Investigating the Factors That Affect the Quality of River Sand in the Outskirts of Woldia Town

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Addis Ababa University


Concrete is the widely used construction material made up of different constituents which later determine the property of final products. Since about 75% of the concrete matrix is made up of aggregate particles, the properties and strength of concrete is mainly affected by the nature and proportions of fine and coarse aggregates. This research was focused on assessing the potential factors affecting the quality of sand in the rivers around Woldia town which are the main sources of sand for the construction projects of the north Wollo zone and other towns of the Amhara region. In collecting sand samples from the exposed scenario, each single external factor was considered and tested by field test for its effect on the sand property. Based on the results of field tests, the potential factors affecting the properties of river sand were identified and further examined with different laboratory tests. The laboratory results of river sand samples collected from both controlled and exposed scenarios were interpreted. In the sand source rivers, there were external factors affecting sand properties with various degree of influence. The human, animal and truck action; soil, leaves and flora; and water flow of the river has considerable effect on the properties of river sand. While detergent and sewage from the town shows slight effect on the properties of sand. In order to know the effect on the compressive strength of concrete, the C25 concrete specimens were produced and tested for both controlled and exposed scenarios. Based on the existing factors in the sand source rivers, the research recommends the possible ways of treatment which helps to produce a consistent product.



Fineness modulus, organic impurity, silt content, unit weight, standardization, factors of sand quality