Achievements and Challenges of Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Program (R WSSHP) Implementation in Oromia Region. A case study in Bereh Woreda (North Shewa Zone

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Addis Ababa University


Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Program (RWSSHP) was designed/or Ethiopia based on experience of other developing countries in Africa as well as early experiences in Ethiopia. The program was designed to bring positive changes in lives and conditions of the rural people through radical improvement in water supply and sanitation services as well as behavioral change in personal and environmental hygiene. 117e program is the main strategy for the allainment of UAP in such a way that all program inclusive woredas will attain 100 percent water supply and sanitation coverage by preparing and implementing strategic plan of R WSSHP. in Oromia region the program is being implemented in 152 woredas, of which the study woreda is one of the woredas where the program was early commenced. The overall objective of this study is to assess the achievements of the program sofaI' and challenges of the program's implementation in the region with a case study of Bereh woreda of the North Shewa Zone. in doing so, the research was aimed at obtaining factors that challenging program's implementation in the study woreda myl forward recommendations for its improvements in the fii/llre. Moreover, it was intended to give a clueforfitrther study at broader level in the region The study woreda has prepared five years strategic plan for the period of 2005/06 - 2009/ 10. It was planned to increase rural water supply coverage of the woreda from 23.84% at base year to 100% and sanitation coverageji-om nil to 100% at the end the program's period. In the study both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed. Focus groups Discussion, Key Informants Discussion and observation methods were the major data collection tools used to generate primw)I data. Inventory of water supply schemes and household latrine was also conducted to produce a primw)I data. All available and relevant secondw)I data were used to substantiate the primw)I datci. Data analysis of the research was dane by triangulating the findings of different research tools and data sources one with/against the other. In doing so, conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the findings. Accordingly, it was reveled that failure to establish Strategic Plan Commillee which is responsible for preparation of the strategic plan of the woreda was the primwy problem in the program's implementation. Moreover, the planning pracess was not participatolY; the strategic plan document was poorly appraised to make it feasible or practicable. On the other hand, though less than its plan rural water supply coverage of the woreda has increased from 23.84% to 3-1.6% and sanitation coverage from nil to 14.8%. The study has also revealed that there is poor tvf&E s)lstem. The woreda has established a comprehensive reliable data base, but failed to update it at least on yearly basis. Xl Generally, there is no good practice o.ffeedback system in the program's impLementation. Integration oj program activities (stakeholders coordination) is almost non-existent. The program is not mainstreamed in the identified stakehoLder organizations. There is wide financial deficiency jor program's implementation. In the study, it was realized that training component oj capacity buiLding was relatively weLL done and a reliabLe Local Service Providers were created to augment the shortage oj local contractors in the water suppLy and health sectors in the woreda. Finally it is recommendable to establish a muLti-disciplinwy Strategic Plan Commiltee and revise the strategic pLan oj the woreda with filii knowLedge oj WWT and the woreda council. The pLan document need to be critically appraised bejore it will be approved and taken as working document. Stakeholders anaLysis is beller done again to strengthen stakehoLders coordination and hencejoster integration oj program's activities. Reji-eshment training need to be given jor concerned stakehoLders and generally program's objectives and impLementation procedures need to be weLL communicated among the woreda staffs and within the user communities.



Challenges of Rural Water Supply