Rural Development Studies

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    Impacts of Agricultural Growth Program II Tef Interventions on the Livelihood of Rural Households: Evidence from Central Ethiopia
    (Ethiopian Statistical Service, 2023-09) Solomon Zewdu; Alemu Azmeraw (PhD); Alemeseged Gerezgiher (PhD); . Solomon Tsehay (PhD)
    The government and other development actors in Ethiopia have promoted agricultural technologies like improved tef varieties to raise agricultural productivity and, in turn, the well-being of farmers. The impacts of these technologies, however, needed to be thoroughly examined. In order to investigate productivity and income, plot-level seed rate and productivity, commercialization, and welfare, 479 farm households from two farming systems in Central Ethiopia - one from users of the Agricultural Growth Program (AGP) II introduced Korra tef variety and the other from non-users - were randomly and proportionately sampled. The study also looks into the effects of the program's Common Interest Groups (CIGs) project on the livelihood of rural women and youth who benefit from it. This dissertation has seven chapters, one introductory and theoretical, five empirical, and one concluding (general conclusions and recommendations) chapters, covering the research issues mentioned. Each empirical chapter addresses issues important to the study's broader goal. The introductory chapter outlines the context, problem statement, pertinent literature, broad goal, and study methodology. Following the introduction, the second chapter examined how adopting Korra tef has impacted the productivity and income of the users. The quantitative data were analyzed using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) technique, and qualitative data substantiated the survey data. The amount of tef production per hectare was used to measure users‘ productivity, and their net income gains from tef were then calculated. The findings showed that adopting Korra tef has boosted tef productivity by about six quintals per ha1 and raised farmers' income by around 29500 Ethiopian Birr per ha1 . The third chapter investigated how plot-level Korra tef seed rate affected productivity. One-way Analysis of Vaiance (ANOVA) was used to examine the productivity results of seed rate users, and the Dose-Response model was used to look into the impacts of seed rate on productivity. The qualitative data was used for validation. The outcome showed that a seed rate of 20kgha-1 , slightly beyond the recommended, was related to the highest average tef production. The fourth chapter examined how the use of Korra tef impacts users' commercialization status. The Household Commercialization Index (HCI) and the PSM were used to assess the level of commercialization and the impact of Korra tef use on commercialization, respectively. According to the HCI results, users and non-users were found in the categories of commercialized and semi-commercialized, respectively. The PSM result similarly showed a positive and significant impact, with users commercializing at a rate that was approximately 23.43% higher than non-users. The fifth chapter looked at how the welfare of the users was impacted by the use of Korra tef. Welfare was proxied by measuring consumption per adult equivalent. One-way ANOVA was used to estimate the farm households' expenditures at various commercialization levels. The PSM was then used to investigate how the Korra tef impacted users' welfare in comparison to non-users. A strong correlation was found between the users‘ spending and commercialization. The PSM outcome also showed that the use of Korra tef had a positive and significant impact on the users' spending. The the results of the effects of CIGs on rural women and youth livelihood is presented in the sixth chapter. A case-based qualitative study used Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant Interviews to evaluate the CIG's performances, effectiveness, strengths, limitations, opportunities, and threats. The data arrangement for this study was handled by the MAXQDA 2020 qualitative data analysis package. The data were analyzed using thematic, relational, and content analysis techniques in that order. Some of the positive aspects played by the CIGs were income and a strong social capital for members. The absence of market linkage, workplace, insufficient monitoring and evaluation, coordination among stakeholders, inadequate and improper use of money, and a lack of entrepreneurial education and skill training was on the list. Overall, the findings point to the necessity of encouraging the use of Korra tef variety to boost users' production and income as well as their commercialization and welfare. Users also must be encouraged to employ the suggested seed rates rather than merely adopting improved seed varieties. Finally, for the successful implementation of the CIGs and empowerment of rural women and youth, access to entrepreneurial skill training, coordination among key stakeholders, rigorous monitoring and evaluation, access to market linkage and workplace, and enough funding are advised.
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    Household Food Security in Ethiopia: A Comprehensive Analysis on Drivers, Policies and Governance
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-09) Workicho Jateno; Bamlak Alamirew (PhD, Associate Professor); Maru Shete (PhD, Associate Professor)
    Household food insecurity continued to be a development and policy agenda in Ethiopia. This study is initiated to assess the status and determinants of household dietary diversity and food security, and to evaluate policies, strategies and programs in terms of addressing the multi-dimensional features of food security in Ethiopia. It also evaluated the food security governance mechanism of the nation. It used data from the 4th wave of the Ethiopian socioeconomic survey. The survey included information from 3,115 rural households. In addition, qualitative data was generated from key informants and document reviews. The study dominantly adopted explanatory research design. Data were analyzed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data analysis tools. Qualitative data analysis tools such as content analysis, narrations and direct quotation of informant’s views were used. Quantitative data analysis tools such as mean, percentages, standard deviation, beta and ordinal logistic regression models were used. A composite household food security index was constructed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Using a multidimensional food security indicator, about 78% of rural households in Ethiopia are food insecure, with 90 % of them classified as moderately food insecure. Regional variations in magnitude of food insecurity are observed. Harari regional state and Diredawa city administration are relatively better than the other eight regions in the country. The study further revealed that the magnitude of food insecurity in Ethiopia is substantially higher than previous estimates done based on a uni-dimensional food security indicator. Dietary diversity of households is low. Cereals are the most dominant food groups consumed by 96.4% of the households followed by pulses consumed by 82% of the households. Nutrition-dense food commodities such as lean meat, vegetables and fruits were the least consumed food groups in Ethiopia. The study further identified the determinants of dietary diversity and household food security in Ethiopia. Demographic variables such as household head’s sex and marital status; socioeconomic variables such as wealth status and education level of the household head; and location variable, i.e the regional state where the household lives significantly determined household’s food security in Ethiopia. With respect to the determinants of consumption of diverse food stuff, female-headed households had 38% more chance of consuming diverse foods compared to male-headed ones. Household heads who completed secondary education and above had 62% more chance of consuming diverse foods compared to uneducated household heads. Household heads who were single had 37% less chance of consuming diverse foods compared to those household heads who were married. Those households located in Harari regional state and in the rural surroundings of Diredawa city administration had 6.56 times more chance of consuming diverse foods compared to those living in Tigray and Amhara regional states. The results also highlighted that households who were in the upper wealth category had 9 times more chance of consuming diverse foods compared to those households who were in the lower wealth category. Evaluation results of food security related policies, strategies, and programs revealed that improving the availability and access dimensions of food security were the main focus, with limited consideration of interventions that improve the utilization and stability dimensions of food security. Evaluation of the food security governance system of the nation showed that there are gaps in instituting effective coordination and accountability systems; ensuring coherence among policies, legal frameworks and directives; building the capacity of implementers at lower level of the governance tier; and ensuring active participation of food security actors. The study recommends that government and development partners address the multidimensional challenges of food security in Ethiopia by implementing interventions that build household assets and enhance the literacy levels of household heads. In order to address household dietary diversity, tailored interventions that consider context-specific needs and similarities in food consumption patterns and differences in dietary diversity among regions need to be implemented. Encouraging farmers to diversify agricultural production and providing nutrition education to promote consumption of livestock products is also recommended. Policies, strategies, and programs should adopt a comprehensive approach to include interventions relevant to address the four dimensions of food security. More importantly, an independent government entity with the resources and authorities should be formed with the necessary accountability and enforcement mechanisms.
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    Impact of Large-Scale Agricultural Investment: Case Studies on Dispossession, Livelihood, Food Security and Environment from Shashamane Rural District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-12) Yideg Alemu; Degefa Tolossa (Professor)
    After the 2007–2008 global triple crisis of finance, food, and energy, Ethiopia has strongly promoted Large-Scale Agricultural Investment (LSAI) as a policy instrument and strategy to increase Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and sustain agricultural productivity. Evidence also indicated that LSAI are increasing over time and are likely to continue in the future in the country. In this vein, the study elucidates the process and progress, follow-up, and harmony of various stakeholders in the governance of large-scale agriculture in the historical context of large-scale agricultural investment (LSAI) initiatives, drivers, and institutions. Further, it is essential to take into account their possible consequences on the local community's livelihood, food security, and environment and employ sustainable methods to reduce these effects. The state of Oromia is a prominent regional state in Ethiopia that has actively sought large-scale agricultural investment (LSAI). Government documents reveal that Oromia alone leased 1.0 million hectares of potential land to both domestic and foreign investors for up to 99 years. Since 2008, among zones of Oromia, the Shashaman rural district was predominantly chosen as a practical intervention area of LSAIs due to the availability of fertile land and freshwater, proximity to the capital city of the nation, lower labor costs, and an abundance of "communal" or "underutilized lands. Existing studies on LSAI in Oromia have focused on FDIs, loan misuse, limited rural employment, technology transfer, infrastructure, job creation, food security and livelihoods. Since previous studies have shed light on certain aspects of LSAI in Oromia, there is a pressing need to expand research efforts to explore the multifaceted negative effects of these investments. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of LSAI on dispossession, local people‟s livelihood, food security, and the environment in Ethiopia, particularly in Oromia National Regional State, Shashamane Rural District. Further, the study also examined the integration of the three key stakeholders (State, private sector, and affected and interested local people) and looked at how LSAI's multiple benefits were shared among the three key actors. Because one theory could not adequately address the complex and allencompassing problem of LSAI, the study also used a variety of analytical underpinnings. This study looked at the broader political ecology approach, investment policy that supports FDI in large-scale agriculture and public-private partnership (PPP) and associated economic theory as guiding frameworks to the study. The Aestin ladder of involvement, the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF), food security theories and the four pillars, and the Driver-Pressure-State- v Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework are also used as lenses to analyze the empirical results. Among various impact evaluation approaches, this study used a pseudo-randomization or quasiexperimental treatment/control procedure to answer a specific cause-and-effect question. The study used a combination of data sources and techniques, inviting multi-method qualitative and quantitative data collection tools. The study obtained data through surveys, key and in-depth informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), field visits, and direct observations. Secondary data and statistics were obtained from various sources, including Ethiopia's Investment Commission (EIC), Bureau of Investment and Industry of the Oromia Region, the West Arsi zone, and the Shashemene district Investment and Industry Office. Documents from NGOs (GIZ) and Civil Society organizations were also consulted and assessed. Additionally, the study used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) economic model to build the index and examine the impact. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) 24 for Windows and Stata Version 13. T-test and χ2 were employed to test the significance of differences between groups for continuous and discrete variables, respectively. The results revealed that 86.6% of respondents expressed that both government and proponents were not taking their concerns into account during the consultation process. Lack of free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) reduces local people‟s sense of recognition and status. The study found that the livelihood component's average treatment effect on treated (ATT) results indicate that the treated households' natural, human, and financial capital was lower than that of control families at -0.91, -0.81 and -0.15, respectively. The loss of household livelihoods has deepened and exacerbated local poverty. The study also found that LSAI has no positive or significant impact on local community food security status. Most of the local communities with LSAI and without LSAI were food insecure by all four pillars of food security measures. LSAI-affected households were more susceptible to environmental risk exposure, had higher levels of land degradation, and had lower levels of resilience than LSAIunaffected households. The outcome of the sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the impact (negative) results predicted by this study were an accurate reflection of the local effects of LSAI. Despite the project's failure to mechanize and regulate substantial areas of the land, local farmers have operated on them and used the vacant land. The main adverse effects of LSAI are threats to the official recognition of local people and their sense of ownership of their customary lands, eviction from farmland, resident grazing land, inadequate compensation, a lack of vi transparency and accountability, improvised local people's livelihood capital and food security, and accelerated local environmental degradation. The core argument of this thesis is that the government's vigorous promotion of LSAI has failed to deliver the multiple benefits it promised for significant stakeholders. Since LSAI involves interdependent issues that call for collaboration across multiple actors and sectors, there was little engagement and consultation with stakeholders. In addition, civil society organizations and academia did not participate as much, which hindered the development of consensus and solutions that benefited all parties. Despite the investment's appeal, it fails to address food insecurity, safeguard dispossession persons, or improve local livelihoods and environment. Inadequate stakeholder involvement and malpractice exacerbate the land problem, increase firm risk, and diminish overall benefits. Mitigating the adverse impacts on livelihood resources, implementing effective monitoring, and restoring the local natural environment are urgently needed. Developing corrective institutional arrangements is not just an option; it is an imperative. Making responsible investments and achieving multiple benefits require learning from past mistakes and understanding stakeholder interests, responsibilities, and priorities. The study also offers suggestions for minimizing negative effects while maximizing positive effects.
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    Impacts of the Adoption Intensity of Improved Bread Wheat Package and Seed Recycling Practices on Smallholder Farmers’ Productivity and Technical Efficiency: The Case of East Gojam Zone, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-08) Yirgalem Eshete; Bamilak Alamirew (PhD); Zewdie Bishaw (PhD)
    This study was conducted with an overall objective of investigating the impacts of the adoption intensity of Improved Bread Wheat Package (IBWP) and seed recycling practices on smallholder farmers’ productivity and Technical Efficiency (TE). The first article examined the yield effect of plot – level seed rate application and compared the costs and benefits of fresh and recycled seed use in Bread Wheat Production (BWP). The second article investigate the determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption intensity of the IBWP and its impact on productivity. The third article estimates smallholder farmers’ level of TE in BWP, identify sources of technical efficiency, and analyze the impact of seed recycling on smallholder farmers’ TE and productivity. The researchers hypothesized that poor agronomic management practices, such as improper seed rates and multiple seed recycling, are major contributors to low productivity. The researchers also hypothesized that smallholder farmers’ adoption of only specific components of the IBWP has a thwarting effect on their productivity and TE. Moreover, it was hypothesized that seed recycling substantially contribute to smallholder farmers’ technical inefficiency and productivity. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data via interviews, focus group discussions, and observations from 450 sample respondents. Various statistical models, including dose-response, Cragg’s double hurdle, Stochastic Frontier Analysis with a translog function, and regression adjustment treatment effect models along with the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), were employed to analyze the data. Farmers' seed rate applications were found to vary, and the study identified that the highest average wheat yield was associated with a seed rate of 50 kg/ha above the recommended level. A one-time bread wheat seed recycling after five consecutive times was found to reduce yield by 665 kg ha-1 compared to non-recycled seeds. The CBA indicated that while seed recycling reduces seed costs, the economic gains associated with using fresh improved bread wheat seed were significantly higher, resulting in improved yields and net income. The study identified various determinants of adoption intensity and found that access to improved fresh seed, membership in improved seeds multiplication and marketing cooperatives, age, longer years of experience; low dependency ratio, higher family size, Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU), and frequency of extension contact were significant reasons for the adoption of the entire package. Additionally, adopters of the entire bread wheat package had 8.24 quintals higher productivity per hectare than non-adopters. The analysis also revealed that several variables, including age, family size, Tropical Livestock Unit, dependency ratio, hand weeding frequency, row spacing, amount of credit, and membership in seed multiplication and marketing cooperatives, significantly impacted TE. The study also found that farmers using recycled seed had lower TE compared to those using fresh seed, highlighting the negative effects of seed recycling on TE. Overall, findings of the study provides a comprehensive understanding of the yield and cost implications of plot level seed rate application and seed recycling practices; the determinants of IBWP adoption intensity, impact of IBWP adoption intensity on smallholder farmers productivity and TE, and sources of smallholder farmers technical inefficiency in BWP. Generally, findings’ highlight the importance of using fresh seed, increasing access to improved seed, promoting full package adoption, and improving smallholder farmers’ TE in BWP. Creating wider access to fresh seeds by establishing agricultural credit schemes for seeds procurement, land consolidation through voluntary land exchange, and targeted price subsidies are strongly recommended to enhance farmers’ TE and Productivity. Besides, encouraging full package adoption by reinventing the existing practices in the package to suit the local context is strongly recommended. Implementing Farmer – to – Farmer extension method is strongly suggested to facilitate knowledge and experience sharing among farmers.
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    The Impact of Rural Productive Safety Net Program on Household Resilience, Livelihood, and Its Implication to Policy Implementation
    (Addis Ababa University, 2024-03) Mesfin Getaneh; Bamlaku Alamirew (PhD)
    This comprehensive study investigates the multifaceted impact of the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household resilience and livelihood in the Wolaita zone of Ethiopia, located in a region vulnerable to climate change and food insecurity. Employing a Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA), the First Chapter reveals that non-PSNP households exhibit higher monthly per capita food expenditure, indicating better access to economic resources. Additionally, non-PSNP households score higher in resilience, emphasizing the need for proper targeting to leverage the potential positive spillover effects of such programs on food security and nutrition outcomes through interventions like asset-building, livelihood diversification, or social protection. The Second Chapter delves into the longer-term effects of PSNPs on livelihoods. Employing treatment effects models, the study assesses access to basic services, income, food expenditure, assets, adaptive capacity, and dietary diversity among 300 randomly selected respondents. Results indicate that while the PSNP shows no statistically significant impact on basic services and income, it significantly reduces food expenditure and assets. The mixed findings highlight the intricate nature of designing effective social protection programs to address the multifaceted dimensions of poverty. The Third Chapter explores the influence of institutional arrangements and policy considerations on the PSNP’s effectiveness. Employing qualitative methods, including desk reviews and key informant interviews, the study identifies challenges such as a lack of accountability and staff turnover at higher organizational levels. Recommendations include establishing robust accountability mechanisms, implementing regular assessments, and developing guidelines for documenting good practices. The research underscores the importance of structured systems for information dissemination to optimize social protection programs and contribute to more effective poverty reduction and food security outcomes in local communities.
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    Farm Households' Choice of Crops, Commercialization, and Risk in North Shewa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2024-03-01) Mohammed Endris; Belaineh Legesse (PhD)
    The world is currently facing a challenge due to rising food prices. It is acknowledged that increasing smallholder farmers' productivity and commercializing their operations are important techniques for addressing food security. Ethiopia is utilizing a variety of policies to increase agricultural GDP contribution and achieve food selfsufficiency. Investigating the process of farmers' decisions in relation to risk is more important to connect these policies with the governments' pro-poor efforts. This study focused on crop selection, risk, and mung bean in this aspect. Crop choice is a method for effective land use, stabilizing food prices, and establishing a wholesome food system. A total of 400 smallholder farmers were selected using a Multi-stage random sampling technique from kewot woreda of North Shewa, Ethiopia and surveyed using an interview questionnaire. Crop producing activities covered 72% of the total income. The study also showed that market-related issues including transportation, weak enforcement of land contracts, and shortage of wage laborers during harvesting have a detrimental impact on agricultural income. Additionally, the results showed that households had obtained land through redistribution and acquisition. The study also found that women were insufficiently involved in agricultural decision-making. Mung bean is found in the crop mix of 64% of farmers. The higher profit per hectare is seen in mung beans, although the maximum calorie density per hectare is found in sorghum. Mung beans are also positively correlated with selected commercialization xi indices. Sorghum, teff, onion, and mung bean were identified as the dominating crops, accounting for 95% of all cultivated area, according to the crop choice study. Appropriate econometrics methods were applied to each objectives. According to the crop portfolio choice results, 73% of respondents said they preferred marketing to consuming when choosing their crop portfolio. Despite greater respondent heterogeneity in the risk assessment of onions, mung beans were shown to be a crop with higher risk. Result on the variables that affect how risky farmers' crop portfolio choices are, shows that livestock ownership and education have a positive association with portfolio riskiness whereas irrigation use and being male headed household had a negative correlation. This study's primary contribution is the way it explicitly addresses the risk assessment of the farmer. The main policy conclusion is that, through insurance and crop-specific subsidies that focus on calorie-revenue tradeoffs, farmers can make decisions about their crops without being constrained by risk or their own consumption.
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    The Impact of Cluster Farming on Crop Productivity in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia: Evidence from Dejen Woreda
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Wondimu Dirar; Abate Mekuriaw (PhD)
    Cluster farming is one of the approaches formulated in the Ethiopian agricultural sector to uphold location-based initiatives with an aim to modernize the smallholder farming subsector and leap forward from the traditional, less productive, and subsistence farming to a new and systematic way of production. In the case of Ethiopia, cluster farming is not a thing any farmer could adopt unless whose land falls into selected suitable sites. This study was initiated to understand the impact of cluster farming on teff crop productivity by drawing evidence form Dejen Woreda. And at the same time to understand how clusters are formed and how farmers are perceived the approach. Both quantitative and qualitative types of cross-sectional data were collected from randomly selected 384 participant and non-participant households and both descriptive and econometrics (Propensity Score Matching) data analysis tools were used by taking the approach (CF) itself as a determinant of productivity. Accordingly, the results show that the formation process was top-down and not in complement with ATA’s framework when it comes to consulting famers, providing explanations, providing training. In relation to farmers perception, results show that farmers have positively accepted and perceived the approach even if most of them believed that participation hasn’t brought change except input usage, getting more extension service and lowering of pest infestation. In terms of teff productivity, the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) estimation also show that participant farmers had advantage of teff productivity by 208 kg/ha or 2 quintals compared to non-participants. The study asserted that the approach indeed has a positive impact on teff productivity and it is positively accepted. Thus, finding of the study suggest that the approach has encouraging roles to capitalize on and some loopholes that needs attention of the Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA), the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Dejen woreda agricultural office, woreda official, experts’ development agents and farmers themselves regarding sensitization and awareness creation, provision of training, facilitating credit services and other essentials including the quality of extension services, input, technology and market as per the approaches recommendations and packages
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    The Impact of Rural Saving and Credit Cooperatives on Women Empowerment in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-03) Ebisa Edosa; Alemu Azmeraw (PhD)
    This study was conducted to identify and evaluate the determinants of membership decision and intensity of participation in the RSCCs and its impact on women empowerment in Arsi Negele, Ethiopia. A mixed research method has been employed to address the research objectives. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain data from 362 households in Arsi Negele Woreda. The binary and ordered logistic regression and the Propensity Score Matching methods were used for the quantitative data analysis. The collected qualitative data were also analyzed by the methods of narration, summary and interpretation. The study revealed that the RSCCs had a positive and significant impact on women empowerment. However, the RSCCs lacked inclusivity as it favored the FHHs, more schooled women, and better off households. Furthermore, trust and perception mattered in enhancing women‟s probability of joining the RSCCs. The study result also showed that the age, schooling years, marital status, family size, duration, group size, and distance significantly determine women‟s intensity of participation in the RSCCs. Therefore, the cooperative promotion agencies and rural development partners should appreciate the identified policy variables determining women‟s membership to ensure the inclusivity of the RSCCs. Moreover, the woreda level cooperative agencies should develop profiles of the members so that the training can particularly target the younger, less schooled, junior members, and women from the large family and land size to strengthen their intensity of participation in the RSCCs.
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    Production Efficiency, Commercialization of Cereal Crops and Multidimensional Poverty among Farm Households in Major ‘Teff’ Growing Areas of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-12-17) Fisseha Zegeye; Abrham Seyoum (PhD)
    The majority population in SSA including Ethiopia is multidimensional poor, resides in rural areas, and depends on smallholder agriculture for their livelihood. Hence, poverty alleviation and agricultural productivity growth remain the primary policy agenda for many developing countries in SSA. In Ethiopia, cereals are the principal staple crops strategic for poverty alleviation, suggesting that the prospect of increasing cereal outputs has crucial policy importance to design anti-poverty strategies and thereby improve smallholder welfare. This dissertation, therefore, examined the effect of technical efficiency and commercialization of cereal crops on household multidimensional poverty in rural Ethiopia. The study followed a mixed-method research design in which more emphasis was given for quantitative research design with an embedded qualitative research approach. Primary data was generated from randomly selected 392 sample farm households in the year 2019/2020 from major teff-growing areas of Ethiopia using structured questionnaire, key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs). Descriptive and inferential statics was applied to explain farm households’ characteristics. The study also used a wide range of analytical and econometric models: Stochastic Meta-Frontier, Tobit Model, Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), Vulnerability Analysis, Fractional Logit Model, IV Tobit Model, CMP, DoseResponse Function, and 3SLS Model to address the objectives of the study. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze qualitative data. The result of the study indicated that the average technical efficiency score of farm households was found to be 58%, inferring that about 36% of cereal output is lost due to inefficiency. The results showed that the adoption of high-yielding varieties together with production methods improves production efficiency. Moreover, sex of the household head, age of the household head, mobile phone ownership, cooperative membership, access to modern inputs, and stress incidence were found the major determinants for efficiency. The study, hence, asserts that the cereal output can be improved with the current input mix and technology. The results revealed that, on average, about 38% of cereal crops produced were commercialized, suggesting a semicommercialized production system. The simultaneous model estimates coffered that cereal commercialization significantly improves the use of production inputs and cereal yield at 1% level. Bi-directional causality between commercialization and technical efficiency was also confirmed at 1% level. This means that enhancing commercialization among cereal farmers helps to improve land and labor productivity and thereby brings an upward shift in the production technology. Moreover, the results showed that the extent of cereal commercialization positively determined by sex of the household head, land size, credit service, mobile phone ownership, improved seed, and agricultural assets, while negatively influenced by family size, dependency ratio, and non-farm employment. The incidence of poverty, the mean deprivation scores, and MPI were found to be 57.9%, 44.1%, and 31.2%, respectively, implying a higher proportion of farm households were classified as multidimensional poor. The study showed that improving technical efficiency and commercialization of farm households significantly decreases MPI. Overall, information asymmetry, cooperatives, input and output market integration, modern technologies, incidence of crop stresses, land reform and land rent in/out practices, improved livestock breeds, rural infrastructure, and services were among key areas of policy recommendations
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    Relating Pastoralists’ Culture Orientation, Livestock Marketing Practices, and Household Food Security among the Afar Pastoralists of Northeastern Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Derib Woldeyohannes; Worku Tuffa (PhD); Workneh Kassa (PhD)
    Ethiopia's arid and semi-arid regions provide the lion's share of the country's livestock resource endowments. Regardless of pastoral resource endowment, these areas are the poorest and most reliant on relief aid. Drawing on the debating contention that pastoralists prefer to accumulate and use pastoral produce for cultural purposes rather than trading for cash incomes, this thesis hypothesized that ‘the long-standing pastoralist tradition favors the accumulation and direct use of pastoral produce rather than remaining open to the market for exchange, thereby missing out on indirect (exchange) benefits toward food security’. Pastoral culture is present in the daily lives of pastoralists who establish and maintain relationships with one another by employing traditionally valued practices such as reciprocity and herd mobility. These are traditional survival strategies imbedded in their social norms, values, knowledge and institutions that are built up through generational learning, passed down orally through generations, and govern overall life. These communities rely on the traditional livestock farming sub-sector for their livelihoods and to meet their food consumption needs. In the face of recurring droughts, marketing pastoral produce is also a widely pursued approach to improve food security, and it has become equally important for supporting livelihoods in these areas. But, the potential contribution of pastoral marketing to the food security of pastoral production has received little attention. To this end, this study is guided by three key concepts: pastoral culture, marketing, and food security. Following that, the thesis attempted to address three specific objectives ultimately revealing the relationship between ‘pastoralism’, ‘marketing’, and ‘food security’ through a case study and survey data collected from (agro-)pastoral communities of Afar in Ethiopia. The study sought to shed light on the contribution of (agro-)pastoral marketing practices to food security by determining the extent to which pastoralists adhere to their traditions and how their orientation to culture norms influences their marketing interests. The thesis includes a literature review as well as three empirical studies. Methodologically, the thesis employed a mix of systematic literature review, case study analysis, household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), ordered logistic regression, and propensity score matching (PSM) procedure. It begins with a systematic literature review to uncover "rural marketing – rural livelihood" relationships, which revealed that rural marketing had positive results at times and negative results at others, resulting in mixed effects on livelihood. The mixed effects necessitate a better understanding of the conditions that make rural marketing useful, as well as the mechanisms by which potential benefits may emerge. The review findings also indicate vii that, while rural marketing has been somewhat successful among upland communities, there is little empirical evidence that the same holds true for (agro-)pastoralists, implying that more research on the livelihood effects of rural marketing using data from (agro-)pastoral groups is required. As a result, using data from (agro-)pastoralists (as representing rural communities that received little attention in the reviewed ‘rural marketing – rural livelihood' relationship studies), the thesis empirically tested the potential positive/negative relationship between marketing practices and food security (as representing livelihood outcome). The first empirical study discovered a misalignment between Aramis-Adaar traditional practices and their livestock marketing endeavors, in which they operate under two competing systems of cultural and marketing practices (though both are important in sustaining livelihoods). Following the case study, the survey used Aramis-Adaar pastoral and Asale agro-pastoral groups and revealed ‘the links between pastoral cultural elements and food (in)security’, and estimated ‘the food security effects of livestock commercial-orientations’. The survey results suggest that while properly integrating pastoralists into the market could be an important mechanism for overcoming the numerous problems that constrain pastoralism, livestock marketing practices fall short of adequately and sustainably supporting pastoralism, owing primarily to market production constraining factors such as pastoralists' cultural orientations. Future policy must align and level the playing field for market production ('competition') and pastoralism ('cooperation') in order to meet the needs of both pastoralism and marketing at the same time.
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    Smallholder Farmers Crop Commercialization, Livelihood Diversification Strategies and Multidimensional Poverty: West Gojjam Zone, North Western Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-01) Lijalem Abebaw; Worku Tuffa (PhD); Dawit Alemu (PhD)
    Commercializing crop production is the pathway for economic development. Previous studies examined agricultural commercialization and diversification process; agricultural commercialization and its impact on income and nutrition; determinants of rural poverty; determinants of market orientation and crop output commercialization. However, investigating the association between crop commercialization; livelihood diversification strategies; and poverty is scanty. This study was aimed at investigating the association between smallholder farmers‘market orientation, crop output commercialization, livelihood diversification strategies and poverty and determinants of each theme. The study used pragmatism research paradigm comprises quantitative and qualitative research designs used to understand determinants of smallholder farmer’s market orientation, crop output commercialization, and rural households‘livelihood diversification strategies and impact of output commercialization on household poverty in west Gojjam zone, northwestern Ethiopia. Multistage random sampling method was used to sample 405 respondents and a structured interview was conducted. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, zero-inflated beta regression, multivariate probit regression, and endogenous switching regression. Qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion and individual interviews, which were then, analyzed using narration and thematic methods. The results of the analysis revealed education, farmland rental contracts, infrastructure development, and soil fertility improving technologies are needed to increase market orientation. Better farmland allocation for marketable crops, access to technologies, lowering input purchase costs, reducing output market price seasonal volatility promotes output commercialization. Purpose, combined with sector, location, and function, is an important criterion to classify livelihood diversification strategies. Accordingly, rural households‘livelihood diversification strategies classified in to onfarm wealth accumulation, off-farm survival, non-farm survival self-employment and non-farm survival wage-employment and non-farm wealth accumulation. Agro-ecology and crop output commercialization enhances rural households‘engagement in on-farm and non-farm wealth accumulation livelihood diversification strategies. Finally, crop output commercialization reduces rural households‘poverty. The results imply market orientation translates to output commercialization; output commercialization induces rural households‘engagement in on-farm and non-farm wealth accumulation livelihood diversification strategies; and reduces household poverty. Therefore, commercializing smallholder farmers‘crop production prompts rural households‘engagement in wealth accumulation livelihood diversification strategies and improvement of households‘welfare.
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    The Contribution of Women Entrepreneurship Development Project to Women Income and Empowerment In The Vicinity Of Bahir Dar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-05) Loza Kibret; Bamlaku Alamirew (PhD)
    This study aims to assess the contribution of the Women Entrepreneurship Development Project to women income and empowerment through access to credit lines in Bahir-Dar area in Amhara Region. In this study, both primary and secondary data collection methods were used as a source of data collection methods. In these studies, stratified random sampling techniques were followed to select the entrepreneur women’s those are project beneficiary and non-beneficiary living in the study area. The research used descriptive statistics, Logit model and Propensity Score Matching to achieve the objectives of the study. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) technique were employed to single out the contribution of the project from other potential confounding factors. Multiple linear regression model result shows that, among hypothesized explanatory variables, marital status, education and access to finance significantly affect women’s economic empowerments. In addition to this the study identified that age of women, women’s level of education, Access to finance, business training and access to infrastructures were positively and significantly influencing the participation in women’s entrepreneurial development project, while Marital status was negatively and significantly influencing the participation in women’s entrepreneurial development project. The estimated average treatment effect (ATT) showed that project participation has significant effect on income of the household with significant t-statistic (1.98) at 5 percent significance level (p < 0.05). The research revealed that participation in the women entrepreneurship development project leads to increased income. Women entrepreneurs who have accessed training and finance from the project have registered more income than their non-client counterparts. To make more women entrepreneurs benefit from these interventions, the project needs to scale up its operations to more regions and towns.
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    Climate Change Perception, Adoption and Determinants of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices in Response to Climate Variability the Case of Welmera Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-08) Mesay Hailu; Esubalew Abate (PhD)
    Climate change is one of the globe's most significant impediments to agricultural productivity and production, with the most devastating consequences in developing countries. As a result, understanding climate change perception and CSA practice adoption level and the influencing elements is critical for policy development and making decisions on CSA practice implementation. The research was conducted in Welmera Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. From the Woreda’s three kebele, 306 respondent farmers were selected. A cross-sectional survey, focus group discussion and key informant interviews were employed for primary data. A review of related literature was employed for secondary data. Ordered logistic regression and multivariate Probit were employed for analysis of quantitative data. Rainfall and temperature data were analyzed using Mann-Kendall and Sen Slope methods. Qualitative data were analyzed by narration methods. The result indicates 66.6% of the farmers strongly believed that maximum temperatures have been increasing over the last three decades. The result shows 39.8% , 59.5%, and 82.7% of the farmers believed that increased in weed infestation, frequency of livestock illness occurrence and crop disease occurrence. Late onset of main rainy season was perceived by 48.7% the respondents, while 63% perceived early offset of rainfall. 43.8% of all respondents believed that erratic nature of rainfall has increased, and 53.9% believe that water levels are dropping and water sources are disappearing. Conservation agriculture, integrated soil fertility management, and crop diversification are the study areas most extensively used CSA. Based on economic constraint model, having relatively large farmland significantly, increases the adoption of conservation agriculture, improved soil fertility management, diversification of crop, improved livestock feed and feeding practices, and postharvest technology practice. Better farm income increases the uptake of improved livestock feed and feeding. Having a large number of livestock positively influences adoption of conservation agriculture and access credit services has a favorable impact for adoption of agroforestry, crop diversification, and postharvest technology. The innovation diffusion model indicate that access to agricultural extension and training has favorable effects on the adoption of crop diversification; accessibility to participation on farmers’ field day similarly influences adoption of conservation practices and improved soil fertility management. The result indicates an unpredictable pattern of rainfall in the study area together with an upward trend in average temperature. Incorporating location-specific CSA practices in to agricultural program and awareness creation for farmers and experts about climate change are essential.
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    Rural-Urban Migration, Crop Productivity and Multidimensional Poverty among Households in Gurage Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-11) Mesfin Agza; Bamlaku Alamirew (PhD, Asso. prof); Admasu Shibru Keraga (PhD)
    Human migration and its consequences are being studied as a global development issue. Analytical data on these topics is critical for the government, and scientific research is continually needed to address knowledge gaps. This dissertation investigated the link between rural-urban migration, crop productivity, and multidimensional poverty in Ethiopia's Gurage Zone. The dissertation, specifically, investigated the determinants of rural-urban migration, conducted a comparative analysis based on technical efficiency and multidimensional poverty index, and investigated the impact of rural-urban migration on household livelihood security, multidimensional poverty, and households' productive efficiency. 384 rural households from three different agro-ecological zones were selected using multistage sampling to collect both quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics and econometric models such as ivprobit, multidimensional poverty index; propensity score matching; dose response function, and stochastic production frontier models were employed to analyze the quantitative data. The results of ivprobit regression revealed that livestock ownership, family size, access to information, number of cultivated fields, soil fertility, distance to the nearest town, and distance to the farmers’ training center are all important determinants of rural-urban migration. The dose response model revealed that remittance has a positive significant effect on household livelihood security with a local minimum dose of roughly 40%. The mean technical efficiency of non-migrant households, migrant-sending households, and total samples is 45.5%, 72.3%, and 57.4%, respectively. The household head's age and distance from a neighboring town have a detrimental effect on technical efficiency, whereas schooling, soil infertility, migratory experience, and distance to a nearby market have a positive impact. Rural-urban migration results in a 19.4% decrease in crop productivity for households that send migrants. The mean total factor productivity of migrant-sending, non-migrant, and pooled samples, respectively, was 9.87, 10.23, and 10.03. The adjusted headcount ratio of the non-migrant households and migrant-sending households was 19.8% and 10.5 %, respectively. Poverty affects 43.5% of nonmigrant households and 25% of migrant-sending households. Non-migrant households and migrant-sending households contributed 70.5% and 29.5%, respectively, to the adjusted headcount ratio of the total sample. The finding indicate that household size and the educational level of the household heads are significant and positively associated with households’ multidimensional poverty, whereas the number of migrant household members and livestock ownership are negatively associated with households’ multidimensional poverty .The average poverty-reduction effect of rural-urban migration is 4.7% for migrant-sending households, with a 0.6% counterfactual outcome. Overall, this study discovered that rural-urban migration is caused by a variety of factors and has a beneficial influence on poverty reduction but a negative impact on agricultural productivity. Regulating the underlying causes of rural-urban migration as well as its impact on crop production and household poverty reduction requires the active participation of all stakeholders. Various specific recommendations are made to stakeholders for the successful management of rural-urban migration and its advantages in enhancing local programs related to crop production enhancement and multidimensional poverty reduction in the study area.
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    Reducing Poverty, Food and Nutrition Insecurity, and Destitution: Does Building Resilience Capacity Matters? Panel Data Evidence from Rural Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-03-20) Dereje Haile; Abrham Seyoum (PhD); Alemu Azmeraw (PhD)
    While there are assumptions that resilience has led to curbing poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and destitution, the empirics are limited to ascertain the linkages and finding out implications for policy uptake in Ethiopia. In light of this, this dissertation examine the role of resilience on reducing welfare problems in rural Ethiopia. The data comes from the three rounds of the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey (2011/12-2015/16). Resilience is estimated using the resilience index measurement analysis (RIMA–II) approach. The Alkire and Foster's methodology, on the other hand, is employed to compute multidimensional poverty and destitution. We also attempted to use the third generation poverty measures: structural and stochastic poverty. Furthermore, the study compute food and nutrition insecurity using kilocalories, food poverty, dietary diversity and food consumption scores, and multidimensional perspectives. The data were analyzed using different micro-econometrics techniques in four self-contained but closely related articles. Since alternatives measures have low static correlation and dynamic mismatch, exclusive reliance on a single measure may send inaccurate signal to policymaking. Dominance of transitory escape and impoverishment implies that lifting people out of the pool of welfare problems will not be enough unless descents are simultaneously addressed. The econometric results reveals that climate induced, price and production related shocks and conflict come up as household stressors that exacerbate welfare problems. The other strand of challenge that contributes to the growing welfare problems are dependence on rain-fed farming accompanied with land fragmentation, old-age and female headship, dependency ratio, wage labor participation, loan, and poor road and marketing networks. In contrast, households experienced steady declines in poverty, food insecurity, and destitution as a response to slight growth in resilience. Resilience also serves as a mechanism to deal with welfare problems in the face of shocks. However, resilience is not a panacea. There exists a potential for farming to be an integral part in the process. The farming potential, however, is expected to be tapped through improving commercialization, irrigation, extension, roads, and marketing networks. Currently, it is unlikely to continue as land pressure is increasing due to population growth. Thus, fostering the non-farm economy, good vegetation cover, and human capital formation are imperative. Interventions aimed at eradicating those welfare problems would do well when focusing on enabling factors that can enhance resilience as a conduit mechanism. Besides, more support to should be given to the farming economy. The farming potential is tapped through improving commercialization, investment in irrigation, extension, and road and market networks. Nevertheless, the sector is fraught and less remunerative. Thus, the finding accentuate the need for policy interventions that reinforce productive farming and the non-farm economy. An emerging line of enquiry for the viability and development of rural households generally, and reducing those welfare problems, specifically highlighted the vital role of growth from below and rural revitalization.
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    Climate-Smart Agriculture: Building Resilience in the Upper Blue Nile highlands of Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2023-04-20) Abyiot Teklu; Belay Simane (Professor) , Mintewab Bezabih (PhD)
    The scientific basis for conceptualizing how farm households achieve the three CSA pillars of "triple benefit" is not well developed. This dissertation examined the adoption and impacts of CSA innovations on simultaneously enhancing food security, climate adaptation, reducing GHG emissions, and building resilience capacities in 424 smallholder households from five agroecosystems in the upper Blue Nile Highlands Sub-basin of Ethiopia. A structured survey questionnaire was used to collect primary data, and a review of literature and documents was used to collect secondary data. The econometric models employed in this study are the multivariate probit model and endogenous switching regression (ESR). The dependent variables were eight CSA innovations, while the independent variables were crafted from the three pillars of CSA. Major CSA innovations adopted by farmers include improved variety, crop residue management, crop rotation, compost, row planting, soil and water conservation, intercropping, and agroforestry. Farmers' positive perceptions of the benefits of CSA innovations for increasing crop productivity, reducing agricultural vulnerability to climate change, and lowering farm GHG emissions have boosted adoption. The integrated technology adoption model explains the determinants of adopting multiple CSA innovations simultaneously. The economic constraint model demonstrated that farm size, number of plots, and access to financial services influence crop residue management, crop rotation, and agroforestry adoption. The diffusion innovation model, on the other hand, asserts that frequent extension visits, market access, access to information communication, social networks, and strong tenure security have no less of an impact on the adoption of CSA innovations such as improved variety, crop residue management, crop rotation, compost, SWC, and agroforestry. Formal education, more awareness about climate change and CSA, and the ability of CSA innovations to reduce the impact of climate change risks such as rising temperatures, increased hailstorms, and increasingly erratic rainfall have significantly increased the likelihood of adoption. CSA innovations such as improved variety, compost, row planting, and agroforestry have provided farmers with the benefit of enhancing food security and climate change adaptation while reducing GHG emissions from farm plots. Crop rotation provided farmers with enhanced food security and reduced livelihood vulnerability, while SWC met the goals of enhancing food security and reducing GHG emissions. Unfortunately, adopting crop residue management, one of the recommended CSA practices in Ethiopia, has not delivered on at least two of the CSA pillars. Different CSA innovations have XIV different effects on the climate resilience capacity of households. Except for SWC adopters, all CSA innovations significantly increased the climate resilience capacity of households. However, improved variety, crop residue management, and SWC have a more profound effect on the nonadopters than adopters would have had if non-adopters had adopted these CSA innovations. Strong absorptive, adaptive, and transformative capacity through strong disaster and early warning systems, climate-resilient infrastructure, a strong public agricultural extension system, a strong informal safety net, and social networks builds a climate-resilient agriculture system among adopters of CSA innovations among farmers. The adoption of CSA innovations has built a strong, climate-resilient livelihood among smallholder farmers. However, the adoption of crop rotation, row planting, and agroforestry has a profound effect on the adopters compared to nonadopters, while the adoption of improved variety, crop residue management, compost, and soil and water conservation (SWC) has a profound effect on the counter-factual adopters. Farmers‟ perceptions towards CSA innovations must be enhanced to increase the adoption of CSA innovations in the smallholder agriculture system. The CSA innovation scale-up strategies should focus on farmers‟ perceptions of CSA innovation benefits towards food security, climate change adaptation, and mitigation outcomes. Awareness of CSA needs the close collaboration of public extension as well as local institutions such as farmers' training centers. Livelihood assetbuilding programs and strong public extension systems via mobile phone, voice messaging, and radio enhance adoption. A policy to identify and scale up a portfolio of farm-level-specific CSA innovations is required. Farmers should be encouraged to adopt improved variety, crop rotation, compost, row planting, soil and water conservation, and agroforestry as the best portfolio of CSA innovation for highland smallholder agriculture systems. As a result, policies that improve governance, social cohesion, disaster communication, early warning systems, input supply of drought-resistant varieties, climate-smart extension services, and climate-resilient infrastructure are required.
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    Crop Diversification, Food and Nutrition Security among Wheat Producers in Sinana District, Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-09) Derso, Dereje; Tolossa Profe., Degefa
    Crop diversification has several economic, social and environmental benefits for smallholder farmers. It Increases farm household income and employment opportunities for farmworkers, improve conservation of natural resources, soil fertility, improve food and nutrition security, and reduces output production shortages. While productivity is constrained by many factors such as technology, resources, environment, socio-economic, infrastructure, and crop pests and insects, food insecurity and malnutrition were Ethiopia's main development challenges. In Sinana District, agriculture is traditional malnutrition is devastating problems, particularly for the poor and unprivileged households. The study builds on the basic assumption that crop diversification plays essential roles in improving household food and nutrition security in rural Ethiopia. The overall objective of the study was to analyze crop diversification, food and nutrition security among wheat dominant producer rural households in Sinana District Bale Zone, Ethiopia. The study is positioned in the pragmatism philosophical assumption that applies to mixed methods research. It focused on primary data that was generated through cross-sectional survey. The cross-sectional survey was conducted using semi-structured questionnaire, Household food Insecurity Access Scale, household dietary diversity questionnaire, anthropometric data, key informant interviews, focus-group discussion and field observations. The study sample size was 384 households. Multistage sampling was employed to study subjects at different scale. STATA software version 14.2 was used to analyze data. Descriptive and inferential statistics and econometric models were used to analyze data. A Cragg’s Double Hurdle model used for measuring the probability, extent and determinants of crop diversification practices of rural households. Ordinary least squares regression model used to analyze the effect of crop diversification on household food security while multinomial logistic and Zero-truncated Poisson regression model were used to analyze determinants of household food insecurity and the determinants of household dietary diversity respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to see the correlation between the nutritional security status indicators and the crop diversification index. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with infant nutrition. The result reveal that the average crop diversification index of sampled households was 41.3 percent. The probability of crop diversification was positively influenced by household size, access to fertile farm plots, and access to extension services and negatively influenced by age of household head, and participation in off/non-farm activities. The extent of crop diversification is positively affected by access to extension services, labor availability, membership to farmers cooperatives, and distance to market. The diversification of crops has had a positive and significant effect on household food security. Although crop diversification has been positively associated with household food security, several other factors have been shown to be equally or more important in increasing household food security. Household education, access to irrigation system, owned livestock, total income and remittances have had a positive impact on household food security. Analysis of household dietary diversity has shown that almost all respondents consumed food made from cereal, while only 20.1 percent, 10.2 percent and 7.3 percent of the household consumed egg, meat and fruits in the previous seven days of a survey, respectively. On average, household consumed 5.7 food groups. About 13.5 percent, 50.5 percent, and 35.9 percent of the participants consumed low, medium, and high dietary diversity level, respectively. Education level, participating in irrigation farming, membership to farmers’ cooperatives, farm size and livestock holding positively affected household dietary diversity, while remoteness from the nearest market and remittances negatively impacted household dietary diversity. The prevalence of malnutrition vi particularly stunting (23.8 percent), underweight (21.2 percent) and wasting (9.5 percent), respectively. Crop diversification is negatively correlated with stunting and wasting and positively with underweight and children's dietary diversity score. Child nutritional status is strongly associated with age of household head, maternal and parental education, farm land size, livestock owned, availability of drinking water, sex of children, and dietary diversity of children, family access to sanitation, total annual income and family access to health services. Any effort to increase household food and nutrition security should consider empowerment of farmers through adequate training and informal education, enhancing crop diversification. Policy and development interventions should target intensive agricultural production, rural infrastructure development, and education and awareness tools to be provided. Families update nutritional knowledge and agricultural technologies to increase production and income, and thus improve family nutritional security.
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    The Impact of Agricultural Bio-Chemical Technologies on Rural Household Food Security: The Case Study of Two Weredas in Oromia Region
    (Addis Ababa University, 2000-05) Ejara, Hailu
    The Ethiopian agricultural sector, as well documented in many literatures, is characterized by poor technology adoption and as a result low productivity per unit area. The food supply alld demand gap is so high with its resultant outcome of high prevalence of temporary and chronic food insecurity. The dependence on rainfall, severe environmental degradation and high man land ratio are some of the major problems of the sector with their consequent results of persistent crop failures, drought and famine. To curb the problem of food shortages and food insecurity, the country has adopted various strategies in which use of agricultural bio-chemical technologies (Jertilizer, ---- improved seeds alld chemicals), in one way or anoth2r, has been the centerpiece of these _ strategies. The contributioll of these agricultural bio-chelilical inputs, undoubtedly, is positive for food self-sufficiency rather than for food security. This is also true for areas where there is abundant and reliable rainfall. /n lowland areas where moisture is critical for crop production, their impact on increased grain production could be marginal. Thus the hypothesis of this research is that the use agricultural biochemical illputs alone callnot be a means to achieve reasonable level of household food security due to variations in resource endowments at household level, ecological variations, incom?gap and unique characteristics of the households themselves. To prove this hypothesis an intensive review of literatures and data was made. Primary data were also collected from two weredas (HelOsa and Dodota-Sire) of Arsi zone Oronlia Region consisting of ten peasalll associations (kebeles) and 142 households. The hypothesis of this research is proved 10 be true, that fertilizer, improved seeds and chemicals by themselves have insignificalll contriburion and they only explained 21.1 per cent of the variations in household food security (the food self-sufficiency scenario) or thirty three per cent ill the case of food availability scenario. Only fertilizer has a ---significant impac/ on food security among the three. The variations in food security level is more explained by a combined effect of many socioeconomic variables. Taking into consideratioll eleven variables they explained 81 per cent of the variations in the level qf household food security. Thus, the policy implication is that household food security is lIlultidimensional, complex and driven by factors ranging from economic, social, political and socio-cultural as well as environmental. To alleviate this problem a single productioll oriented strategies, mainly focussed on use of modem agricultural inputs, which may not be affordable and suitable for resource poor and various agro-ecologies cannot be an appropriate measure. The strategy should, rather, aims at the inherent condition of the s:ocioeconomic and socio-cultural as well as environmental settings of that particular locality
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    Ecological Implications of Pastoral Livelihood Diversification in FantaHe Woreda
    (Addis Ababa University, 2012-06) Mosisa, Muluneh; Negatu, Workneh (PhD)
    The objective of this thesis research was to describe the consequences of pastoral livelihood diversification strategies on the local ecology. A survey type of research was employed, by taking a sample of 90 households in three kebeles out of the total 18 kebeles by using systematic sampling. Besides, focus group discussion and key informant interview were used. Pastoral livelihood assets such as hWi;{li1 indigenous knowledge, social relationships among the pastoralists and traditional institutions such as Gada system are important in wise management of pastoral rangeland and natural resources. All the respondent households assume themselves as pastoralists, while th eir livelihood is diversified 37% to crop farming, 10% to charcoallfirewood selling, 12% to wage labor, 4% to petty trading, and 4% to mining. The data indicated that diversification to cropping and charcoallfirewood making cause negative ecological consequences such as shrinkage of rangelands, deforestation, and increased salinity of soil, soil erosion, damage to the 'gada' ceremonial sites (destruction of trees that were used for Gada gathering), extinction of grass species and wild animals, and threat to the most resilient pastoral system. The study also found out the constraints of diversification to cropping, mining and charcoallfirewood making as climatic conditions of dry land areas, soil properties, rent out of land to urban dwellers, perception of pastoralists on water point development, low level of skill of water users to utilize economically, prevalence of pests and shortage of pesticides, and conflict on land sharing since communal land holding is accustomed to pastoral areas. The following policy implication has been recommended: Pastoral livelihood diversification strategies should be focused to environmental friendly and ecologically suitable activities such as value addition to the livestock products; irrigation water should be used for rangeland improvement and for livestock drinking than for cropping; Pastoralists should be consulted and be able to decide for their destiny; seasonal mobility has to be recognized as adaptation mechanism to the lowland ecology; pastoral livelihood assets such as human capital and social capital that support ecological adaptation have to be improved; concerned government bureaus and offices such as the Land and Environmental Protection Office have to be committed to manage the environmental issues; and pastoralism in this country is going to diminish and hence it should be preserved for heritage. Key words: Pastpralislm, Livelihood, Ecology, Diversification
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    Land Tenure Issues and Deployment in the Middle Awash Valley Case stoudy on Amibara and Gemane wordes
    (Addis Ababa University, 2001) Mohmmed, Yasin; Bedai, Abdulhamid (PhD)