative attitude towards Himlagna language used as medium of instruction. Depending on the result, responsible bodies should encourage Himtagna mother tongue children to follow education in their first language. In addition, attaining a second language without any cost ofthejirst language has higher significance for the students' cognitive and academic growth
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    Achievement Motivation, Self-Esteem, and Learning Styles In Relation to Mathematics and Physics Achievement Between Wukro Social Development Program Supported and Not- Supported Students
    (Addis Ababa University, 2009-06) gizaw, Belay; Yekoyealem, Desse (Ato)
    It has been uoge ted in different research articles that academic performance is equally illfluenced by lion -cognitive variables as it is so by the cognitive ones. The present study has intellded 10 ee whether non-cognitive factors such as achievement motivation, selfesteem and learning 'lyles do have an influence on students' mathematics and physics achievement. Information concerning the variables mentioned was collected using achievement motivation, self-esteem and learning styles questionnaires from 0(109) W. 'DP-supported and (108) WSDP-not supported sample of Wukro high school ludellts. Three el7lester average academic achievement of each student was collected from the re orc! offi e of the school. The obtained data were analyzed using t-test, correlation, multiple and step-wise regressions. Significant difference in academic achievement motivation, mathematics and physics achievements was reported between oro ups . WSDP-not supported students have better achievement motivation and achieve hetter in academy. But no significant self-esteem difference was reported even though the mean of WSDP-non supported students is slightly greater than the supported students. Achievement motivation and self-esteem contributed to the prediction of mathematics achievement but achievement motivation was the only significant contributor for physics achievernent. While the learning styles-visual, auditory and kinesthetic were not ignijicant predictors of both mathematics and physics achievements and were removed from the regression equation. Since the obtained results convey a message to educationalists, implications are suggested as directions for further research