Livelihood Diversification as A Strategy to Overcome Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: A Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in Bako-Tibe Woreda.

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Addis Ababa University


This study aimed at assessing li velihood diversification as a strategy to overcome food insecurity in Bako-Tibe Woreda. The research employed qualitative and quantitative research methods. Sampling technique used in this research was purposive sampling method by which West Shewa Zone was selected from the 18 zones of the Oromia regional state and Bako-Tibe Woreda was selected from the 18 Woredas of West Shewa Zone. In addition purposive sampling was also used to se lect sample kebele administrations and sample target villages for data collection. From the three kebeles a total of 120 sample households were purposively selected for the survey. Data collection instruments used to collect primary data was: structured household questionnaire for household survey, check lists for key-informant interview and focus group di scussion and non-participant observation. Secondary data for this research was collected from reports of the woreda, reports of the CSA and research reports on the woreda. Data analysis was made by descriptive stati stics and narrations. The main livelihood activities of the study area were found to be: farm activities (crops and li vestock production), non-farm activities (vari et ies of activities which are not farm related) and off-farm activities (agricultural wage labor and other activities related to agriculture) and Transfer activities (the flow of cash and other resources from relatives and others). Regarding the participants in diverse livelihoods in the study area the study revealed that: female diversify than males, the youth diversify than the children and the old age groups, the poor di versify than the rich and food insecure households diversify than the food secure. Determinant factors to livelihood diversification in the study area were found to be vulnerability of the households to shocks, seasonality, and trends (population pressure, resource degradation), availabi lity and lack of livelihood resources, households' aspiration and opportunities, institutional and governance factors and pull and push factors. Income earned fr0111 livelihood diversificat ion in the study area is very significant. The income earned at household level are using in diverse household expenses. This is avoi ding the probabi lity of the households to sell food crops for covering the extra household expenditures and even helping them to buy food. This is contributing for these households to be food secure.



Diversification as a Strategy