Evaluation of the Pasting and Rheological Properties of Amaranthus (Genus Amaranthus L.) Based Composite Flours for Production of Gluten- Free Biscuits

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Addis Ababa University


This research was conducted to investigate the pasting, rheological and functional properties and gluten-free biscuit making potential of a composite flour prepared from grains of amaranthus, sorghum and finger millet. The formulation to prepare a composite flour was obtained from Doptimal mixture design ratio using Design-Expert®, version 6.0.8 based on the lower and upper limits provided by referring literatures. The functional and pasting properties of the different composite flour blends were determined. The composite flours were thereafter, processed into biscuit and the proximate composition, physical dimensions, mineral concentration and sensory quality attributes of the biscuits were assessed. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the pasting profile of the control and amaranthus based composites flour except for pasting temperature. From the proximate composition evaluation 13.75, 2.04, 1.77 and 31.75% were found to be the highest values of the biscuit samples in terms of protein, crude fiber, ash and crude fat respectively. There were no significant (P<0.05) differences found in the physical dimensions of the composite flour biscuits. The ranges of iron, zinc, phosphorus and calcium were 14.2123.21, 2.44 - 3.60, 252.76 - 277.39 and 12.75 - 57.19mg/100g, respectively. And also the ranges for phytate, condensed tannin, alkaloids and oxalates content were 61.41 to 179.45mg/100g, 0.58 to 4.67 mg/100g, 0.40 to 4.81% and 76.98 to 294mg/100g, respectively. The study revealed that biscuits of acceptable sensory and higher nutritional quality comparable to the quality of the control could be obtained from amaranthus based composite flours. In conclusion, the use of gluten free grains like amaranth, sorghum and finger millet flour would greatly enhance the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten free biscuits, with an increase in protein and mineral content. Thus, the composite flours can be used as a high quality diversified and nutritious grain sources for the preparation of gluten free food products in the country, where the crops had not been optimally utilized.



Composite flours, Farinograph, Gluten-free, Pasting, Rheology, Sensory Attributes