Identifications of Intestinal Parasites, Salmonella and Shigella Species and Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Fruit Juice Makers in Selected Sub Cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Addis Abeba University


Background: Unpasteurized fruit juices known to cause food poisoning from harmful germs such as Salmonella, Shigella and gastrointestinal parasites. Fruits are susceptible to different microbes if didn’t prepared practice good hygiene in overall process. Due to that Food borne diseases are the main public health concerns in the world, especially in developing countries. Objective: To identify Intestinal Parasites, Salmonella and Shigella species from consumed local fruit juices sample and juice makers and assessing their Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of fruit juice makers. Methods: A Cross-Sectional study was conducted at selected sub cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice assessment questionnaire was taken to evaluate the factors to microbial quality and safety of local fruit juices. Different varieties of fruit juices and stool samples from juice makers was collected and examined for microbiological tests from February 2021 to June 2021.Juice samples were pre-enriched in Buffer Phosphate Water followed by selecting enrichment for isolation, culture, biochemical tests, Becton Dickinson phoenix analyzers, serotyping were used for confirmation of those pathogens. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were also carried out using 10 antibiotic discs on each isolate by using KirbyBauer disc diffusion method. The data was entered into Epi info version 3.5.4 and analyzed using SPSS version 23. A p value ≤ 0.05 at 95% CI was considered as statistically significant. Results: A Total of 100 fruit juice sample, 100 fruit juice makers fecal samples, 120 KAP assessments were enrolled in the study. The majority study participants were female 108(90%). About 27 (27%) and 17(17%) of juice makers and fruit juice samples were positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of A. lumbricoides 7(7%) and E.histolytica 5(5%) from juice samples and juice makers respectively. Stool and juice cultures revealed 6% and 5% of Salmonella isolates. While Shigella species was not isolated from both sample types. The participants level of knowledge and attitude score were 95.8% and 63.1% and the practice level score were 39.5%. S.Dublin were the only serotype found in both fruit juices and stool specimen. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, Nalidixic acid, Ceftriaxone and only Gentamycin and Tetracycline shows the highest intermediate. But resistant to Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin Clavunilic acid. Conclusion: The results clearly illustrated the fresh juices preparations didn’t meet public health standards. They know their work but poor practice indicated. Such foods are responsible to causes food borne diseases specially carrier to many kinds of intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacterias. Therefore, policy makers and implementers must adopt strict measures and supervision to the vendors about food safety and hygienic practices to update the guidelines and standards for fruit products preparations. Certain antibiotics for Salmonella from fecal and non-fecal source gives exceptional result for further study since multiple drug resistance of many antibiotics still differentiated that affect drug viability to Salmonella species.



Fruit juice, Contaminations, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Antimicrobial resistance, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice