Production of Epoxy Cottonseed Oil using Carbon Based Sulfonated Acid Catalyst

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Epoxidation process is a method by which triglyceride (fatty acids) are converted to a threemembered epoxide (oxirane) ring as the carbon-carbon double bond reacts with active oxygen. This work is on the production of epoxy oil via epoxidation reaction using sulfonated solid acid catalyst from cottonseed oil. A sulfonated carbon catalyst was synthesized by carbonization of bamboo (at 500 o C temperature and 3hr pyrolysis time) followed by sulfonation (with concentration of 98% sulfuric acid and for 15hr at 150 o C) and the performance of this catalyst was tested on the epoxidation of cottonseed oil. Investigations on the sulfonated carbon catalyst were conducted to determine the effect of reaction time, reaction temperature, and hydrogen peroxide to oil molar ratio. The sulfonated solid acid catalysts were characterized using analysis: elemental analysis (CNHS), bulk density, total acid density, FT-IR, and TGA. The cottonseed oil was characterized by acid value (3.03 mmol KOH/l), iodine value (81.66 g/100 g of I 2 ), GC/MS, FT-IR and including other physical properties (density, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity). The epoxidation reaction experiment was performed at reaction temperature of 45 o C, 60 o C and 75 o C, hydrogen peroxide to the cottonseed oil molar ratio 1:1, 1.75:1 and 2.5:1, acetic acid to cottonseed oil molar ratio 0.5:1 and reaction time of 2, 4, and 6h and physicochemical property of epoxidized oil was characterized. The optimal value of oxirane oxygen content was obtained (3.03%) at 62.4°C reaction temperature, in 4.2h reaction time, and 1.94:1 hydrogen peroxide to oil molar ratio with desirability of 87%. The relative conversion to oxirane oxygen content was 61.8% and the rate constant for epoxidation reaction kinetics were 8.025 ∗ 10 −2 l 2 mol −2 . s −1 and 8.01 ∗ 10 l 2 mol −3 . s −1 at 60 o C for pseudo-first and pseudo-second order with activation energy of 16.8kJ/mol and 23.2 kJ/mol respectively.



Epoxidation reaction, biomass, cottonseed oil, sulfonated solid acid catalyst, oxirane oxygen content, epoxidized oil