Processing Effect of Drying Methods on the Nutrient Retentions, Sensorial Quality, and Shelf-Life Stability of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


Dietary guidelines show that more frequent consumption of fruits can prevent nutrient deficiencies and promote health. However, the perishability and unaffordability of fruits had led to very low levels of fruit consumption in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite papaya fruit is one the best nutritious fruit, it is classified as a highly perishable/ low shelf-stable fruit. Therefore, to improve the shelf stability, and accessible, affordable papaya fruit, drying technologies are playing an irreplaceable role. The present study aimed to evaluate the retention of nutrients and bioactive compounds of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L) with/without ascorbic acid pretreatment, drying under different drying techniques, shelf stability of dried papaya products, and also estimate the vitamin A intakes for vulnerable populations. Yellow ripped papaya fruits (n=14), with and without ascorbic acid pretreatment were dried using i) solar drying: open-air, tray driers, and glass house; ii) refractance-window drying; iii) oven-drying, and iv) freeze-drying (control). The concentration of total carotenoid, polyphenols (TP), flavonoids (TF), and B-carotene were determined using spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fresh fruit had high moisture content (87%) and an acidic pH. The dried papaya had a water activity of 0.5-0.6. The highest TPC, TFC, total carotenoids, and carotene was found in freeze-dried papaya samples, followed by refractance-window, and solar-glass house (P<0.05). The highest retention in total carotenoids (81.5%), lycopene (78.8), and β-carotene (61.9%), relative to freeze-drying was for the refractance-window; 25 g of dried-papaya could contribute to 38% of the retinal equivalent’s requirement for young children. Whereas highest retentions of Vitamin C (47.86), bioactive compounds; total phenolic (35.5), and total flavonoid (72.75) was for the oven and refractance window dryer. Ascorbic acid pretreatment increased the retention of total carotenoids, β-carotenes, TP, and TFC (P< 0.05). The sensory attributes of dried papaya did not show a significant difference (p < 0.05), as well dried papaya can be stored for up to six months brought without a significant change of microbial load, and served as an eatable product. Refractance-window and solar-glass house drying can improve diets and constitute a promising food systems’ intervention that can increase year-round availability, accessibility, and affordability of vitamin A-rich fruits like papaya.



Solar Drying, Vitamin A, Refractance Window, Beta-Carotene, Polyphenol