Differential Livelihood and Adaptive Strategies of Spontaneous and Organized Resettlers in Guraferda Woreda of Southwestern Ethiopia (Snnpr)

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Addis Ababa University


This study attempted to explain the dynamic livelihood and adaptive strategies of the spontaneous and state-organized resettlers in Gurafarda Wӓrӓda. The study area since 2001 hs exhibited demographic and economic changes. The changes took place due to the population influx from Amhara region and SNNPR (South, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples region) in a spontaneous and organized manner of resettlement respectively. The study has taken in to account the intra-regional organized and the inter-regional spontaneous resettlers’ as subject of study and their livelihood and adaptation strategies as variables. In the livelihood strategies: land acquisition, land holding, labour recruitment, production, live stalk rearing, socioeconomic and religious institutions and their role were dealt. The study, so as to collect the abovementioned data, administer the combination of observation, interview: formal and informal, survey using questionnaire, case studies from spontaneous, organized and the host Me’enit community and document analysis. The mixed data collection method was employed to suit to the dynamics of the schemes and to collect as diverse data as possible. The data collected indicated that the resettlers have engaged different approaches in order to fit to the local environment. Their livelihood and adaptive strategy helped the spontaneous resettler to benefit from the richness of the local physical environment and gained immeasurable economic benefit than the organized resettlers. The organized resettlers though not as the spontaneous resettlers, have social and economic enhancement compared to their home of origin. The failure is due to the diverse ethnic composition in the new area, inability to recruit potential resettlers and inefficient management. This differential economic growth of the spontaneous and organized resettlers had never been without challenges. In this case, as of the economic and social differential attainments, they recorded difference in conflict within and without the resettling community. The organized resettlers, though they have mild ethnic tensions among the same type but differing ethnicity, are better peaceful within and local community than the spontaneous resettlers. The spontaneous resettlers encountered deadly conflicts with their fellow resettlers of the same type, the local people due to land and related issues and with the local political authorities due to difference in political interests. The land tenure, acquisition and labour recruitment and social organizations differences contributed paramount role for differential socio-economic development in the resettlement schemes. Both resettlement schemes particularly the spontaneous, engaged in deforestation. The land covered by crops increased from year to year. The unceasing influx of population seeking for farmland has devastating effect on the forest and the natural resource in general. The forest for the indigenous Me’enit community is everything where their livelihood is dependent on. Both schemes exhibited differential success and failures in economic, social and environmental affairs. The effect of the resettlement had not been only the forest resource of the area but also on the host Me’enit community. Key Words: Resettlement, Organized resettlement, Spontaneous Resettlement, Livelihood Strategies, Adaptive strategies



Resettlement, Organized resettlement, Spontaneous Resettlement, Livelihood, Adaptive strategies