Magnitude of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV among Febrile Patients Attending Health Institute at Aura District, Afar Region, Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Background: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV are among the major public health concerns globally and are highly infectious diseases. During the first six months, most of the infections with viral hepatitis are often asymptomatic; therefore, detection of the virus at the early stage is difficult. The burden of viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections and co-infection with HIV still underreported in Ethiopia due to the lack of a coordinated health system and data management inability at the central level. In spite of increasing studies on viral hepatitis and their co-morbidity at different parts of the country, few data exists in Awra and Gulina district of Afar region. Objective: To assess the burden of hepatitis B & C viruses and HIV among patients attending health facilities and association of viruses with socio-demographic factors and each other virus. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed among 400 sera that were collected from Kelewani primary hospital and Derayitu health centre of Awra and Gulina district of Afar Region, north-eastern part of Ethiopia from February to May 2019. A pilot study were performed to assess the positive rate of both HCV, HBV and HIV to proceed with the research and continuous monitoring of the refrigerator was checked during the last couple of months to assure sample storage and stability before analysis. The two hepatitis viruses were screened by Anti-HCV and HBsAg rapid test kits, the seropositive sera were subjected to ELISA. HIV was screened sequentially by following HIV rapid test algorithm of Ethiopia; positive sera were confirmed by ELISA. Data were entered, coded and analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 25. A p-value < than 0.05 was considered statistically significant, Result: A total of 400 sera (59.8% of female) of age ranging from 4-80 years (mean= 25.9, SD = ±11.6) were used for this study. Of all samples 13% (52/400), were sero-positive for one or two viruses, specifically 9.8 %( 39/400), 1% (4/400) and 2.3% (9/400) for HBV, HCV and HIV respectively. 0.5% (2/400) was corresponded to the co-infections of HCV-HBV and HBV-HIV. The rates of positivity among both sexes were relatively similar; from the group in female participant sera, 61.5% (24/39), 50% (2/4) and 55.6% (5/9) were accounted by HBV, HCV and HIV respectively. HIV was more common in age category of 30 years and above (COR=7.536, 95% CI=1.543-36.803, p-value = 0.013). Conclusion: The burden of HBV and HIV at this study area were found high among febrile patients. Similarly, HIV was significantly distributed among elderly febrile patients that may be an indication for these contagious viruses to be circulated in the community.



Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus , HIV