Assessment on the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Among Patients Visiting Boru Meda Hospital, Dessie Town, Northeast Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis, but it is a neglected tropical disease that mainly affects the poorest populations of the world since they live in poorly constructed houses, migration to endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis infection because of famine, have poor waste management system and the likes. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis among the community who visited Boru Meda Hospital (BMH) skin treatment department, in Dessie town, northeastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from November 1, 2017 to May 31, 2018. The study used a retrospective study design that employed descriptive quantitative study techniques to assess the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area from January 1, 2012 to May 31, 2018. In addition to this primary data were collected from skin patients using a questionnaire. The study population was those individuals, who visited the hospital for cutaneous cases and data of cutaneous leishmaniasis positive individuals from which were recorded at the hospital. For primary data collection 354 individuals were included in the study by convenient sampling technique. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS IBM version 20 software. The overall prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from January 1, 2012 to May 31, 2018 was 1.5% and there was increasing trend with year of examination. All localized, diffused and mucosal cutaneous leishmaniasis were observed. Dessie town had the highest prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis infection with 291(32.8%) patients out of 888 cases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis positivity in males was 61.1%) and 38.9% in females. Lack of knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis (AOR=3.911,95% CI=1.344-11.383, p=0.012), living in houses constructed with mud and grass (AOR=4.199, CI=1.676-10.517, p=0.002), presence of cracks in walls of houses(AOR=3.154,CI=1.412-7.043,p=0.005,sleeping on the floor(AOR=9.882,CI=2.66016.709, p=0.000),lack of using bed net during sleeping(AOR=8.829,CI=3.824-8.689, p=0.000),presence of trees (AOR=5.210, CI=2.21112.277, p=0.000) and irrigation areas near houses(AOR=8.102, CI =1.879-12.436, p=0.000), presence of dogs, rats and other animals in the compound or living houses(AOR= 2.272, CI=1.003-5.140,p=0.049) and travel to cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic areas(AOR=13.969, CI=4,401-14.338, p=0.000) were significantly associated risk factors with cutaneous leishmaniasis.



Leishmaniasis, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Sand Fly