Optimization and Characterization of Essential Oil from Coriander Seed

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Addis Ababa University


Coriander seed (Dimblal) is both an annual and a perennial herb that has been cultivated in Ethiopia and has been used to flavoring, cooking, and fragrance rather than for medical purpose. The goal of this research was to Optimization and characterization of essential oil from coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) using steam distillation method. Umbellifera, a family of coriander seed, was the raw material of experimental work. In this research, the moisture in coriander seed was first dried in an oven at 105oC, then the dried coriander seed were grind in cross beater mill with sieve size of 1mm and the sample was sieved using vibrating shaker. Finally steam distillation was used to complete the extraction. The results from experimental work were analyzed with the aid of DESIGN EXPERT 7.0 software and using general factorial design. The effect of various parameters, such as extraction time and particle size on the extraction yield of coriander oil was investigated. This work was deals with random experimental design consisted of extraction time of 2, 3 and 4hours; particle size of 1, 1.4, 1.8 and 2mm, under constant temperature (85oC), and it was conducted with three replications. In steam distillation, the maximum oil yield of 0.84% was obtained at extraction time of 4 hour and with particle size ranges of 1-1.4mm and at a 2hr of extraction time and range of 1.8-2mm particle size, the minimum oil yield of 0.02% was obtained. This shows that, a higher yield is obtained by increasing the extraction time and decreasing the particle size. Physic-chemical characterization of the oil was carried out. The extracted oil has a refractive index of 1.4699, specific gravity of 0.878, pH value of 6.2, viscosity 35 mpas, boiling point at 131oC and saponification value (16.833ml/g), iodine value (31.725ml/g), acid value (21.0375ml/g). Gas chromatography–Mass spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of coriander oil. The major components were alpha-pinene (13.4253%), Linalyl acetate (54.8565%), gamma-terpinene (4.8523%), Camphor (3.7224%), Limonene (8.3925%), Decanal (1.6571%), and beta-myrcene (4.5846%).



Corianderum sitavum L., steam distillation, Essential oil, Extraction, Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, FT-IR